Imamat and Wilayat

Author: Hussein Dargahee

Translated by: Jalil Dorrani In the name of Allah




To those who have acquaintance (even though a little) with the invaluable treasure of Shiite traditions and the precious heritage of the immaculate Imams

(A.S.), the importance of ‘Imamah’ (leadership) and ‘Wilayah’ (vicegerency)

amongst the various discussions in this treasure and heritage is not concealed.

If we superficially glance over the whole set of traditions we will come across such chapters as:


“ﻪﺠﳊﺍ ﱄﺍﺭﺍﺮﻄﺿﻻﺍ ﺏﺎﺑ ” (Chapter concerning the need of a ‘Hujjah’),


“ﻡﺎﻣﻻﺍ ﺖﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﺏﻮﺟﻭ


knowledge of Imam),


ﺏﺎﺑ”(Chapter concerning the necessity of possessing


“ﺔﻳﻻﻮﻟﺎﺑ ﻻﺍ ﻝﹸ ﺎﻤﻋﻻﺍ ﻞﺒﻘﺗ ﻻ ﻪﻧﺃ ﺏﺎﺑ”Chapter concerning non-acceptance of deeds except by means of Wilayah) and therein, we see and read at times the A’immas saying:


“If the earth remains without a leader (even) for an hour it will perish.”


(Bihar-ul-Anwar 23 / ﺔﺠﳊﺍ ﱄﺍ ﺭﺍﺮﻄﺿﻻﺍ ﺏﺎﺑ page 21, number 20)


“The one who dies while he has not recognized his imam has died the death

of ignorance.” (Same reference /”ﻡﺎﻣﻻﺍ


narrated from ‘Ghaibat-Nu’mani’ /63)


ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﺏﻮﺟﻮﻟﺍ ﺏﺎﺑ”page 78, number 9


“Islam has been established on five pillars: Salat (prayers), Zakat (alms-tax), Saum (fasting), Haj (pilgrimage) and Wilayah (vicegerency). Amongst these, none has beer invited the way Wilayah has been invited. (Kafi 2/ “ﻡﻼﺳﻻﺍ ﻢﺋﺎﻋﺩ ﺏﺎﺑ” Page 18, number 1)

About the questioning on the Day of Retribution, they have said:

“When a slave appears before his Lord, Exalted be He, the first matter which he will be questioned about is the obligatory, players, the obligatory alms-tax, the obligatory fasting, the obligatory pilgrimage and our Wilayah. If he has confessed to our Wilayah and dies, his prayers, alms-tax, fasting and pilgrimage

will be accepted. If he fails to confess to our Wilayah and friendship before

Allah, Exalted be He, all his deeds will be rejected.”


(Bihar-ul-Anwar 27


“ﺔﻳﻻﻮﻟﺎﺑ ﻻﺍ ﻝﺎﻤﻋﻻﺍ ﻞﺒﻘﺗ ﻻ ﻪﻧﺃ ﺏﺎﺑ” page 167, number 2)


In hadith Qudsi (divine saying), it has come down that the trustworthy

Gabriel addressed the holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) as such:

‘O Muhammad! Allah sends His greetings upon you and says:“I have created the seven skies and whatever is over them and the seven earth and whatever is

in them and have not created any place better than the place of ‘Ruk’ and

‘Maqam’ (position of Abraham). If a slave worships me in this very place from the time I created the heavens and the earth and then comes to Me denying the

Wilayah of Ali, I shall cast him in the Fire. (Same reference; number 3)

Although each of these traditions is a specimen of tens of other similar traditions, yet each on its own is sufficient to drive every Muslims to

contemplation and reflection and encourage him to strive in perceiving (the

Wilayah) more and more since, he sees that a divine holy life in this world and the Hereafter is linked to it.

And this brief discussion has been prepared for the purpose of assisting the researchers in achieving their aim. May it be beneficial even though a little and

acceptable to his holy presence, the master of Wilayah, Hazrat Baqiyatullah, Imam-e-Zaman (A.S.).


The Need for Divine Leaders




The Almighty God has created man out of His Beneficence1 so that man tastes His Mercy2. If He has created and bestowed life, it is the manifestation of

His Mercy and not that man deserves it or that it becomes his right just after he comes into existence. If at all he has brought faith, embarked on worshipping (God) and trained himself, it was his duty and responsibility. It is obvious that a

person who is charged with some duty never really deserve a reward just because he has fulfilled his duty.

Rather, if he does not fulfill his duty he will be liable to punishment. Thus, the

reward, which accrues to man, is out of God’s Mercy.

The Unique God has created man; bestowed honor upon him: favored him with His generosity and has said:


“ﻡﺩﺁ ﲏﺑ ﺎﻨﻣﺮﻛ ﺪﻘﻟﻭ”


“And surely We have honored the children of Adam” (Bani-Israil /70)

Thereafter, He has introduced piety as the highest generosity:


“ﻢﻛﺎﻘﺗﺃ ﷲﺍ ﺪﻨﻋ ﻢﹸﻜﻣﺮﻛﺍ ﻥﺍ”


“Surely the most honorable of you before Allah is the one among you who is most careful (of his duty)?” (Hujarat /13)

As such, He (also) shows him the path of piety and says:


“ﷲﺍ ﺍﻮﹸﻘﺗﺍ ﻥﺃ ﻢﻛﺎﻳﺍ ﻭ ﻢﻜﻠﺒﻗ ﻦﻣ ﺏﺎﺘﻜﻟﺍ ﺍﻮﺗﻭﹸﺃ ﻦﻳﺬﻟﺍ ﺎﻨﻴﺻﻭ ﺪﻘﻟ ﻭ” “And certainly We enjoined those who were given the Book before you and (We enjoin) you too that you should be careful of (your duty to) Allah” (Nisa /




It is obvious that deviation and crookedness is meaningful only when the path of piety has been made clear and apparent.


“ﻥﻮﻘﺘﻳ ﺎﻣ ﻢﳍ ﲔﺒﻳ ﱵﺣ ﻢﻬﻳﺪﻫ ﺫﺍ ﺪﻌﺑ ﺎﻣﻮﻗ ﻞﻀﻴﻟ ُﷲﺍ ﻥﺎﻛ ﺎﻣ ﻭ”


“It is not (attributable to) Allah that He should lead a people astray after He has guided them; He even makes clear to them what they should guard against.”


(Baraat /115)




“ﻥﺎﺴﻧﺍ”(Man) truly proves applicable to its very ‘name’ where every ‘name’


1-The name ﻥﺎﲪﺭ (Rahman) of God denotes this meaning.


2-The name ﻢﻴﺣﺭ(Rahim) of God denotes this meaning.


is the sign of its own justification and he is “ﻥﺎﺴﻧﺍ”(man): forgetful3. However,

the necessary condition for achieving any aim is firstly to remember it and not to forget it. Thus, by possessing such a quality, man is constantly in need of a

‘reminder’. For this very reason, ‘reminding’ has been one of the most vital

roles of the divine leaders:


“ﺮﻛﺬﻣ ﺖﻧﺃ ﺎﳕﺍ ﺮﻛﺬﻓ”


“Therefore do remind, for your are only a reminder” (Ghashiyah/ 21)

On the same basis, even the glorious Quran is revealed as ‘reminder’:


“ﻢﻛﺭﺬﻨﻴﻟ ﻢﻜﻨﻣ ﻞﺟﺭ ﻲﻠﻋ ﻢﹸﻜﺑﺭ ﻦﻣ ﺮﻛﺫ ﻢﹸﻛَﺀﺎﺟ ﻥﺃ ﻢﺘﺒﺠﻋ ﻭﺃ”


“What! Do you wonder that a reminder has come to you from your Lord through a man from among you that I might warn you?” (Araf / 69)

And Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W.A.) too is named by this very characteristic:


“ﷲﺍ ﺕﺎﻳﺁ ﻢﹸﻜﻴﻠﻋ ﺍﻮﻠﺘﻳ ﹰﻻﻮﺳﺭ ﺍﺮﻛﺫ ﻢﹸﻜﻴﻟﺍ ﷲﺍ ﹶﻝﺰﻧﺃ ﺪﻗ”


“Allah has indeed revealed to you a reminder, An Apostle who recites to you the clear communications of Allah.” (Talaq/ l0 & 1l)




A person who becomes alert as a result of the ‘reminding’ of the divine leaders as well as fearful from the possible harm and loss which he might have to face in case of shortcomings and faults on his side, (still) requires a


“ﷲﺍ ﱄﺍ ﻲﻋﺍﺩ” (he who summons others towards Allah) as demanded by his very negligence and ignorance; a caller who calls him to the path and destination which is most desired; so that the one who has awaken and found a desire to move does not


tread on the deviated path nor gets into the fire nor sinks into a whirlpool. Thus, the divine leaders are assigned with the duty of inviting (the people); inviting them to the divine path and God:


3-Mufradat Ragheb; under the word “ﺲﻧﺍ”. Of course, it is noteworthy to mention that even if we believe that the


word “ﻥﺎﺴﻧﺍ” is derived from “ﺲﻧﺍ” (just as it has been said by some of the philologists) we will not derived a meaning contrary to what has been said. This is because as man is fond of certain things, he tends to forget all that discourage him from attaining those liked things. Besides, a tradition narrated from Imam Sadiq (A.S.) which has come down in Elal-ush-Sharayeh (Vol. 1 page 15, Chapter 11) is confirmatory to man’s forgetfulness and for this very reason; this name has been placed on him.


“ﺔﻨﺴﳊﺍ ﺔﻈﻋﻮﳌﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻤﻜﳊﺎﺑ ﻚﺑﺭ ﻞﻴﺒﺳ ﱄﺍ ﻉﺩﺍﹸ”


“Call to the way of your Lord with wisdom and goodly exhortation.”




“ِﲏﻌﺒﺗﺍ ﻦِﻣ ﻭ ﺎﻧﺃ ٍﺓﲑﺼﺑ ﻲﻠﻋ ِﷲﺍ ﱄﺍ ﺍﻮﻋﺩﺃ ﻲﻠﻴﺒﺳ ِﻩﺬﻫ ﻞﹸﻗ”


“Say: This is my way: I call to Allah, I and those who follow me being certain.” (Yusuf/l08)


“ِﺏﺂﻣ ِﻪﻴﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺍﻮﻋﺩﺃ ﻪِ ﻴﻟﺍ ِﻪﺑ ﻙِﺮﺷﺃ ﻻ ﻭ ﷲﺍ ﺪﺒﻋﺃ ﻥﺃ ﺕﺮﻣِ ﺃﹸ ﺎﳕﺍ ﻞﹸﻗ”


“Say: I am only commanded that I should serve Allah and not associate anything with Him, to Him do I invite (you) and to Him is my return.”




On the other hand, the people too have been commanded to obey:


“ﻢﹸﻜِﻴﻴﺤِﻳ ﺎﳌ ﻢﹸﻛﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﺫﺍ ِﻝﻮﺳﺮﻟﺍ ﻭ ِﻪﻠﻟِ ﺍﻮﺒﻴﺠﺘﺳﺍ ﺍﻮﻨﻣﺁ ﻦﻳﺬﻟﺍ ﺎﻬﻳﺍ ﺎﻳ”


“O you who believe! Answer (the call of) Allah and His Apostle when he calls you to that which gives you life.” (Anfal/ 24)




One should know that inclination and avidity towards the true path is not adequate for a wayfarer. Rather, one should recognize this path by possessing knowledge of the deviated path (too). In proportion to man’s ignorance, man is

in need of a teacher who can impart him the knowledge of the origin and the

end (“ﺩﺎﻌﻣ ﻭ ﺀﺃﺪﺒﻣ”) and show him the appropriate path between the two. In other words, he gives them training in connection with the manner of living, which is commensurate with his origin and end.


ﻭ ﻢِﻬﻴﻛﺰﻳ ﻭ


ﻪِ ﺗﺎﻳﺁ ﻢِﻬﻴﹶﻠﻋ ﺍﻮﻠﺘﻳ ﻢِﻬﺴﹸﻔﻧﺃ ﻦﻣ ﹰﻻﻮﺳﺭ ﻢِﻬِﻴﻓ ﹶﺚﻌﺑ ﺫﺍ ﲔﻨﻣﻮﳌﺍ ﻲﻠﻋ ُﷲﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺪﹶﻘﹶﻟ” “ِﲔﺒﻣ ِﻝﻼﺿ ﻲﻔﻟ ﹸﻞﺒﻗ ﻦﻣ ﺍﻮﻧﺎﻛ ﻥﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻤﻜﳊﺍ ﻭ ﺏﺎﺘﻜﻟﺍ ﻢﻬﻤﻠﻌﻳ


“Certainly Allah conferred a benefit upon the believers when He raised among them an Apostle from among themselves, reciting to them His

communications and purifying them, and teaching them the Book and the wisdom, although before that they were surely in manifest error.” (Al-Imran






The main role of the divine leaders is conveying the illuminating divine message to the people:


“ﲔﺒﳌﹸﺍ ﻍﹸ


ﻼﺒﻟﺍ ﻻﺍ ِﻝﻮﺳﺮﻟﺍ ﻲﻠﻋ ﺎﻣ ﻭ”


“And nothing is incumbent on the Apostle but a plain delivering (of the message).” (Ankabut /18)

This is so that the right way is distinguished from the error.


“ﻲﻐﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺪﺷﺮﻟﺍ ﲔﺒﺗ ﺪﻗ”


“Truly the right way has become clearly distinct from error.” (Baqarah /




And then, anyone can choose whichever he desires:


“ﹰﺍﺭﻮﻔﹶﻛ ﺎﻣﺍ ﻭ ﹰﺍﺮﻛﺎﺷ ﺎﻣﺍ ﻞﹶ ﻴﺒﺴﻟﺍ ﻩﺎﻨﻳﺪﻫ ﺎﻧﺍ”


“Surely we have shown him the way: he may be thankful or unthankful.”


(Insan / 3)


And for the one who forsakes the ‘truth’ and the ‘guidance’ and inevitably lags behind in achieving the desired goal, there remains no excuse and finalization of argument before God.


ﻭ ﻞﻴﻋﺎﲰﺍ ﻭ ﻢﻴﻫﺍﺮﺑﺍ ﱄﺍ ﺎﻨﻴﺣﻭﺃ ﻭ ِﻩِﺪﻌﺑ ﻦﻣ ﲔﻨﺒﻟﺍ ﻭ ٍﺡﻮﻧ ﱄﺍ ﺎﻨﻴﺣﻭﺃ ﺎﻤﻛ ﻚﻴﹶﻟﺍ ﺎﻨﻴﺣﻭﺃ ﺎﻧﺍ”


ﺩﻭﺍﺩ ﺎﻨﻴﺗﺁ


ﻭ ﻥﺎﻤﻴﻠﺳ ﻭ ﻥﻭﺭﺎﻫ ﻭ ﺲﻧﻮﻳ ﻭ ﺏﻮﻳﺃ ﻭ ﻲﺴﻴﻋ ﻭ ِﻁﺎﺒﺳﻻﺍ ﻭ ﺏﻮﻘﻌﻳ ﻭ ﻕﺎﺤﺳﺍ


ﻲﺳﻮﻣ ﷲﺍ ﻢﻠﻛ ﻭ ﻚﻴﻠﻋ ﻢﻬﺼﺼﻘﻧ ﹲﱂ ﹰﻼﺳﺭ ﻭ ﻞﺒﻗ ﻦﻣ ﻚﻴﻠﻋ ﻢﻫﺎﻨﺼﺼﹶﻗ ﺪﹶﻗ ﹰﻼﺳﺭ ﻭ ﹰﺍﺭﻮﺑﺯ


ﹰﺍﺰﻳﺰﻋ ﷲﺍ ﻥﺎﻛ ﻭ ﻞﺳﺮﻟﺍ ﺪﻌﺑ ﺔﺠﺣ ﷲﺍ ﻲﻠﻋ ﺱﺎﻨﻠﻟ ﻥﻮﻜﻳ ﻼﺌِﻟ ﻦﻳﺭﺬﻨﻣ ﻭ ﻦﻳﺮﺸﺒﻣ ﹰﻼﺳﺭ ﹰﺎﻤﻴﻠﻜﺗ


“ﺎﻤﻴﻜﺣ “Surely We have revealed to you as We revealed to Noah, and the prophets after him, and We revealed to Abraham, and Ishmael and Issac and Jacob and the tribes, and Jesus and Job and Jonah and Aaron and Soloman and We gave to


David the Psalms.

And (We sent) apostles We have mentioned to you before and apostles We have not mentioned to you; and to Moses, Allah addressed His Word, speaking (to him):

(We sent) apostles as the givers of good news and as warners, so that people should not have a plea against Allah after the (coming of) apostles; and Allah is Mighty, Wise.” (Nisa /163-165)

It is for this very reason that conclusive finalization of argument, audible guidance and decisive reasoning has always come from God’s side and its

continuity is appropriate with the Divine Wisdom:


“ﹸﺔﻐِﻟﺎﺒﻟﺍ ﹸﺔﺠﹸﳊﺍ ﻪﻠِﻠﹶﻓ ﻞﹸﻗ


Say: Then Allah’s is the conclusive argument.” (Anam /149)

Thus, for the one who chooses the straight path and selects the divine guidance, there exists a guide:


“ٍﺩﺎﻫ ِﻡﻮﻗ ﻞﹸﻜِﻟ ﻭ ﺭﺬﻨﻣ ﺖﻧﺃ ﺎﳕﺍ”


“You are only a warner and (there is) a guide for every people.” (Ra’d/7)


“ﻥﻮﻟِﺪﻌﻳ ﻪﺑ ﻭ ﻖﳊﺎﺑ ﻥﻭﺪﻬﻳ ﺔﻣﹸﺍ ﺎﻨﻘﻠﺧ ﻦﳑ ﻭ”


“And of those whom We have created are a people who guide with the truth and thereby they do justice.” (Araf/181)

And this guide will lead him to the (straight) path:


“ﻪِﺑ ﺎﻨﻣﺂﻓ ِﺪﺷﺮﻟﺍ ﹶﱄﺍ ﻱﺪﻬﻳ”


“Guiding to the right way, so we believe in it.” (Jinn/2)

As such, The Almighty God says:




ﺮﻣ ﹰﺎﻴﻟِﻭ ﻪﹶﻟﺪِﺠﺗ ﻦﹶﻠﹶﻓ ﻞِﻠﻀﻳ ﻦﻣ”


“And whomsoever He causes to err, you shall not find for him any friend to lead (him) aright.” (Kahf /17)

* * *

Whatever has been said has also come down in lucid terms in the traditions narrated from the Aimmas (A.S.).

Hereunder, we set forth two such traditions as examples:

1. Abu-Abdullah (A.S.) says: Verily, Gabriel descended upon Muhammad (S.A.W.A.) and conveyed to him this message from God: ‘O Muhammad! I shall not let loose the earth but that there should exist in it a learned man who recognizes My submissiveness and guidance. He shall be the savior from the time a prophet passes away until the time the next prophet is appointed. I shall not set free the Satan to deviate the people while the earth is devoid of a Proof and a caller towards Me; a guide to My path and a gnostic aware of My commands. Verily, I have fixed a guide for every group by means of which I show the path to the prosperous ones. He shall be My Proof over the deviated

ones. (Bihar-ul-Anwar 23, Chapter:


“ﺔﺠﳊﺍ ﱄﺍ ﺭﺍﺮﻄﺿﻻﺍ”


Page 23, item 22;


narrated from ‘Elal-ush-Sharayeh’ /76.)


2. Hisham-ibn-Hakam narrates that one of the apostates once had a discussion

with Imam Sadiq (A.S.) and asked Imam a few questions. Amongst the questions he asked was this: How do you prove the necessity of the appointment of Prophets? Imam replied:

“Verily, when it is proved that there exists a Creator and Designer Who is far above us and also far above all that He has created, and this Creator is All-Wise and Exalted and the One Who cannot possibly be seen nor sensed by His

creatures so that there could be any direct relationship between Him and His creatures or His creatures and Him, and so that He could argue with His creatures (to convince them) and His creatures could argue with Him (in their

turn) it is therefore proved that there are envoys to establish a relation between Him and His creatures, to explain His purpose to His creatures and slaves, and to guide them towards what is good and profitable for them, and also towards that which preserves their existence and which, when abandoned, brings annihilation.

In this manner, it is established that there are those among His creatures who command and forbid on behalf of the All-Knowing, the All- Wise, and who speak on behalf of Him, to whom belongs Might and Majesty. They are the Prophets (A.S.) and the chosen ones amongst his creatures. They are the sages who have been refined with wisdom and have been sent with wisdom. They are never similar to the people in any of the affairs even though they are on par with them in creation. They have been aided with wisdom by the All- Wise, the All- Knowing.

Thereafter, this matter has been proved and established for all eras and all times, according to the evidence and proofs which the Prophets and Messengers

have brought with them, so that the earth of Allah should not remain devoid of a

‘Proof’ who possesses the evidence for the truth of what he says and (who

requires) obedience to his just commands.” (Kafi 1/168: Book of


Chapter: “ﺔﺠﳊﺍ ﱄﺍ ﺭﺍﺮﻄﺿﻻﺍ”)




Elimination of Differences


Every path possesses its own specific pits. Thus a guide should possess knowledge of every nook and corner of that path so that he succeeds in causing every wayfarer reach his destination in a safe manner. The enemies have vowed

to create doubts and skepticism in the minds of the wayfarers on the path of God by means of internal and external whisperings. Moreover, contact and association with corrupt and non-divine beliefs causes differences in beliefs as

well as disharmony and discord amongst the believers. On this basis, man is consistently in need of an “Eliminator of differences” and “Repulser of doubts and skepticism.”


ﻩﻭﺩﺮﻓ ﻲﺷ ﰲ ﻢﺘﻋﺯﺎﻨﺗ ﻥﺎﹶﻓ ﻢﹸﻜﻨﻣ ﺮﻣﻷﺍ ﱄﻭﺃ ﻭ ﹶﻝﻮﺳﺮﻟﺍ ﺍﻮﻌﻴﻃﺃ ﻭ َﷲﺍ ﺍﻮﻌﻴﻃﺃ ﺍﻮﻨﻣﺁ ﻦﻳﺬﻟﺍ ﺎﻬﻳﺍ ﺎﻳ”


“ﹰﻼﻳﻭﺄﺗ ﻦﺴﺣﺃ ﻭ ﲑﺧ ﻚِﻟﺫ ِﺮِﺧﻵﺍ ِﻡﻮﻴﻟﺍ ﻭ ِﷲﺎﺑِ ﹶﻥﻮﻨﻣِ


ﻮﺗ ﻢﺘﻨﹸﻛ ﻥﺃ ِﻝﻮﺳﺮﻟﺍ ﻭ ِﷲﺍ ﱄﺍ


“O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Apostle and those in authority from among you; then if you quarrel about anything, refer it to Allah and the Apostle, if you believe in Allah and the last day; this is better and very good in the end.” (Nisa /59)

As such, the Satans of jinn and men (who cry loud their envy and express their rage at the descension of divine revelation and its implementation) are

consistently lying in wait in order to destroy this great barrier lying on their path

of debasement and ruin the firm stronghold and the divine security. Thus, this elevated divine structure requires a ‘guard’.

Jafar-ibn-Muhammad (A.S.) narrates from his great fathers that the holy

Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said:

In every generation of my ‘Ummah’ (nation), there is a righteous one from my progeny who will keep this religion safe from the extremists’ alteration: and

from the invalidators attributing the religion to themselves and from the

interpretation of the fools. (Bihar-ul-Anwar 23; Chapter: “ﺔﺠﳊﺍ ﱄﺍ ﺭﺍﺮﻄﺿﻻﺍ”


Page 30 narrated from Qarb-al-Esnad /37 and Kamaluddin /128.)


In the beautiful and prolific speech of Ali-ibn-Musa Ridha (A.S.), the term

‘Imam’ has been described as follows:

Imam defends the religion of Allah and calls (the people) towards the divine path by means of wisdom, good counsel and eloquent arguments. Imam is like

the shining sun, which has covered the world with its light and has fixed its place in the sky such that the eye and the hand cannot have access to it… Imam is the proof of guidance and the deliverer from destruction… Imam is Allah’s custodian over His creatures: His plea over His slaves and His representative in

the lands. He is the caller towards Allah and the defender of His bounds… he is an exhorter to Allah’s slaves and a guard of His religion. (Kafi 1/200; Chapter:


(“ﻪﺗﺎﻔﺻ ﻭ ﻡﺎﻣﻻﺍ ﻞﻀﻓ ﰲ ﻊﻣﺎﺟ ﺭﺩﺎﻧ”




Besides, knowledge and acquaintance (alone) are not sufficient for reaching the extreme end. Rather, a power commensurate with all these is necessary too.

As per the Unique God’s explanation, man has been created weak. Thus, a competent scholar should, under the auspices of his knowledge and ability and on the basis of his love and sympathy make the human beings stand upright and

walk. That is to say, there should exist guidance as well as a guide to accompany man so long as man remains in the state of anxiety.

In other words, the ‘Wilayah’ (mastership) develops him, makes him achieve

the level of perfection and trains him every moment. That is to say, it is his trainer:

Imam is an affectionate companion, the sympathetic father, the blood brother

and mother who is tender to her small child. (Kafi 1/200; Chapter:


(“ﻪﺗﺎﻔﺻ ﻭ ﻡﺎﻣﻻﺍ ﻞﻀﻓ ﰲ ﻊﻣﺎﺟ ﺭﺩﺎﻧ”)


Thus Imam Baqir (A.S.) says:

“Through us, Allah can be worshipped and by our means Allah can be recognized. (Moreover), due to us the Oneness of Allah can be firmly

established.” (Bihar-ul-Anwar; 23/ Chapter:


“ﻢ ﻻﺍ ﻥﻭﺪﺘﻬﻳ ﻻ ﺱﺎﻨﻟﺍ ﻥﺍ”Page


102, item 8)


Similarly, Imam Sadiq (A.S.) says:

“We are an intermediator between you and Allah.” (Bihar-ul-Anwar:




“ﻢ ﻻﺍ ﻥﻭﺪﺘﻬﻳ ﻻ ﺱﺎﻨﻟﺍ ﻥﺍ”Page 101, item 5)


Yet, in another tradition, Imam Baqir (A.S.) says:

The religion of Islam is established on five pillars: Salat (prayers), Zakat

(alms tax), Haj (pilgrimage to Mecca), Saum (fasting) and Wilayah


Zarrareh says: I asked: Among the five, which is most superior?

Imam replied: Wilayah is more superior because Wilayah is the key to all


others and the Waali (custodian) (Kafi 2/Chapter: “ﻡﻼﺳﻻﺍ ﻢﺋﺎﻋﺩ” Page 18, item


5) is the guide to all of them.


Considering this very weakness and man’s need of a voucher, God commands man to seek a channel:-


“ﹶﺔﹶﻠﻴﺳﻮﻟﺍ ﻪﻴﻟﺍ ﺍﻮﻐﺘﺑﺍ ﻭ َﷲﺍ ﺍﻮﹸﻘﺘﻟﺍ ﺍﻮﻨﻣﺁ ﻦﻳﺬﻟﺍ ﺎﻬﻳﺃ ﺎﻳ”


“O you who believe! Be careful of (your duty to) Allah and seek means of nearness to Him.” (Maeda /35)

In explanation of the term


“ﺔﻠﻴﺳﻭ“the holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) says: “The


leaders are from the offspring of Hussein (A.S.). Anyone who obeys them has obeyed Allah and anyone who disobeys them has disobeyed Allah. It is they who are the firm rope (covenant) and the channel towards the Almighty God.” (Tafseer Noor al-Saqalain 1/626 item 176 (narrated from Uyun Akhbar Ridha))

In order to remain safe from descending and getting destroyed, one requires a

strong and reliable rope to cling on. Thus, a believer who has been placed under the care of the divine Wilayah is introduced by the Almighty God as:


“ﻲﻘﺛﻮﻟﺍ ﺓﻭﺮﻌﻟﺎﺑ ﻚﺴﻤﺘﻣ”


I.e. one who holds by the strong rope? Moreover, He says:


“ﺎﳍ ﻡﺎﺼﻔﻧﺍ ﻻﺍ ﻲﻘﺛﻮﻟﺍ ِﺓﻭﺮﻌﻟﺎﺑ ﻚﺴﻤﺘﺳﺍ ِﺪﻘﻓ ِﷲﺎﺑِ ﻦﻣﻮﻳ ﻭ ِﺕﻮﻏﺎﻄﻟﺎﺑ ﺮﹸﻔﻜﻳ ﻦﻤﻓ”


“Therefore, whoever disbelieves in the Satan and believes in Allah, he indeed has laid hold on the firmest rope which shall not break off.” (Baqarah /256)

Moreover, He has commanded all to hold fast by this untearable rope:


“ﺍﻮﻗﺮﻔﺗ ﻻ ﻭ ﹰﺎﻌﻴﻤﺟ ِﷲﺍ ِﻞﺒﲝ ﺍﻮﻤِﺼﺘﻋﺍﻭ”


“And hold fast by the covenant of Allah all together and be not disunited.”


(Al-Imran /103)


In explanation of this verse, Imam Baqir (A.S.) has said:

“The divine rope which Allah has mentioned (And hold fast by the covenant

of Allah all together and be not disunited) refers to us. Verily, the Almighty Allah was All Aware that hey would separate from each other and disputes would arise between them. Thus, He has forbidden them from separating from each other just as He had forbidden the past generations. As such, He has commanded them to hold fast by the ‘Wilayah’ of the Prophet’s household and he ‘Salat’ and not to disunite.” (Tafseer Burhan 1/307)

On this basis, it is only the believers who can come out of the darkness and step into the light since the message of a ‘Wali’ (master) and the divine leaders is this very one and nothing else.


ﻭ ﺍﻮﻨﻣﺁ ﻦﻳﺬﻟﺍ ﺝِﺮﺨﻴﻟ ﺕﺎﻨﻴﺒﻣ ﷲﺍ ِﺕﺎﻳﺁ ﻢﻜﹸ ﻴﹶﻠﻋ ﺍﻮﹸﻠﺘﻳ ﹰﻻﻮﺳﺭ ﹰﺍﺮﻛﺫ ﻢﹸﻜﻴﻟﺍ ُﷲﺍ ﹶﻝﺰﻧﺃ ﺪﻗ”


“ﺭﻮﻨﻟﺍ ﱄﺍ ِﺕﺎﻤﹸﻠﹸﻈﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ِﺕﺎﺤِﻟﺎﺼﻟﺍ ﺍﻮﹸﻠِﻤﻋ “Allah has indeed revealed to you a reminder, An Apostle who recites to you the clear communications of Allah so that he may bring forth those who believe


and do good deeds from darkness into light.” (Talaq /10-11)

And the meaning and aim of




(which holds great importance in the

Shiite culture) is nothing but what has come down in the afore-said verses: “Seeking the means “ﻪﻠﻴﺳﻭ”and holding fast by it.”

It is on this basis that worship, (no matter to what extent one may worship

and no matter how humble one may he in his worship) without the acceptance of the divine Wilayah is unacceptable before God. In other words, such worship does not possess merit and cannot be regarded a correct. Thus, the basic condition of a true worship is to pay devotion to the threshold of divine Wilayah.


Protection of the Social System


Aside from man’s personal need of an Imam and the necessity of abiding by the divine Wilayah, he is inevitable bound to live collectively with others in his

journey on the divine path. And it is quite obvious that in a collective living, it is necessary to have a ruler, leader, judge and supervisor.

Amir-ul-Mumineen (A.S.) says: “Verily, the people are helpless but to have a ruler -whether good or bad-so that I believer is preoccupied in his deeds under his rule and disbeliever (too) derives benefit … and through him the spoils are

collected, the enemies are confronted and the paths are made secure. By his means, the right of the weal is taken from the strong until the virtuous one gain, comfort and is relieved from the evil one.”

As per Imam Ridha’s (A.S.) saying, if it is asked: Why” people vested with authority” have been appointed and why others have been commanded to obey them? Then, they should be replied as such:

For numerous reasons: Amongst them are:

At the time when the people become aware of the prescribed limits and they are commanded not to exceed those limits or else they would have to face destruction, this perseverant will not come into to force unless in this regard, they are given a trustee who will safeguard them in whatever has been prescribed for them and refrain them from aggression and all that which has been prohibited for hem. This is because if such a trustee is not amongst them, hen verily someone will emerge who will violate other’s rights in order to fulfill his personal desires and gains. Thus, a guardian is appointed for preventing them from corruption and in establishing the limits and commandments among them.

Amongst the other reasons, we may say: We cannot find my group among all the groups or any nation among all the nations, which have survived except that

they had a leader and guardian amongst them. Since a leader and guardian is necessarily required in their spiritual and material affairs, it is against the divine Wisdom to forsake the people in that which is necessary for them and which He

is Aware of They fight the enemies by his help and he distributes the spoils of war amongst them and establishes the Friday congregational prayers for them. He prevents the criminals amongst them from oppressing the innocent ones.

Amongst other reasons, we may also say: If a reliable, protective and trustworthy leader is not appointed for them, then the sacred laws will turn stale, the religion will get ruined and the commandments will undergo a change. Moreover, the heretics will add something to it while the atheists will delete

something from it and religion will be rendered dubious for the Muslims. This is because we have found man to be defective, needful and imperfect with all the differences that exist between themselves as well as the differences in their

carnal desires and their various goals. Thus, if a protective guardian (the same which the Prophet has introduced) remains absent amongst them, then due to the afore-mentioned reasons, they shall be destroyed and the sacred laws,

sunnah practice of the Prophet), commandments and faith will undergo alteration. Under such circumstances, the creatures will be dragged towards corruption and get destroyed. (Bihar-ul-Anwar 23 / Chapter:


“ﺔﺠﳊﺍ ﱄﺍ ﺭﺍﺮﻄﺿﻻﺍ”


Page 32; item 52 (narrated from Uyun Akhbar ar-


Ridha /249 and Elal-ush-Sharayeh /95))


It is in consideration of these points that in a part of Imam’s elegant and precious speech, Imam (A.S.) divulges the social message of an Imam and the role of Imamat in the leadership of a society as such:

An Imam makes lawful the lawful things of God and makes unlawful the unlawful things of God and establishes God’s bounds. The Imam is the state of

order of the religion, the might of the Muslims, the one who enrages the hypocrites and the destroyer of the infidels.


Imam is wise in civility; his obedience necessary. He is one who rises for the affairs of the Almighty Allah; an adviser to Allah’s slaves and the protector of Allah’s religion. (Usul-Kafi 1/198-205; Chapter: “ﻡﺎﻣﻻﺍ ﻞﻀﻓ ﰲ ﻊﻣﺎﺟ ﺭﺩﺎﻧ”)


And perhaps we can reckon all these to be an interpreter of God’s words in

the Quran, which says:


ﺎﻨﻟﺰﻧﺃ ﻭ ﻂِ


ﺴِﻘﻟﺎِﺑ ﺱﺎﻨﻟﺍ ﻡﻮﻘﻴﻟِ


ﻥﹶ ﺍﺰﻴﳌﺍ ﻭ ﺏﺎﺘﻜﻟﺍ ﻢﻬﻌﻣ ﺎﻨﻟﺰﻧﺃ ﻭ ﺕِ


ﺎﻨﻴﺒﻟﺎﺑ ﺎﻨﻠﺳﺭ ﺎﻨﻠﺳﺭﺃ




“ﺱﺎﻨﻠﻟ ﻊﻓﺎﻨﻣ ﻭ ﺪﻳﺪﺷ ﺱﺎﺑ ِﻪﻴﻓ ﺪﻳﺪﳊﺍ “Certainly We sent Our apostles with clear arguments, and, sent down with them the Book and the balance that men may conduct themselves with equity; and We have made the iron, wherein is great violence and advantages to men.”


(Hadid /25)


Besides these, we have to add this point too: Islam has promised man the rise of a society with the following specialties:

The holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said: When I ascended the seventh sky and from there, reached the farthest lote-tree and stepped into the veil of light, the Almighty Allah addressed me as such:

‘O Muhammad! You are My slave and I am your Lord. So be humble before

Me and worship Me only. Have trust on Me only. Verily, I am satisfied with your servitude, friendship and prophet hood as well as with the successor ship of Ali, your brother. Thus, he is the proof over My slaves and the leader of My creatures. It is through him that My friends will be distinguished from My enemies and the Satan’s party will be separated from My party. By his means, My religion will be established; the commandments implemented and the limits protected. I shall shower My Mercy on My slaves and maid-slaves for the sake of you and Ali and the leaders from his progeny. Through your Qaem, (the Savior) I shall make the land to flourish by means of My glorification, praise, sanctification and commendation.

Through him, I shall cleanse the earth of My enemies and will make My friends to inherit the earth. Through him, I shall degrade the creed of the infidels and elevate My own creed. Through him, I shall enliven My slaves and My

cities. Through him, I shall manifest the riches and the buried treasure and shall reveal to him the secrets and the hidden (facts). I shall assist him in implementing My commands and proclaiming My religion. Verily, he is My

Wali and the Mahdi of My slaves. (Kalemat-ul-Allah /121 narrated from


“Amali” of Saduq)


With regards to Mahdi’s rule, Imam Sadiq (A.S.) says in a part of his speech

to one of his companions as such:

“Glory be to Allah! Don’t you wish that Allah Exalted be He, establishes the truth and justice in the cities and sets good the state of all the people?! And

makes all the creeds into a single creed; associates the diverse hearts and

eliminates disobedience on the earth?! And that Allah’s bounds get enforced amongst the creatures and Allah restores back the right to its owner and He manifests this in such manner that nothing remains concealed due to someone’s

fear from the creatures.” (Bihar-ul-Anwar 52/ Chapter:


“ﺝﺮﻔﻟﺍ ﺭﺎﻈﺘﻧﺍ ﻞﻀﻓ”


Page 127, item 20 (narrated from Kamaluddin /357) and Kafi 1/334)


It is in such a society that moral soundness with all its internal, external, individual and social dimensions will replace immorality. This is because moral

soundness is the guarantee for getting deliverance from the existing condition and achieving the ultimate goal. The holy

Quran says:


“ﲔﺤﻠﻔﹸﳌﺍ ﻦِﻣ ﹶﻥﻮﻜﹸ ﻳ ﻥﺃ ﻲﺴﻌﹶﻓ ﺎﺤِﻟﺎﺻ ﹶﻞِﻤﻋ ﻭ ﻦﻣﺁ ﻭ ﺏﺎﺗ ﻦﻣ ﺎﻣﺄﻓ”


“But as to him who repents and believes and does good, maybe he will be among the successful.” (Qasas /67)


“ﺔﺒﻴﻃ ﺓﺎﻴﺣ ﻪﻨﻴِﻴﺤﻨﻠﹶﻓﹶ


ﻦﻣﻮﻣ ﻮﻫ ﻭ ﻲﺜﻧﹸﺃ ﻭﺃ ٍﺮﻛﺫ ﻦِﻣ ﺎﹰﺤِﻟﺎﺻ ﹶﻞِﻤﻋ ﻦﻣ”


“Whoever does good whether male or female and he is a believer, We will most certainly make him live a happy life.” (Nahl /97)


“ﹰﺎﳊﺎﺻ ﹰﻼﻤﻋ ﻞﻤﻌﻴﻠﹶﻓ ِﻪﺑﺭ ﺀﺎﻘﻟ ﺍﻮﺟﺮﻳ ﻥﺎﻛ ﻦﻤﹶﻓ”


“Therefore, whoever hopes to meet his Lord, he should do good deeds.”


(Kahf /110)


……….ﺭﺎ ﻷﺍ ﺎﻬِﺘﲢ ﻦِﻣ ﻱﺮﺠﺗ ٍﺕﺎﻨﺟ ﻢﹸﳍ ﹶﻥﺃ ﺕِ


ﺎﳊﺎﺼﻟﺍ ﺍﻮﹸﻠِﻤﻋ ﻭ ﺍﻮﻨﻣﺁ ﻭ ﻦﻳﺬﹶﻟﺍ ِﺮﺸﺑ ﻭ” “ﹶﻥﻭﺪﻟِﺎﺧ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﻢﻫ ﻭ


“And convey good news to those who believe and do good deeds, that they shall have gardens in which rivers flow and in them, they shall abide.”


(Baqarah /25)


Reform of Society


The divine leaders have all been from the virtuous ones (For example: Maeda / 84 and Anbiya /73) and their goal has been to rectify. As Hazrat

Shuaib (A.S.) has said:


“ﺖﻌﻄﺘﺳﺍ ﺎﻣ ﺡﻼﺻﻻﺍ ﻻﺍ ﺪﻳﺭﹸﺍ ﻥﺍ”


“I desire nothing but reform so far as I am able.” (Hud/88)

The endurance of leadership and the selection of a successor too has been accepted on these very lines. The holy Quran narrates Aaron’s succession on the

part of Moses (A.S.) as such:


“ﻦﻳﺪﺴﻔﹸﳌﺍ ﻞﻴﺒﺳ ﻊﺒﺘﺗ ﻻ ﻭ ﺢﻠﺻﺃ ﻭ ﻲﻣﻮﻗ ﰲ ﲏﻔﹸﻠﺧﺍ ﹶﻥﻭﺭﺎﻫ ِﻪﻴﺧﻵ ﻲﺳ ﻮﻣ ﻝﺎﻗ ﻭ”


“And Moses said to his brother Aaron: Take my place among my people, and

act well and do not follow the way of the mischief-makers.” (Araf/ 142)

Thus, whatever divine bounties and gift have been created in the world of existence are all for the virtuous ones indeed.


ﺍﻮﹸﻠِﻤﻋ ﻭ ﺍﻮﻨﻣﺁ ﻭ ﺍﻮﻘﺗﺍ ﺎﻣ ﺍﺫﺍ ﺍﻮﻤِﻌﹶﻃ ﺎﻤﻴﻓ ﺡﺎﻨﺟ ﺕِ


ﺎﳊﺎﺼﻟﺍ ﺍﻮﹸﻠِﻤﻋ ﻭ ﺍﻮﻨﻣﺁ ﻦﻳﺬﻟﺍ ﻲﻠﻋ ﺲﻴﻟﹶ”


“ﲔﻨِﺴﺤﹸﳌﺍ ﺐﺤﻳ ُﷲﺍ ﻭ ﺍﻮﻨﺴﺣﺁ ﻭ ﺍﻮﻘﺗﺍ ﻢﹸﺛ ﺍﻮﻨﻣﺁ ﻭ ﺍﻮﻘﺗﺍ ﰒ ﺕِ




“On those who believe arid do good there is no blame for what they eat, when they are careful (of their duty) and believe and do good deeds, then they are careful (of their duty) and believe, then they are careful (of their duty) and do good (to others), and Allah loves those who do good (to others).” (Maeda /93)

Thereby, they shall eventually inherit the earth and for them shall be the

Caliphate (too).


“ﻥﻮﳊﺎﺼﻟﺍ ﻱﺩﺎﺒﻋ ﺎﻬﺛﺮﻳ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﻥﺃ”


“As for the land, My righteous servants shall inherit it.” (Anbiya /105)


ﻦﻳﺬﻟﺍ ﻒﻠﺨﺘﺳﺍ ﺎﻤﹶﻛ ِﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﰲ ﻢﻬﻨﹶﻔﻠِﺨﺘﺴﻴﹶﻟ ﺕِ


ﺎﳊﺎﺼﻟﺍ ﺍﻮﹸﻠِﻤﻋ ﻭ ﻢﹸﻜﻨِﻣ ﺍﻮﻨﻣﺁ ﻦﻳﺬﻟﺍ ُﷲﺍﺪﻋﻭ”


ﻻ ﲏﻧﻭﺪﺒﻌﻳ ﺎﻨﻣﺃ ﻢِﻬِﻓﻮﺧ ﺪﻌﺑ ﻦِﻣ ﻢﻬﻨﻟﺪﺒﻴﹶﻟ ﻭ ﻢﻬﹶﻟ ﻲﻀﺗﺭﺍ ﻱﺬﻟﺍ ﻢﻬﻨﻳﺩ ﻢﻬﹶﻟ ﻦﻨﻜﻤﻴﹶﻟ ﻭ ﻢِﻬِﻠﺒﹶﻗ ﻦِﻣ


“ﻥﹶ ﻮﻘِﺳﺎﻔﻟﺍ ﻢﻫ ﻚﺌﻟﻭﺄﻓ ﻚﻟﺫ ﺪﻌﺑ ﺮﹶﻔﹶﻛ ﻦﻣ ﻭ ﹰﺄﻴﺷ ﰊ ﻥﻮﻛِﺮﺸﻳ “Allah has promised to those of you who believe and do good that He will most certainly make them rulers in the earth as He made rulers those before them, and that He will most certainly establish for them their religion which He has chosen for them, and that He will most certainly, after their fear, give them security in exchange; they shall serve Me, not associating aught with Me; and whoever is ungrateful after this, these it is who are the transgressors.” (Nur /55) Thus, under the auspices of the divine leaders’ guidance, the earth and its

inhabitants welcome reform. In explanation and interpretation of the verse:


“ﺎﻬﺣﻼﺻﺍ ﺪﻌﺑ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻭﺪﺴِ


Imam Baqir (A.S.) points out as such:


ﻔﺗ ﻻ ﻭ”(Araf /56)


“Verily, there was mischief on the earth and Allah rectified it through His prophet and then said: Do not make mischief in the land after you have brought faith in the Messenger of Allah and Amir-ul-Muminin. And when they abandoned Amir-ul-Muminin (A.S.), they indeed created mischief in the land. (Tafsir-Safi 1/585-586)


Immaculateness of the Divine Leaders


From what was explained, it becomes obvious that the one possessing such characteristics and bearing such responsibilities should be pure from any

offence and immune from any sins. Since, according to the sayings of Amir-ul- Muminin (A.S.), the foundation of obedience and submissiveness towards the divine leaders is this very immaculateness: Verily, obedience is for Allah, His prophet and those vested with divine authority Verily, obedience of the

‘Wali(s)’ (master) has been ordered since they are sinless and pure and they never call for the disobedience of Allah. (Elal-ush-Sharayeh /123; item 1)

In reply to Hazrat Ibrahim’s request to allow the Imamat to continue in his

own progeny, the Exalted Allah replies:


“ﲔﳌﺎﻀﻟﺍ ﻱِﺪﻬﻋ ﹸﻝﺎﻨﻳ ﻻ”


“My covenant does not include the unjust.” (Baqarah /124)

Why shouldn’t it be so?! As a matter of fact, isn’t licence to obey a sinful person nothing but a licence to commit sin?

Whereas, God never allows sin and falsehood.


“ﹰﺍﲑﺒﻛ ﹰﺍﻮﻠﻋ ﻚﻟﺫ ﻦﻋ ﷲﺍ ﱄﺎﻌﺗ”


Perpetuation of Divine Leaders


Thus, the Mercy of the All-Merciful and the All Compassionate and the divine Wisdom necessarily requires that right from the time of creation of the earth and its inhabitants, the divine Mercy4 and Wisdom5 should embrace them. Moreover, the means of guidance and progress and the results derived from them (i.e. advisability and reform) should be kept within their reach. Considering man’s qualities and the wide spectrum which, he can traverse from unlimited negative ness to unlimited positive ness, he is helpless but to taste the leadership of those endowed with lofty position and perfection. Thus, God has appointed a few amongst mankind (chosen ones) and acquainted them with the

realities of


“ﺃﺪﺒﻣ”(origin) and




(eschatology) and the path between this

beginning and end (i.e. .Prophet hood). A group amongst them has been charged with the duty of transmitting these messages (Messenger ship) and the people too have been commanded to obey them. Moreover, He has given yet another group the responsibility of guiding, supervising and assisting the human beings in all aspects (Imamah and Wilayah).6

Here are some examples from the sayings of the Immaculate Imams (A.S.): Abu-Abdullah (A.S.) says:

“The earth shall not last but with the existence of a learned man who shall reform it and the people (themselves) shall not be reformed hut with his presence.” (Elal-ush-Sharayeh /196, item 8)

Again, he says: “People will not reform save with the help of a leader. The earth too shall not be reformed but through him.” (Bihar-ul-Anwar 23/22, item


23 (narrated from Elal-ush-Sharaye /76) Basa’er Darajaat / l43 and


Ghaibat Nu’mani/68)


Abu-Ja’far (A.S.) said:

“I swear by Allah that since the time the earth was inherited by Adam (A.S.)

it has never been delivered except when it shall be inherited by a leader through whom it shall be guided towards Allah and he shall be Allah’s plea over His

creatures. And the earth shall not last without Allah’s plea over His creatures.”


4- ﻻﺍ ﻙﺎﻨﻠﺳﺭﺍ ﺎﻣ ﻭ (۱۷ ﺩﻮﻫ) ﺔﲪﺭ ﻭ ﺎﹾﻣﺎﻣﺍ ﻲﺳﻮﻣ ﺏﺎﺘﻛ ﻦﻣ ﻭ( ۵۲ﻑﺍﺮﻋﺍ) ﻥﻮﻨﻣﻮﻳ ﻡﻮﻘﻟ ﺔﲪﺭ ﻭ ﻱﺪﻫ ﻢﻠﻋ ﻲﻠﻋ ﻩﺎﻨﻠﺼﻓ ﺏﺎﺘﻜﺑ ﻢﻫﺎﻨﻨﺟ ﺪﻘﻟ ﻭ”


(۱۰۷ﺎﻴﺒﻧﺍ)ﲔﳌﺎﻌﻠﻟ ﹾﺔﲪﺭ




۳۹ﺀﺍﺮﺳﺍ)ﺔﻤﻜﳊﺍ ﻦﻣ ﻚﻴﻟﺍ ﻲﺣﻭﺍ ﺎﳑ ﻚﻟﺫ (۱۵۱ﺓﺮﻘﺑ)ﺔﻤﻜﳊﺍ ﻭ ﺏﺎﺘﻜﻟﺍ ﻢﻜﻤﻠﻌﻳ ﻭ ﻢﻜﻴﻛﺰﻳ ﻭ ﺎﻨﺗﺎﻳﺁ ﻢﻜﻴﻠﻋ ﺍﻮﻠﺘﻳ ﻢﻜﻨﻣ ﹾﻻﻮﺳﺭ ﻢﻜﻴﻓ ﺎﻨﻠﺳﺭﺍ ﺎﻤﻛ”


6-In this manner, neither ‘Imamh’ nor ‘Wilayah’ refers to ‘rulership’ in technical terms. Rather, with the presence of an ‘Imam’ (leader) and ‘Wali’ (master), nobody has the right to rule; and ‘rulership’ shall be (only) for an ‘Imam’ and ‘Wali’. Similarly, one should note that ‘Wilayah’ differs form love and affection and it is by means of love that one can hold fast the ‘Wilayah’ and enter the holy sanctuary of divine ‘Wilayah’. ( Ahqaq-ul- Haq 17/157: “ﻡﻼﺴﻟﺍ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ﻲﻠﻋ ﺐﲝ ﻻﺍ ﺔﻳﻻﻮﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﻨﻳ ﻻ and Bihar-ul-Anwar 68/236)


(Bihar-ul-Anwr 23/22: item 25)


One of Imam Sadiq’s followers said: I heard Hazrat saying:

“If there does not remain on the earth but two persons then surely one of them shall be the ‘Hujjah’ (proof).” (Bihar-ul-Anwar 23/22; item 24)

Muhammad-Ibn-Muslim has narrated from Imam Baqir (A. S.) who said:

“The earth shall not endure without a leader.” (Whether apparent or concealed)


(Bihar-ul-Anwar 23/23; item 26)


Since, under such circumstances, the earth will not remain fit and life in it will be suitable but for a while as both of these will have then given away the

medium for divine bounties as well as the wise objective of remaining firm in position.

Thus a ‘Messenger’




should possess the knowledge of a ‘Prophet’


“ﱯﻧ”; and a ‘Leader’ “ﻡﺎﻣﺍ” and ‘Master’ “ﱄﻭ” should possess (either directly or indirectly) the Knowledge of a ‘Messenger’ “ﻝﻮﺳﺭ”. By direct, we may cite the case of an Imam who is also a Prophet and a Messenger. By indirect, is meant an Imam who is the Messenger’s successor. Just as the people have no choice in the selection of a Prophet and Messenger in the same manner, they have no choice in the appointment of an ‘Imam’ and ‘Wali’:


“ﻪﺘﻟ ﺎﺳِﺭ ﹸﻞﻌﳚ ﹸﺚﻴﺣ ﻢﻠﻋﺃ ﷲﺍ”


“Allah best knows where he places His message.” (Anam /124)


“ﹸﺓﺮﻴِﳋﺍ ﻢﹸﳍ ﻥﺎﻛ ﺎﻣ ﺭﺎﺘﳜ ﻭ ُﺀﺎﺸﻳ ﺎﻣ ﻖﹸﻠﳜ ﻚﺑﺭ ﻭ”


“And your Lord creates and chooses whom He pleases; to choose is not theirs.” (Qasas /68)


“ﻢﻫﺮﻣﺃ ﻦﻣ ﹸﺓﲑﳋﺍ ﻢﹸﳍ ﹶﻥﻮﻜﹸ ﻳ ﻥﺃ ﹾﺍﺮﻣﺃ ﻪﹸﻟﻮﺳﺭ ﻭ ُﷲﺍ ﻲﻀﻗ ﺍﺫﺍ ٍﺔﻨﻣﺆﻣ ﻻ ﻭ ٍﻦﻣﺆﻤِﻟ ﻥﺎﻛ ﺎﻣ ﻭ” “And it behoves not a believing man and a believing woman that they should have any choice in their matter when Allah and His Apostle have decided a


matter.” (Ahzab /36)

Thus, it has come down that one cannot become a leader without an explicit designation and it is necessary for an Imam to explicitly stipulate the Imam who

is to follow him. (Bihar-ul-Anwar 23/ 66-75)

Verily, is it possible for a legatee (ﻲﺻﻭ) to be appointed by someone other

than a legator(ﻲﺻﻮﻣ)

? Verily, the hierarchy of divine leaders began from

Hazrat Adam (A.S.) and continued in the progeny of Razrat Ibrahim (A.S.) and finally continues to last in the pure progeny of Amir-ul-Mumineen and Fatemah (A.S.).

Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said:

The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: “I am the chief of all the Prophets. My legatee (ﻲﺻﻭ) is the chief of all the legatees and my legatees are the chief of all (other) legatees. Verily, Adam (A.S.) requested Almighty Allah to appoint a worthy legatee for himself Then Allah revealed to him as such: “Verily, I honored the prophets with prophet hood. Then, I appointed the legatees amongst the best of My creatures.” Thereafter, Allah revealed to him as such: “O Adam, appoint Shais as your legatee.” He appointed Shais as his legatee and Shais was Adam’s son.

Shais appointed his son Shabban as his legatee. He was the son of Nazlah Hura who was sent from the Paradise by Allah for Adam and Adam had given her

hand in marriage to his son, Shais.

Shabban appointed Muhlas as his legatee and Muhlas in turn appointed

Muhwaq as his legatee. Muhwaq too appointed Amisha as his legatee and

Amisha appointed Okhnukh (Prophet Idris) as his legatee. Idris appointed

Nahur and Nahur entrusted the executorship prophet Noah.

Noah appointed Saam as his legatee and Saam handed over the executorship to Athamer, Ethasha, Yafeth, Bareh, Jafiseh and Imran followed Athamer in


Imran entrusted the executor ship to Ibrahim who was later succeeded by his son Ismail. Thereafter, Ishaaq, Ya’qub, Yusuf, Yathriya and Shuaib followed in

order. Shuaib entrusted the executor ship to Musa-ibn-Imran who in turn appointed Yushah-ibn-Nun as his legatee. Thereafter, the executor ship was entrusted to Sulaiman, Asif-ibn-Barkhiya and Zakaria in order.

Zakaria entrusted the executor ship to Isa-ibn-Maryam who entrusted to Sham’un-ibn-Hamun as-Safa. Yahya-ibn-Zakaria Munzar, Sulaimah and Bardah followed Sha’mun in sequence.

Then, the holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said: “And Bardah entrusted the executor ship to me. From my side, I shall hand over this executor ship to you O Ali. You in turn entrust it to your legatee. Your legatee too shall entrust it to your legatees one after the other and they shall be from your progeny until it shall be

handed over to the best creature on the earth after you. Verily, people will turn atheist after your departure and a great dispute will arise amongst them over you. The one who remains loyal to you will be the one who will reside next to

me and the one who forsakes you will dwell in Hell, and the Hell is the abode of the disbelievers.” (Bihar-ul-Anwar 23/57; item 1(narrated from A’mali of




Jabir-ibn-Abdullah Ansari says: About the verse:


“ﻝﻮﺳﺮﻟﺍ ﺍﻮﻌﻴﻃﺃ ﻭ ﷲﺍ ﺍﻮﻌﻴﻃﺃ ﺍﻮﻨﻣﺁ ﻦﻳﺬﻟﺍ ﺎﻬﻳﺃﺎﻳ”


I asked the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) as such: We know Allah and His

Messenger but who are these





(those vested with authority)? He

‘O Jabir! They are my successors and the leaders of the Muslims after me. They are Ali-ibn-Abi Talib and then Hassan, then Hussein, then Ali-ibn- Hussein, then Muhammad- ibn-Ali who has been mentioned as ‘Baqir’ in the Torah. ‘O Jabir, you shall see him and when you do so, convey my greetings to him. After him shall follow Jafar-ibn-Muhammad Sadiq, then Musa-ibn-Jafar–

——Hassan-ibn-Ali. Then Allah’s plea and tile ‘spared one’ amongst His creatures, the son of Hassan-ibn-Ali whose name and agnomen shall be the same as mine will come and Almighty Allah will relieve the earth from East to West by his hands. He is the same one who will be concealed from his followers for such a long that his-followers will not remain firm in their belief (during occultation) save those whom Allah has tested their hearts with faith. (Bihar-ul- Anwar 23/289: item 16)




In the glorious hadith-luh (the divine gift from God to the last of His prophets who in turn gifted it to his dear daughter Fatemah) the hierarchy of Imams has been introduced:

In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

This is a writ of command from the Wise and Mighty Allah to Muhammad, His prophet, His Light, His sent one, His curtain and His guide. The trustworthy

spirit has brought this down from Allah.

‘O Muhammad! Keep My Name Exalted. Be thankful to My bounties and do not bely them. Verily, I am Allah and except for Me there is no (other) Allah. I

am the Smasher of the oppressors; the Redresser of the innocent ones and the Dominator of religion. Verily, I am Allah and besides Me there is no (other) Allah. So, anyone who trusts others but not Me and fears but not from My Justice, then I shall so torment him that would be unprecedented. So, glorify Me

only and have trust on Me only.

Verily, I have not appointed any prophet nor perfected his life nor completed

revelation upon him save that I have fixed for him a “ﻲﺻﻭ (legatee). Verily, I made you superior all the prophets and granted superiority to your legatee more than all other legatees. Moreover, I honored you with your two grandsons, Hassan and Hussein.

I made Hassan the treasure house of knowledge after his father. I made

Hussein the treasurer of My revelation and honored him with martyrdom and brought his affair to a prosperous end. Thus he is the most superior of all the

martyrs. I placed My absolute creed with him and entrusted My conclusive evidence with him. Moreover, I shall give reward and punishment through his


I made the first amongst them the leader of the adorers and the ornament of (My) saints. Thereafter, his son who is similar to his great grandfather is the splitter of My knowledge and the mine of My wisdom. Soon it shall be when the doubters in Jafar will perish. Anyone who rejects him has indeed rejected Me.

My words are certain that verily I shall honor Jafar’s abode and haven and shall make him glad amongst his followers, friends and companions. After him, Musa will encounter blind and severe seditions. But in spite of this, My precepts shall never be severed and My plea (Hujiah) shall never remain covered. Verily, My saints will be quenched from the overflowing cup. Anyone who denies any one of them has indeed denied My bounty and anyone who alters any verse has indeed attributed a lie to Me.

Woe be to those who belong to the group of deniers and hers. After the termination of Musa’s age shall come My slave, friend and appointed one Ali who is My friend, helper and the one upon whom I placed the prophet hood for several times and tested his capability for it. A wicked and haughty person shall kill him and he will be buried next to the worst creature in a city, which will be built by a worthy man.

Verily, I shall make him glad, by appointing his son Muhammad to succeed him and inherit his knowledge. He is the deposit of My Knowledge; the stronghold of My secrets and My plea over My creatures. None shall be inclined to him but that I shall make the Paradise his abode and I will accept his intercession for seventy persons from his family members who otherwise would be worthy of the Fire. I shall bring the affairs of his son Ah to a prosperous end and he shall be My friend, helper, a witness over My creatures and a trustworthy one over My revelation. And from him I will create the caller to My path and the treasurer of My Knowledge. And I shall perfect the affairs through his son “ﺩ ﻡ ﺡ ﻡ”who is a mercy for mankind. He possesses the perfection of Musa (Moses), the brightness of Isa (Jesus) and the patience of Ayub (Job). During his time, My friends will be despised and degraded and their heads will be presented as gifts just like the heads of Turks and Dylamites. Thus, they shall be killed and burnt and fear and terror will grip them, The land shall be colored with their blood. The crying, wailing and recitation of elegy by their women shall become manifest. Verily, they are My friends by the truth. By their means, I shall eliminate every blind and dark sedition. And by their means, I shall put away the earthquakes and bury the fetters. My greetings and Mercy be upon them. And they are those who have found guidance.”

Abdur-Rahman-ibn-Salem says: Abu Baseer says: If you have not heard any hadith in your life time save this one suffice it will be for you. So keep it a

secret save from its people. (Kafi /1, Chapter “ﻢﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﺺﻨﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺮﺸﻋ ﺎﻨﺛﻻﺍ ﰲ ﺀﺎﺟ ﺎﻣ”


Page 527-528. No. 3)


It is in this manner that in the length of divine leadership, the ‘Prophet hood’ and ‘Messenger ship’ ends in Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W.A.) the last of the Prophets but the ‘Imamat’ still continues. As such, it should be said that Amir- ul-Mumineen (A.S.) is not the first Imam (even though he is reckoned to be the best of all the Prophet’s legatees) and his: Imamat is the continuation of the Imamat of other Imams.

Imam Abul-Hassan ar-Ridha (A.S.) has expressed in beautiful and audible terms the position of Imamat, the specialties of an Imam, the necessity of Imam’s appointment through designation, the continuity of Imamat right from

the beginning till the end of this world and all other points related to this matter.

Abdul Aziz-ibn-Muslim says; We were in Imam’s presence at Marv. On

Friday, which was the first day of our entry to this city, we gathered at the

Friday mosque. The people involved themselves in the discussion of Imamat and the various differences that existed amongst the people in this matter. So I approached my master and informed him about the various things the people had said. He smiled and said:

‘O Abdul Aziz! The people do not know and have been deceived in their opinion. Almighty Allah did not seize (the life of) His prophet but after having

perfected the religion for him and having revealed the Quran upon him where in one can find the clarification of every thing. In it, He has clarified the lawful

and the unlawful acts, the restrictions “ﺩﻭﺪﺣ” and the commands and all that the people need. He to Whom belongs Might and Majesty says: “We have

neglected nothing in the Book.” (An’am /38)

And in the farewell pilgrimage which took place at the end of the Prophet’s life, Allah revealed this verse: “Today I have perfected your religion for you, and I have completed My blessing upon you, and I have approved Islam for your religion.’ (Maeda 3.) And the matter of Imamate is the means by which the religion has been brought to perfection:

The holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) did not depart from the world until he clarified to his nation the guiding principles of their religion and the path to be pursued

by them. And he appointed for them Ali (A.S.) as a sign and as an Imam. And he has not left out the clarification of any matter, which is essential for the nation. So, whoever reckons that the Almighty Allah has not perfected His

religion has indeed rejected the Book of Allah, and whoever rejects the Book of

Allah is an unbeliever in it.

Do they know the worth of Imamate and “Its position among the nation so that their selection could b? Decided by the people? Verily the Imamate is too

sublime” among values, too great among ranks, too high among stations, too impenetrable on all sides, too profound among the depths for people to reach it

with their intellects, or to grasp it with their opinions, or to establish an Imam by their choice. Verily, Allah granted Abraham (A.S.) the Imamate in the third

stage only after bestowing him the prophet hood and His friendship. And it is a grace by which He has bestowed him with honor and raised his renown and said: “Behold! I make you an Imam (leader) for this people.” And Allah’s friend joyfully said: “And of my seed?” Allah, the Sublime said: “My covenant shall not reach the evil-doers.” (Baqarah / 124) Thus this verse has nullified the leadership of alt oppressors till the chosen ones only.

Then, Almighty Allah honored him by placing the Imamate amongst the chosen and pure ones of his offspring and said:

“And We gave him Ishaq and Ya’qub in superabundance and everyone made

We righteous and appointed them to he Imams guiding by Our commands, and We revealed to them the doing of good deeds and the keeping up of prayer and the giving of the alms, and Us (alone) did they serve.” (Anbiya /72-73)

So, this affair continued in his offspring; one inheriting from the other generation after generation till Allah, the Sublime, made the holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) inherit. And He the Majestic, the Sublime said: “Surely, the nearest

of people to Abraham are those who followed him and this Prophet and those who believe and Allah is the Master of the believers.” (Al-Imran /68)

So, Imamate belonged to him particularly, and hence he invested Ali (A.S.)

with it by the command of Allah, the Sublime, in the way in which Allah had made obligatory. So it came to be in his (Ali’s) selected seed, those to whom Allah has given knowledge and faith, as in the words of He Who is the Sublime:

‘But those who have been given knowledge and faith shall say: Certainly,

you have tarried according to Allah’s Book till the Day of Resurrection.” (Rum




Therefore, Imamate shall be only for Ali’s offspring till the Day of Judgment

since, there shall be no Prophet after Muhammad (S.A.W.A.). Then, how can these foolish people have the right to select (their leader)?! Verily, Imamate is the rank of the Prophets and the heritage of the successors. Verily, the Imamate is the vicegerency (Khilafah) of Allah and the vicegerency of the Messenger; the station of Amir-ul-Mumineen (A.S.) and the heritage of al-Hassan and al- Hussein (A.S.). Verily, Imamate is the reins of the religion, the state of order of the Muslims, the rectitude of the world and the might of the believers Verily, Imamate is Islam’s growing root and its lofty branches. Through the Imam, the

‘Salat’ (prayer), ‘Zakat’ (alms), ‘Saum’ (fasting), ‘Haj’ (pilgrimage to Mecca)

and ‘Jihad’ (holy war) are perfected, the general wealth and charity are augmented, the restrictions and precepts are put into practice and the frontiers and territories are protected. An Imam makes lawful what Allah has made lawful and prohibits what Allah has prohibited; he establishes the restrictions of Allah; he defends the religion of Allah and he calls the people towards His Lord with wisdom and good admonition and perfect and complete arguments. Imam is like the radiant sun, which gives embellishment to the world with its light and it is (placed) on the highest point of the sky where no hand or eye can reach it.

Imam is like the glaring moon; the glowing lamp; the luminous light and the brilliant stars, which act as a guidance in the dark gloomy night and in the lands, deserts and oceans. Imam is a refreshing water for the thirsty people; a guide on the path of guidance and deliverer from the deviations. Imam is (like) the fire on the heights, and which warms those who seek the heat and an indicator in dangers. He who moves away from him will perish.

Imam is (like) the pluvial cloud, the rainfall that covers everywhere, the shining sun, the shady sky, the smooth earth, the overflowing spring, the pool and the meadow. Imam is an affectionate associate; the sympathetic father; the

blood brother; the mother who is tender to her small child and a shelter for those in misfortunes. Imam is Allah’s custodian over His creatures; His plea for His creatures, His vecegerency in His lands, a caller towards Allah and the defender

of Allah’s precincts.

The Imam is the one who is immune from sins, free from all shortcomings, characterized by knowledge, distinguished by forbearance, the state of order of

the religion, the might of the Muslims, the one who enrages the hypocrites and the destroyer of the infidels. The Imam is the unique one of his times; no one is comparable to him; no scholar can approach his rank; no one can replace him

nor can anyone be found who is similar to him. All the virtues can be found only in him without him seeking it or acquiring it. Rather, it has come upon him from the Bestower of virtues, the All-Giving. So, who is there who can arrive at the knowledge of Imam or have the ability to select him?! How far from the

truth! Intellects have lost (themselves), imaginations have gone astray, minds have been made small, the wise have confounded themselves, those who reflect forever fall short, orators falter, the intelligent become ignorant, poets become

expressionless, prosodists turn incapable and the eloquent stammer in describing one of his aspects or one of his eminence. All of them have confessed their incapability and inadequacy. How can this totality be described

and how can his inner essence be characterized? How can anything concerning him be understood? Who can be found who can replace him and give what he can give? Nay! How can it be possible? While he is like the position of a star

where hands cannot reach it or the adorers can eulogize.

So, what a difference between this and selection! What a difference between this and the thoughts! And where can the like of him be found?! Do you

imagine that this can be found somewhere other than the Prophet’s household?! By Allah, they have lied to themselves, they have promised to themselves the impossible, they have climbed up to a difficult and dangerous height, (and) their feet will slip and fall to the bottom. They want to appoint an Imam with (their)

confused, unproductive and defective minds, and (their) misguided opinions. Nothing accrued to them but remoteness from him. [May Allah assail them! How they are turned away!]

Surely, they have intended to engage in a difficult affair with the result that

they have uttered the untruth and have gone astray into far error; they have put themselves into confusion, because they have knowingly abandoned the Imam. And the Satan made their deeds fair-seeming to them and barred them from the way, though they saw choice of the Messenger of Allah and his Ahlu’l-bayt, and instead turned to their own choice whereas the Quran has called out to them:

“Thy Lord creates whatsoever He pleases and He chooses; they have not the choice. Glory be to Allah! Exalted be He above what they associate.” (Qasas




And He to Whom belongs Might and Majesty says:

“And it behoves not a believing man and a believing woman that they should have any choice in their matter when Allah and His Apostle have decided a

matter.” (Ahzab /36)

And He says:

“What ails you then, how you judge? Or have you a Book wherein you study? Surely therein you shall have whatever you choose! Or have you oaths

from Us, reaching to the Day of Resurrection? Surely you shall have whatever you judge! Ask them, which of them will guarantee that! Or do they have

associates? Then let them bring their associates, if they speak truly.” (Qalam




Yet in another verse, the Almighty and Exalted God says:

“What, do they not ponder the Quran? Or is it that there are locks upon their hearts? (Muhammad/24) or “Allah has set a seal upon their hearts, so they

understand not.” (Tauba /87) or “And be not like those who said, We hear, and they hear not. Surely the worst of beasts in Allah’s sight are those that are deaf

and dumb and do not understand. If Allah had known of any good in them He would have made them hear and if He had made them hear, they would have turned away, swerving aside.” (Anfal /21-23) or “They said: We have heard and

we disobey.” (Baqarah /93) Rather, that is the Grace of Allah. He grants it to whomsoever He wishes and Allah is the Owner of Grace. So how can they have (the right) to choose an Imam? Since, the Imam is a man of knowledge in whom

ignorance cannot penetrate; a shepherd who does not shirk (his duty), a mine of sanctity and purity, of piety and renunciation, of knowledge and worship. He is the one specifically mentioned in the supplication of the Messenger (S.A.W.A.),

and he is of the seed of the purified one, the chaste [al-Batul, Fatemah (A.S.)]. Aspersion cannot be cast on him in relation to his parentage; no one can approach him in honorability—–

Verily, Allah accommodates the Prophets and the Imams, may Allah bless

them; He bestows to them of His stored Knowledge and Wisdom, which He does not give to anyone else. Thus their knowledge is far above the knowledge of the people of their time, as He, the Sublime says: “Is He who guides to the truth, the worthier to be followed, or he who himself does not aright unless he is

guided? What then ails you, how you judge? (Yunus /35)

In another verse, Almighty Allah says:

“And whose is given the Wisdom, has been given much good.” (Baqarah




About Thalut (Saul), He says:

“Verily, Allah has chosen him over you, and has increased him broadly in knowledge and body. Allah gives the kingship to whom He wills. And Allah is All-embracing. All- knowing.” (Baqarah /247)

In His address to the Prophet, He says:

“Allah has sent down on thee the Book and the Wisdom and He has taught thee that thou knowest not: Allah’s bounty to thee is very great.”(Nisa /113)

About the Imams from His Prophet’s Ahlu’l-bayt and progeny, He says: “Or

are they jealous of the people for the bounty that Allah has given them? Yet We gave the progeny of Abraham the Book and the Wisdom, and We gave them a mighty kingdom. And some of them (i.e. those that were jealous) there are that believe, and some of them that bar from it; Gehenna suffices for a Blaze!” (Nisa




Verily, when Allah, to whom belongs Might and Majesty, selects a slave for

the affairs of His creatures He expands his breast for it; He deposits in his heart the fountains of wisdom and profoundly inspires him with knowledge. So after this, he does not stammer in answers and he does not deviate from the truth. Thus, he is immaculate, supported (by Allah); he is accommodated (to the right path); his steps being firmly guided; he will be safe from errors, slips and stumbling. Allah distinguishes him by this, because he is His Proof over his slaves, and His witness over His creatures. That is the bounty of Allah, He gives it to whom He will, and Allah is of bounty abounding.

So, do they have the power to do the like of this, so that they can choose him? Or can the one of their choice possess this attribution so that they may prefer

him? By the House of Allah, they have transgressed against the truth, they have rejected the Book of Allah behind their backs as though they did not know, and in the Book of Allah there is guidance and cure. So they have rejected it, and

they have followed their own desires. Thus, Allah has found fault with them, detested them and casted them down, as He, to Whom belongs Majesty and Sublime ness, has said: “And who is further astray then he who follows his own

caprice without guidance from Allah? Surely, Allah guides not the people of the evil-doers.” (Qasas /50) And He has said: “And (as for) those who disbelieve, for them is destruction, and He has made their deeds ineffective.” (Muhammad


/8) And He has said: “………. greatly hated it is by Allan and by those who


believe. Thus does Allah set a seal over the heart of every proud, haughty one?” (Ghafir /35) And may Allah bless the Prophet, Muhammad and his progeny, and bestow peace upon them with much bestowing.”


The Virtues of Amir-Ul-Mumineen (A.S.)


We had mentioned earlier that Amir-ul-Mumineen (A.S.) is the most superior of all the legatees. Why shouldn’t he be so?! Isn’t he the holy Prophet’s successor?! As per the explanation of the Quran, isn’t lie the holy Prophet’s

‘self’?!7 Doesn’t the Quran reckon the last of the Prophets to be the “Mercy for



“ﲔﳌﺎﻌﻟﺍﹾﺔﲪﺭ”? Thus, his blessed existence is a mercy for all mankind


and consequently his mercy embraces the entire Prophets too. The same is the case with Amir-ul-Mumineen (A.S.).

About Amir-ul-Mumineen’s superiority over all beings save the holy Prophet

(S.A.W.A.) of Islam, Imam Sadiq (A.S.) explains as such: (Yanabi al-Mu’ajez and Usul al-Dala’el /6-7)

Abdullah-ibn-Walid said: Abu-Abdullah (A.S.) inquired from me: ‘What is

the opinion of the Shiites about Jesus Moses and Amir-ul-Mumineen (A.S.)’? I said: “Surely that Jesus and Moses are more superior to Amir-ul-Mumineen” He said: “Do they believe that Amir-ul-Mumineen (A.S.) possessed the same knowledge as that of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.)?” I said: “Yes, but none can have priority over the Arch-Prophets” He replied: “Then, argue with them with the divine Book.” I said: “From which part of the Book should I argue with them?”

He said: ‘The Almighty and Exalted Allah addresses Mose (A.S.) as such: “And We ordained for him in the tablets admonition of every kind and clear explanation of part of all things.” (Araf /145)

From this we realize that Allah did not ordain for him everything. And Jesus (A.S.) says: “…And that I may make clear to you part of what you differ in.” (Zukhraf /63) About Muhammad, Almighty Allah says: “And bring you as a

witness against these-and We have revealed the Book to you explaining dearly everything.” (Nahl / 89)

Moreover, the holy Prophet (S.A.W.A) has uttered many things about his legatee, which covers details of his specialities.

Ali on the seventh heaven is like the sun on earth at daytime. He, on this worldly sky is like the moon on earth luring the night. Allah bestowed Ali with a certain grace such that if this grace were to be distributed amongst all the


7-It refers to the event of ‘Mubahela’ (mutual invocation of a curse) where, as per the Divine command, the holy


Prophet (S.A.W.A.) called the Christians of Najran for ‘Mubahela’. Then, this verse was revealed:


ﺎﻨﺴﹸﻔﻧﺍ ﻭ ﻢﻛﺀﺎﺴﻧ ﻭ ﺎﻧﺀ؟ﺎﺴﻧ ﻭ ﻢﹸﻛﺀﺎﻨﺑﺍ ﻭ ﺎﻧﺀﺎﻨﺑﺍ ﻉﺪﻧ ﺍﻮﻟﺎﻌﺗ ﻞﹸﻘﻓ ﻢﻠﻌﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﻙﺀﺎﺟ ﺎﻣ ﺪﻌﺑ ﻦﻣ ﻪﻴﻓ ﻚﺟﺎﺣ ﻦﻤﻓ ﻦﻳﺮﺘﻤﹸﳌﺍ ﻦﻣ ﻦﹸﻜﺗ ﻼﻓ ﻚﺑﺭ ﻦﻣ ﻖﳊﺍ” “ﲔﺑﺫﺎﻜﻟﺍ ﻲﻠﻋ ﷲﺍ ﺖﻨﻌﻟ ﻞﻌﺠﻨﻓ ﻞﻬﺘﺒﻧ ﰒ ﻢﹸﻜﺴﹸﻔﻧﺍ ﻭ


In complying with this divine command, the holy Prophet (S.A.W.A) appeared on the scene of ‘Mubahela’


along with Hasnain. Hazrat Fatemah and Amir-ul-Mumineen (A.S.). by witnessing these magnificent and lustrous but at the same time simple and calm faces, the leading Christians of Najran prevented their followers from participating in this contest against them. For examining the common and specific references, interested


readers can refer to Bihar-ul-Anwar and Ahqaq al-Haq. Similarly, useful information regarding the conclusions


derived from this verse has come down in the book Eqbal al-A’mal.


inhabitants of the world then the entire lot of them could have enjoyed it.

His compassion is like the compassion of Lot; his character like the character of John; his asceticism like the asceticism of Job; his generosity like the

generosity of Abraham; his benevolence like the benevolence of Soloman son of David; his might like the might of David; and on every curtain in Paradise is

mentioned his name. My Lord gave me this as a reward and his reward is with me.

Ali, before the Exalted Allah is laudable; pure before the Angels; and special, pure, apparent, light, shield and a friend to me. My Lord made him my

associate. So, I requested My Lord not to bring him death before my departure from this world and instead make him die by way of martyrdom after my departure.

When I was taken to Paradise, I saw Ali’s wide-eyed houris more in number than the leaves of trees and I saw Ali’s palaces equal to the number of human beings. Ali is from me and I am from him. Anyone who loves Ali, loves me.

Ali’s friendship is a bounty and his obedience a grace. The Angels have brought faith in him and the peace-loving Jinns have amassed around him.

After me, none shall come who would be more honorable than Ali in glory,

honor and manner (of living). He is neither rough nor panicky and neither submissive before corruption and perversion nor refractory and obstinate. The earth supported him and honored him. None came out from their mother’s womb in the manner, which Ali came out from his mother’s womb. In no house, a child brought good luck the way Ali brought luck. Allah revealed the wisdom to him and covered him with the mantle of comprehension. The Angels sit besides him and he does no see them. And if there was to be any revelation after me, I would have been Ali who would receive it. Through him, Allah granted adornment to the gatherings, honored the armies, made the cities prosper and bestowed respect to the soldiers.

His parable is like the parable of the House of Allah, which is visited but does not pay a visit. Also, his parable is like the parable of the moon such that when it gleams illuminates the world. In His Book, Almighty Allah ha depicted and praised him and has commended his work and elevated his (various) positions. Thus in life he generous and in death a martyr. (Bihar-ul-Anwar 39/37-38 (narrated from A’mali of Saduq 6-7))

Now that Amir-ul-Mumineen (A.S.) enjoys these virtues, at all the matter of his comparison arises, then he should be measured with the great ones in creation and the appointed ones from the hierarchy of Messenger ship and not wit others as, he himself said:

“They sowed vices, watered them with pride and harveste destruction. None in the Islamic community can be taken par with the Prophet’s progeny. One who was under the obligation cannot be matched with them. They are the

foundation of religion and pillar of belief. The forward runner has to turn back

to them while the follower has to reach them. They possess the chief characteristics for vicegerency. In their favor exists the will and succession (of the Prophet).

Alas! After the Prophet’s departure, cowardliness and foul play took the affairs to such extent that Hazrat’s heart was put to severe pain; his mouth

opened (to speak); he complained of the time and groaned because of ungrateful people like, the sellers of Yusuf (Joseph):

“How strange it is that I am being grouped with him who never evinced briskness of pace like me nor had he to his credit any achievement like mine

unless he claims something of which I do not know and which I think Allah too does not know.” (Nahjul-Ba1agha; letter No. 9)

In another sermon, he says:

“Where was any doubt about me with regard to the first of them that I was now considered akin to these ones.” (Nahjul-Balagha; Sermon No. 3)

Thus, this innocent man of all-time history does not find any remedy against

the composers and believers of Saqifa other than describing his own superiority over all other well-known figures of his time. In the books of hadith and history, one can find the description of some of the discussions and debates of Hazrat regarding his own virtues and superiority. Amongst them, we may mention the argumentation with the Consultative committee of six persons held for the appointment of the third Caliph and the argumentation with: a number of the Prophet’s companion in the Prophet’s mosque during Uthman’s caliphate.


A Selection of the First Argumentation


Aamer-ibn-Wathela says: On the day of the Consultative committee, I was in my residence that I heard Ali (A.S.) saying: ‘The people set Abu-Bakr as the Caliph while by Allah, I was more worthy and deserved it more than him. Then,

Abu-Bakr appointed Omar as the Caliph while by Allah, I was more worthy and deserved it more than him. Besides, Omar put me in the group of six and regarded me to, be one of them and they did not possess any superiority over

me. If I desire, I can argue with them with such matters that none of the Arabs or non-Arabs amongst them or the Muslims and polytheists can present any reply to these arguments.

Thereafter, he said: ‘O people, tell me, by Allah, is there anyone amongst you who has turned to monotheism prior to me?

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone except me to whom the holy Prophet

(S.A.W.A.) has said: “You are to me as Haroun was to Musa except that there will be no Prophet after me”?!

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me where on the occasion when a cooked bird was brought before the Prophet he said: “O Allah,

send to me Thy most beloved creature so that he will accompany me in eating this bird.” Then, I approached him!

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me who has a brother like my brother Jafar who is decorated with two wings in paradise and descends

wherever he wishes?!

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me who possesses a uncle like Hamza the lion of Allah, the lion of the Messenger of Allah

(S.A.W.A.) and the chief of the martyrs?!

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me who possesses two sons like Hassan and Hussein – the sons of the Messenger of Allah

(S.A.W.A.) and the leaders of the youths of paradise?!

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me who possesses a spouse like Fatemah, the daughter and part of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) and the chief of the women of paradise?!

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me to whom the holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) has said: “Anyone who forsakes you has forsaken me and anyone who forsakes me has indeed forsaken Allah?!”

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me about whom the

Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) has said:

“The Banu-Valiah should desist or else I shall send to them disobedience to him is disobedience to me. He shall strike them with his sword?!”

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me to whom the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) has addressed: “There is no Muslim in whose heart is found my love except that Allah shall forgive his sins. Anyone whose heart bears love for me then surely his heart will bear love for you too. Anyone who reckons that he loves me and bears enmity with you is indeed a liar.”

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me to whom the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) has said: You are my successor in household, offspring and among the Muslims in every absence. Your enemy is my enemy and my enemy is Allah’s enemy. Your friend is my friend and my friend is Allah’s friend?!

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me to whom the

Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) has said: ‘O Ali, anyone who loves you and

accepts your ‘Wilayah’ (vicegerency) then, surely mercy will overcome him?! Anyone who bears enmity with you and starts a battle against you then the curse (of Allah) shall overcome him.’ Ayesha said: “O the Messenger of Allah, pray to Allah that I and my father do not fall in the category of those who invite his wrath and bear enmity against him.” Then, the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: “Be quiet! If you and your father be amongst those who love him then verily mercy shall overcome you. On the other hand, if you be against him then verily the curse (of Allah) shall befall you. Surely, you and your father shall act and your father will be the first who will commit injustice against him and you shall be the first one who will fight against him.”

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me to whom the

Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) has said: ‘O Ali, you are my brother and I am your brother in this world as well as the world hereafter: and your residence shall be facing my residence just as the faithful brothers shall be residing facing each other?!

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me about whom

Gabriel has said: ‘O Muhammad! How do you see the brotherhood of Ali? The

Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said:

“Verily, he is from me and I am from him.” Then, Gabriel said: “And I am from the two of you.”

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me for whom a caller cried out from the heavens as such:

‘There is no sword but Zulfiqar and no stalwart but All? They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me to whom the

Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) has addressed as such: ‘Verily Tuba is a tree in paradise and its roots lies in your house. There is no believer in whose house a branch from its branches will not be found?!

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me about whom the

Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) has said:

‘He shall fight for my ‘Suunah’ (practice of the Prophet) and will pay my debt and fulfill my religion?!

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me to whom the

Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) has said:

‘You shall fight against the renegers, oppressors and deviators?! They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me who approached

the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) while his head lay rested on Gabriel’s lap and the latter said:

‘Come near your cousin. You are more worthy to him than I am to him?! They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me who on the

occasion when Allah commanded His Messenger to send the ‘Baraat’ (declaration of immunity), the Prophet sent Abu-Bakr for this task and then Gabriel came and said: “O Muhammad! Verily nobody can deliver it save you and the one who is from you.” Then, the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) sent me. I took the ‘Baraat’ from Abu-Bakr and presented it on behalf of the holy Prophet And the Almighty Allah affirmed on His Prophet’s tongue that I was from him.’

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me to whom the

Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: ‘On the Day of Judgment, those believing in your vicegerency shall arise from their graves riding on white camels while

their shoe-laces will be the lights. The stops shall become easy; the hardships and difficulties shall depart from them; security will be guaranteed and sorrow

will vanish from them until they will reach the shadow of the Celestial Throne. A tablecloth shall be spread before them where they shall eat until they will be delivered from the reckoning. Fear shall grip the people but not them. People will be in sorrow but not them.’

They replied: ‘By swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me who when Abu- Bakr approached the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) for seeking Fatemah’s

hand in marriage the Prophet refused and Omar made such a proposal and the Prophet refused and then, I made such a proposal and he accepted. Thereafter, Abu-Bakr and Omar approached and said: “You refused our proposal but

accepted Ali’s marriage to Fatemah! The Prophet (S.A.W.A.) replied: It was not me but Allah who rejected your proposal and accepted his proposal.”

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, haven’t you heard the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) saying: “On the Day of Resurrection, every means and blood relationship will be cut off except my means and relationship.” My father as well as the Prophet’s father were brothers to each other. Hassan and Hussein, the Prophet’s sons and the leaders of the youths of paradise are my sons. Fatemah, the Prophet’s daughter and my spouse is the chief of the women in paradise. Is it anyone but me?!

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: “By Allah, didn’t the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) order the closure of all the doors towards the mosque except my door. Then, Abbass and

Hamza approached the Prophet and said: ‘You command us to exit but made

him reside here! The holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) replied: It was not me but Allah Who ordered your exit but. Permitted him to reside. Verily, Almighty Allah revealed to my brother Musa (A. S.) to construct a mosque and reside there with Haroun and his two sons. And He revealed to me that I should construct a mosque and reside there along with Ah and his two sons.”

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone except me about whom the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said: “Truth is with Ali and Ali is with the truth. They shall not separate from each other until they meet me at the fountain (in paradise).”

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: “By Allah, is there anyone except me who protected the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) at the time when the polytheists planned to kill him. I slept

on his bed and he went to the cave while they thought that I was the Prophet. Later they asked: Where is your cousin? I replied:

I do not know. Then they beat me so much that I was almost dead.”

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone except me who when Amr-ibn-Abdud stepped forward and cried: “Isn’t there any warrior?” I was prepared to face him

while you all trembled. The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) said:

“Where are you going?” I said: “I am going to face this miscreant.” He said: “He is Amr-ibn-Abdud!” I said: “If he is Amr-ibn-Abdud then. I too am Ali- ibn-Abi Talib.” The Prophet uttered the same sentence once again and I replied

the same. Thereafter, he said: “You may go in the name of Allah.” – When I approached him, he inquired: “Who are you.” I replied: “Ali-ibn-Abi Talib.” He said: “A honorable resemblance. Turn back ‘O cousin; there existed a friendship

between me and your father and (so) I do not like to see you die.” I said: “O Amr, verily you have sweared by Allah that if someone gives you the option in three practices, you would choose one of them.” He said:

“What are they?” I said: “Bear witness that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger and confess that whatever he says is from Allah.” He said: “What is the alternative?” I said: “Return back.” He said: “I swear by

Allah that I shall never give opportunity to the Quraish women to spread this news that I have turned my back to you.” I said: “Then descend down and engage in a battle with me.” He replied: “Ali! I shall accept this one.” So he

descended. Two blows were exchanged between us. His blow hit my shield and then my head. I striked him such that his legs got severed and Allah killed him through me. Is there anyone amongst you who has done the like of this?!

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah tell me, when Marhab stepped forward end said: “I am he whose mother has named him as Marhab. I am a well experienced champion armed from head to foot. I attack, sometimes with the spear and sometimes with the sword,” was there anyone amongst you who dared to face him except me?!

He striked at me and I striked at him too. On his head was a covering carved from stone since, his head was so big that his helmet did not fit his head. I split open this covering and my sword hit his head killing him. Is there anyone amongst you who has performed such a feat?!

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you for whom Allah has revealed upon His Messenger (S.A.W.A.) the verse of purity: “Allah only desires to keep away the impurity from you, O people of the House! and to purify you a (thorough) purifying.?!” Then, the Prophet (S.A.W.A.) took a cloak and covered me under it along with Fatemah, Hassan and Hussein (A.S.) thereafter, he said: “O my Lord, these are my Ahl’ul-bayt. Keep away every impurity from them and purify them.”

They replied: ‘We swear by Allah, No!

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you except me to whom the

Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) has said: “I am the leader of Adam’s sons and you ‘O Ali are the leader of the Arabs?”

They replied: “We swear by Allah, No.”

He said: ‘By Allah, is there anyone amongst you to whom the Messenger of

Allah (S.A.W.A.) has said the same as what he has said to me: “In the morn, I was given permission to innovate. Then, I did not ask anything from my Lord but that lie granted my wish. And I did not ask anything for myself but that I asked the same for you too and it was granted.” Then I said: “All praise and Glory is for Allah.”

They replied: “We swear by Allah, No.”

He said: By Allah, is there anyone amongst you to who the Messenger of

Allah (S.A.W.A.) has addressed these words which he uttered to me: “Verily your friends are paradise and your enemies in hell.”

They replied: “We swear by Allah, No.”

At the end of this argumentation Ali (A.S.) said: “O Lord, Thou be a witness.”8


A Selection of the Second Argumentaion


Sulaim-ibn-Qais Halali an eminent disciple of the holy Prophet’s companions says: “During Uthman’s Caliphate, I saw Ali (A.S.) discussing and debating

with a group about knowledge and chastity in the Prophet’s mosque.”

They were arguing and pointing out about the Quraish their virtues, previous record, migration and whatever the Messenger of Allah (A.S.) had uttered about


8-Narrated from ‘Khesal’ 2/553-563. Allama Amini has brought portions of this argumentation in his glorious book ‘Al-Ghadir’ Vol. 1/159-163 from the Sunni books and has noted down such references as: ‘Manaqib- Kharazmi’. ‘Faraed-us-Semtain’ by Hamauini, ‘As-Sawaeq al-Muharaqa’ by Ibn-Hajar and ‘Shahr Nahjul- Balagha’ by Ibne Abil-Hadid. Similarly, the same has been narrated in length in ‘Ehtejaj’ by Tabarsi and ‘Bihar al-Anwar’.


the virtues of Quraish such as: “The leaders are from the Quraish” and “The people are followers and the Quraish the leaders of the Arabs.”

And in the ring there were two hundred men. Amongst them were Ali-ibn- Abi Talib, Sa’d-ibn-Abi Waqqas, Abdur-Rahman-ibn-Auf, Talha, Zubair, Miqdad, Hashimibn-Utbah, Ibne-Omar, Hassan, Hussein, Ibne-Abbass,

Muhammad-ibn-Abi Bakr, Abdullah-ibn-Jafar, Abi Ibne Ka’b, Zaid-ibn-Thabit, Abu-Ayyub Ansari, Abul-Haitham ibn-Taiyahan, Muhammad-ibn-Salmah, – Qais-ibn-Sa’d-ibn-Ebadah, Jabir-ibn-Abdullah, Anas-ibn-Malik, Zaid-ibn- Arqam, Abdullah-ibn-Abi Aufi, Abu-Laili, his son Abdur Rahman and a

handsome young slave who stood besides him.

This debate lasted from morning till afternoon and Uthaman was in his house unaware of their talks about him. Ali-ibn-Abi Talib kept silent. Neither he nor

the people from his household uttered anything. So, the people turned towards him and said: ‘O Abul-Hassan, what has kept you silent? Then, he said: ‘There remains no tribe which has not commemorated the grace and uttered the truth.

‘O the group of Quraish and Ansars, tell me, for whose sake Allah has bestowed this grace? Is it because of you, your tribe and your progeny or for someone other than you?

They replied: “Allah has bestowed this grace not because of ourselves, our tribe and progeny but rather for the sake of Muhammad (S.A.W.A.) and his clan.”

He said: ‘You have spoken the truth, ‘O the group of Quraish and Ansars!

Didn’t you know that whatever goodness you face in this world as well as the hereafter is only due to us Ahl’ul-bayt and nobody else?!…

He said: ‘By Allah, do you know where this was revealed:

“Obey Allah and His messenger and those vested with authority amongst you.” And where this was revealed:

“Do not take as your friends anyone but Allah, His messenger and the

believers.” The people asked: ‘Does “friendship with believers” refer to some special group of believers or covers all the believers in general?

So, Allah Exalted be He, ordered His Prophet (S.A.W.A.) to introduce to the

people the governors of His affairs and explain to them the vicegerency just as he has explained to them the prayers, the alms tax and the fasting; and inform the people about my vicegerency after the ‘Ghadir Khum’. Thereafter, the Prophet addressed the people as such: “O people, Allah has sent me a message that has tightened my chest and I know that the people will refute me. Thus, Allah has commanded me to convey this message to you or else He would chastise me.”

Then, the Prophet (S.A.W.A.) ordered for the establishment of the congregation prayers. Then, he delivered a sermon and said: ‘O people! Do you know that Allah is my Master and I am the master of the believers “and I am more worthy than them?” They said: “Yes, O the Messenger of Allah.”

He said: “O Ali stand! And I stood.” He said: “of whomsoever I am his master then, Ali is his master too. “O Allah, love the one who loves Ali and bear enmity with the one who bears enmity with him.”

Salman stood on his feet and said: “What kind of vicegerency?” He said: ‘A

vicegerency like my vicegerency upon the one whom I am more worthy. Thereafter, the Exalted Allah revealed as such: “Today, I have perfected for you

your religion…” The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) proclaimed Allah’s Greatness and said: “Allah-o-Akbar!” the completion of my prophet hood and the perfection of Allah’s religion is only after Ali’s vicgerency after me.’

Abu-Bakr and Omar stood on their feet and said: ‘O the Messenger of Allah! Does this verse exclusively refer to All? He said: “Yes, it refers to Ah and my legatees till the Day of Judgment.” They said: “O the Messenger of Allah!

Mention them to us.” He said: ‘Ali, (who is) my brother, my vizier, my heir, my legatee and my vicegerent amongst my nation and the custodian of every believer after me.

Then, my son Hassan, then Hussein followed by nine more from the progeny of Hussein. They are with the Quran and the Quran is with them. They shall not separate from it and the Quran (too) shall not separate from them until they will

meet me at the fountain in paradise.” They said: “O Allah! Indeed we have heard this and we bear witness to whatever Thou have uttered.” Some or them said: “We had memorized most of what Thou has uttered: not all. Those who have memorized all are the best and the most virtuous amongst us.”

Ali (A.S.) said: “You have spoken the truth. All the people are not alike in memorization. By Allah, I ask those who have memorized this from the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.) to stand firm and convey this message (to


Zaid-ibn-Arqam, Burah-ibn-Aazeb, Salman, Abu-Zar, Miqdad and Ammar stood on their feet and said: “We bar witness that we have memorized the

Prophet’s utterances; that he was on the pulpit and you were besides him while he uttered these words:”

“O people! Allah has commanded me to appoint for you a leader and

Upholder after me: my legatee and my vicegerent: the one whose obedience has been made obligatory by Allah in His Book: the one whose obedience is fixed on par with my obedience and the one whose love has been commanded by Allah. I referred to Allah due to fear from the evil-sayings of the hypocrites and their refutation but He warned me to deliver the message or else He would chastise me.”

O people! Allah has commanded you in His Book to establish the prayers and has expressed this matter for you. He has also commanded you the zakat,

fasting and pilgrimage and has expressed these to you and I have explained them to you. He commanded you the Wilayah and I bear witness that the

Wilayah is exclusively meant for him (Ali). Then, he placed his hand on Ali-

ibn-Abi Talib and said: ‘Then, for his son and then for the legatees who will be from their progeny. Neither they shall separate from the Quran nor shall the Quran separate from them until they meet me at the Fountain. (In paradise)

“O people! I have shown you your place of refuge as well as your leader, master and guide after me. He is my brother, Ali-ibn-Abi Talib. His position

amongst you is the same as my position amongst you. Follow him in religion and obey him in all the affairs. Verily, with him is all the divine knowledge and wisdom which Allah has bestowed upon me. Thus, you should solve your problems and acquire knowledge from him and his legatees. Do not try to teach

them or take precedence over them and do not disobey them as they are with the truth and truth is with them. They shall never separate from the truth and the truth shall never separate from them.” (Al-Ghadir 1/163-166)

* * *

The discourse in brief is the same which Allah, Exalted be He, addressed His

Prophet at the time of his ascension to the heaven:


ﺖﻴﺿﺭ ﱐﺎﹶﻓ ﻞﻛﻮﺘﹶﻓ ﻲﹶﻠﻋ ﻭ ﺪﺒﻋﺎﹶﻓ ﻱﺎﻳﺍ ﻭ ﻊﻀﺧﺎﹶﻓ ﻲِﻠﹶﻓ ﻚﺑﺭ ﺎﻧﺃ ﻭ ﻱﺪﺒﻋ ﺖﻧﺃ


!ﺪﻤﺤﻣ ﺎﻳ”


ﻡﺎﻣﺍ ﻭ ﻱِﺩﺎﺒِﻋ ﻲﻠﻋ ﱵﺠﺣ ﻮﻬﻓﹶ


ﹾﺎﺑﺎﺑ ﻭ ﹾﺔﻔﹶ ﻴﻠِﺧ ﻲِﻠﻋ ﻚﻴﺧِ


ﺄِﺑ ﻭ ﺎﹾﻨﻴﺒﻧ ﻭ ﹾﻻ ﻮﺳﺭ ﻭ ﺎﹾﺒﻴِﺒﺣ ﻭ ﹾﺍﺪﺒﻋ ﻚِﺑ


ﺪﹶﻘﻨﺗ ﻭ ﲏﻳﺩ ﻡﺎﻘﻳ ِﻪِﺑ ﻭ ﰊﺰﺣ ﻦِﻣ ﻥﺎﻄﻴﺸﻟﺍ ﺏﺰﺣِ


ﺰﻴﻤﻳ ِﻪِﺑ ﻭ ﻲﺋﺍﺪﻋﺃ ﻦِﻣ ﻲﺋﺎﻴﻟﻭﺃ ﻑﺮﻌﺗ ِﻪِﺑ ﻲﻘِ ﻠﺨِﻟ


ﻲﺋﺎﻣﺃ ﻭ ﻱﺩﺎﺒِﻋ ﻢﺣﺭﺃ ِﻩِﺪﻟﻭ ﻦِﻣ ﺔﻤﺋﻷﺎﺑ ﻭ ِﻪِﺑ ﻭ ﻚِﺑﻭ ﻱﺩﻭﺪﺣ ﹸﻆﻔﺤﺗﻭ ﻲﻣﺎﻜﺣﺃ ﺮﻬﻃﹸﺃ ِﻪِﺑ ﻭ ﻱﺪِﻴﺠﻤﺗ ﻭ ﻱﲑﺒﻜﺗ ﻭ ﻲﺴﻳﺪِ ﻘﺗﻭ ﻲِﻠﻴِﻠﻬﺗ ﻭ ﻲﺤﻴﺒِﺴﺘِﺑ ﻲﺿﺭﺃ ﺮﻤﻋﺃ ﻢﹸﻜﻨِﻣ ِﻢﺋﺎﻘﻟﺎﺑ ﻭ


ﻭ ﺎﻴﻠﻌﻟﺍ ﱵﻤﻠﻛ ﻭ ﻲﻠﻔﺴﻟﺍ ﺍﻭﺮﹶﻔﹶﻛ ﻦﻳﺬﻟﺍ ﹶﺔﻤِﻠﹶﻛ ﹸﻞﻌﺟﺃ ِﻪِﺑ ﻭ ﻲﺋﺎﻴﻟﻭﺃ ﺎﻬﹸﺛﺭِ ﻭﹸﺃ ﻭ ﻲﺋﺍﺪﻋﺃ ﻦِﻣ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ


ﻭ ﺭﺍﺮﺳﻷﺍ ﻲﹶﻠﻋ ﺮِﻬﺿﺍﹸ


ﻩﺎﻳﺍ ﻭ ﱵﺌﻴﺸﲟ ﺮﺋﺎﺧﺬﻟﺍ ﻭ


ﺯﻮﻨﻜﻟﺍ ﺮِﻬﺿﺃﹸِ ﻪِﺑﻭ ﻱِﺩﻼِﺑ ﻭ ﻱِﺩﺎﺒِﻋ ﻲِﻴﺣﹸﺃ ِﻪِﺑ


ﻭ ﹾﺎﻘﺣ ﻲﻴِﻟﻭ ﻚﻟﺍﺫ ﲏﻳﺩ


ﻥِ ﻼﻋِﺍ ﻭ ﻱﺮﻣﺃ ﺫﺎﻔﻧِﺍ ﻲﻠﻋ ﻩﺪﻳﺆﺘﻟِ


ﱵﻜﺋﻼﲟ ﻩﺪﻣِ ﺃﹸ ﻭ




ﺮِ ﺋﺎﻤﻀﻟﺍ




ﻱِﺩﺎﺒِﻋ ﻱِﺪﻬﻣ


“O Muhammad! You are My slave and I am your Lord. So, be humble before Me. Worship Me only and trust Me (only). Verily, I am pleased with your servitude, friendship, and prophet hood and messenger ship as well as with Ali, your brother’s successor ship. Thus, he is the plea over My slaves and the leader of My creatures. By his means, My friend will be distinguished from My enemies and the group of Satan will be separated from My group. By his means, My religion shall be established, My ordinance implemented and My bounds safeguarded. I shall shower My Mercy on My slaves and slave-maids for the sake of you, him (i.e. Ali) and the leaders from his progeny.

And, through your Qaem, I shall make the earth to flourish by glorifying,

praising, (by citing: ﷲﺍ ﻻﺍ ﻪﻟﺍ

ﻻ) sanctifying, magnifying (by citing: ﱪﻛﺍ

ﷲﺍ) and

extolling Me. By him, I shall cleanse the earth of My enemies and will make My friends inherit the earth. By his means, I shall degrade the disbeliever’s creed and raise high My creed; and by his means, I shall enliven My creatures and My cities; and by his means, I shall reveal the riches and the buried treasures. And as per My will, I shall divulge My secrets and mysteries to him. I shall assist him through the Angels so that they act as his helpers in the implementation of My affairs and the proclamation of My religion, truly, My friend is he, and truly he is the Mahdi of My slaves.” (Klamat al-Allah /121 narrated from A’mali of Saduq)



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