The 8th Almond Blossom – Full text

The 8th Almond Blossom


Fariba Kalhour






Naba cultural organization



‏، ف‍ری‍ب‍ا،۱۳۴۰ ک‍ل‍ه‍ر

Kalhor, Fariba : سرشناسه


‏ The 8th almond blossom‏‫‭/ Fariba Kalhor. : ‏‫‭ عنوان و نام پديدآور

‏ Tehran‏‫‭: Naba Cultural Organization‏‫‭, 2008‏‫‭=1387. : ‏‫‭ مشخصات نشر

‏ فیپا : وضعیت فهرست نویسی

انگلیسی : يادداشت

‏ ایتز آمند… : آوانویسی عنوان

‏ ع‍ل‍ی‌ ب‍ن‌ م‍وس‍ی‏‫، (ع)‬، ام‍ام‌ ه‍ش‍ت‍م‌، ۱۵۳؟ – ۲۰۳ق. — داستان : موضوع

‏ BP۴۷/۳۵‏‫‭/ک۸ ‮الف‬۹ ۱۳۸۷ : ‏‫‭ رده بندی کنگره

‏۲۹۷/۹۵۷ : ‏‫‭ رده بندی دیویی

‏ ۱‎۶‎۲‎۲‎۴‎۴‎۲ : ‎ شماره کتابشناسی ملی





















The 8th Almond Blosssom

Author: Fariba Kalhour

No. of Copies: 2000 / First Edition: 2009

Address: 3rd Floor, No. 26, Adibi Alley,

Shabestari St., Shariati Ave., Tehran, Iran

Address: P. O. Box: 15655-377/ Tehran. Iran

















This woman is “Pasandeh”. She is moving round the almond tree freely and lightly just like a butterfly; she touches the blossoms of the tree and says, “I am Pasandeh.” “Pasandeh” is my name. But I had another name once! Oh God what was my name?

“Did she really forget her previous name, or she got so used to her new name, that she really didn’t want to recall her former name?”

Almond blossoms were swaying in the breeze. She touched one of the blossoms with her old and trembling fingers and said “How soft and fragile! As if, wind had turned itself into a blossom. It is only 3 months that you are planted, and you are already in full blooms!” Pasande said to the tree.

A sound came out of the sky. She raised her head and watched the sky that was entirely blue and bright. The scarf on her head slid down to reveal a bunch of white hair. A white bird appeared from far distance in the sky, and landed on the almond tree and started singing.

The breeze was blowing and fluttering the bird’s feathers and Pasande’s white hair. Sunlight spread over the bird and Pasande. She said eagerly: “Lucky you the sun, bird and the wind. You can go and look at wherever and whomever you wish. But look at me. So old I am; Old, feeble, and captivated on the earth.”

A little girl’s voice said from the top of the stairs of the balcony: “Every morning that I get up, I hear your voice talking to the tree!”

This was Khadijeh. She was the 10 year old granddaughter of Pasandeh, who came to stay a few days with her grandmother. Khadije walked down the short steps. The breeze passed the scent of the almond blossoms, through the little girl’s hair. Pasande looked at her beautiful eyes and said: “How beautiful you are my little girl, as beautiful as the almond blossoms.”

Khadijeh: “What were you talking to the tree?”

Pasandeh answered: “Everything! My dear little girl, a miracle has happened in my life.”

Khadijeh touched the slim tree and said:

“This tree is the miracle of your life. Isn’t it?”

Pasandeh nodded and put her ear onto the tree and said: “listen! This tree is breathing just like us. Its chest is moving up and down.”

Khadijeh also put her ear to the tree and after a while desperately said “I can not hear anything.”

Pasandeh said: “You will; one day you will hear. When you are old enough to realize that it is very rare to have miracles in ones life, then you can hear this tree’s breathing. It’s as though there is the Imam’s heart inside this tree. Listen!”

Khadijeh smiled at her and said: “I am happy that I was here that day. I met Imam, and now I know what you are talking about.”

Pasandeh: “I swear that Imam had the smell of almond blossoms. When he took his first step into this house, it was as if 8 almond trees grew here in my house. It was so real that I could not believe that no tree had ever grown, when I turned my head.”

Khadijeh: I met Imam; he dug the ground with his hands, and planted the young tree.

Pasandeh smiled and looked at the bird, and then at khadijeh’s long and silky hair. “And you watered the tree”, Said Pasandeh.

Khadijeh: “Yes! I washed Imam’s dusty hands. You are right grandmother; he had the smell of Almond.”

“Smell of God.” Pasandeh whispered to herself.

Khadijeh watched the white bird that was flying over the tree and said, “Grand mum, I am a little girl. I don’t want to forget all that happened. I don’t want to forget Imam’s smell, his dusty hands and his sad eyes. I always want to remember everything.”

Pasandeh sat under the tree. She liked the silent and peaceful shadow of the leaves and blossoms.

Khadijeh sat down beside Pasandeh and started playing with the folds of her skirt.

Pasandeh said: “From the day Imam Reza (p.b.u.h.) entered this house, I cannot live without dreaming him. I always dream that he is opening door and bringing in a bunch of almond blossoms. The air is filled with the scent of blossoms. When I wake up, I can still smell the scent.”

Khadijeh said playfully, “So the scent that I smell every morning is the smell of the tree you had been dreaming of!”

Pasandeh patted the girl’s silky hair and said “That is the smell of my expectation. Expectation to see Imam again.”

“Is Imam sad in your dreams as well?” Khadije asked.

Pasandeh replied, “He is always sad.”

Imam is sad because he was passing the hardest days of his life in Mamoon’s palace. From the day that Mamoon took power, some of the Muslims opposed him, claiming that it was Imam Reza who has the right to govern, since he was an innocent Imam, who knew how to establish a just state.

Mamoon, who was afraid of public revolution, consulted his minister, and finally decided to invite Imam Reza from Medina to Marv, and appoint him as his successor, in order to satisfy the Muslims, and quiet down refusals and disorders.

It was an enchanting journey from Medina to Marv. During every stop in towns or villages, people gathered to welcome Imam and requested him to say some hadith (traditions).

Imam Reza then entered Nishabour city on a litter covered with Jasmines. Many people wanted to see him, and hear his voice. When the attendants pulled aside curtains of the litter, people cried with happiness: “Tell us a hadith (story) about the Prophet Mohammad, or about your noble forefathers. We want to keep it as a memory of you.” The people asked Imam Reza.

Imam Reza then narrated the most interesting tradition he had ever heard. He heard this tradition from his father, and his father from the father and… the Messenger (p.b.u.h.) from Gabriel.




God told Gabriel,


“The phrase there is no God but Allah is the gate to my castle. Whoever says and believes in the, has entered my castle, and who enters my castle will be safe from my punishment.”

The litter was about to leave, that Imam added, “And there are certain conditions; the important one is acceptance of my leadership and guardianship; for I am the innocent Imam, and son of the Messenger.”

At that day 24000 persons wrote down this hadith (narrative) in order to keep it for the future generations.

Imam was tired. He needed somewhere to rest. People were trying to invite Imam to his house.

An old woman who was standing beside the door of an old and shabby house, holding her granddaughter’s hand in her’s. She was waiting to see Imam.

“Would it be possible that Imam comes to my home?” She thought.

The little girl squeezed her grandmother’s hand excitedly and said, “I wish Imam came to our home.”

The men who surrounded Imam were strong and wouldn’t let the old woman to get closer to Imam.

The old woman said to herself: “My home is very old; he would never accept my invitation.”

Imam opened his way through the crowd towards the old woman. Having seen Imam’s face, the old woman felt young again. The little girl smiled and hid herself behind her grandmother.

Imam whispered something and entered the house, whose owner was later named Pasandeh (selected) afterwards, as Imam selected her plain house for his short stay.

Khadijeh: “There are 3 more days left until Eyd Fitr.”

Pasandeh: “And the branches of the tree are full of almonds.”

Khadijeh: “I wish we could go to Marve and take some gifts to Imam. A gift that could make him happy. It is in fact developed from his gift to us.”

A mysterious light brightened the old woman’s eyes. She pulled Khadijeh towards herself and asked “What gift? What do you mean?”

Khadijeh, whose lips were dry and pale because she was fasting, said: “Almonds, a handful of almonds, an armful of almonds, or maybe a lot of almonds.”

Pasandeh said, “How nice hearted you are my little girl. But the world is not as good as you thought it to be. Imam Reza is already a Prince. He is Mamoon’s successor. It is not easy to meet him. He is being guarded by plenty of guards and agents.”

Khadijeh became sad. She put her head on her knees and began to think.

The white bird was watching her through the leaves of the tree. Pasandeh was walking in the yard impatiently.

Khadijeh suddenly started and said: “If we send him a message; if we remind him that a little girl washed his dusty hands; if we remind him that a kind grandmother brought a towel for him to dry his hands; if we remind him that he had planted a young tree in our house; and if we remind him that he selected our house to stay, still would it be impossible to meet him?”

Pasandeh smiled and walked towards Khadijeh, who was sitting under the tree. Khadijeh stood up. Pasandeh hugged her and said, “In this case, my dear little girl Imam would definitely invite us to his house, even if Mamoon is personally against this reception.”

Khadije asked: “Then when….”

The door bell interrupted her. Somebody was knocking the door anxiously. Khadijeh opened the door. A woman rushed into the yard and went towards Pasandeh and cried: “Help me. My son is dying.”

Trying to sooth her, pasandeh said: “Calm down. Calm down…what happened to your son?”

She said: “My son is ill.”

Pasandeh: “I know…I heard about it before. Hasn’t he become better yet?”

“No, he has got worst. Doctors do not have much hope in result of treatments. Then she passed out in Pasandeh’s arms.”

Pasandeh asked Khadijeh to bring some water. Khadijeh who was bewildered at woman’s behavior, came to herself and brought some water. When Pasandeh tried to give her water, she opened her eyes and refused: No thanks, I do not drink, I am on fast. My son is ill. Doctors say there is no hope.

Pasandeh consoled her and said, “Don’t say that. Don’t lose your hope.”

The woman said: “I won’t. Last night I dreamed that this almond tree had grown so big that its branches were creeping over the other houses. The tree became as big as the world and its branches crept over every house. How do you explain this Pasandeh? I dreamed that my son held up his hand, and picked an almond and ate it, and then another one, and another one after that. When he ate the 8th almond he got well; stood up and mounted on his wooden horse, and started riding his wooden horse in the yard. Do you believe it Pasandeh? My son is at the same age as Khadijeh. He recovered in my dream by this tree. Can you believe it?”

Weeping happiness tears Pasandeh replied: “It’s better to say that he was cured by Imam Reza.”

The woman who looked more hopeful, then requested “Do me a favor Pasandeh, and give me some almonds; just as many as is necessary for my son’s recovery.”

Pasandeh said: “This tree does not belong to me. It belongs to him; to the whole world. Didn’t you see in your dream that every one had a branch of it in his house?”

And then Pasandeh turned to Khadijeh and said: “My dear little almond picker, pick almonds as much as you can; and you unfortunate woman bring your skirt. I am sure that there is a meaning for your dream. Dream of a faithful woman like you at these last nights of Ramazan must have a meaning. Come closer and take remedy for your son; his name is Ahmad. Isn’t it?”

“Yes, I myself selected his name. I wish my Ahmad gets well.” The woman said.

Khadijeh was picking Almonds hastily. The white bird also was pecking an almond and dropped it into the woman’s lap.

Pasandeh struck a few almonds with her stick onto the ground and smiled.

“My son will be all right. I made a vow that I would take my son to Marv to stand behind Imam in the prayer ceremony, if he becomes well.” The mother said.

Pasandeh leaned on her stick and asked: “What prayer?”

The woman replied: “Prayer of Eyd-e-Fitr1.” Don’t you know? Mamoon asked Imam to perform Eyd-e-Fitr prayer.”

Pasandeh looked at Khadijeh. And the white bird looked at both of them. Then the woman said: “That is enough. If my dream had a meaning, then 8 almonds should be enough.”

Pasandeh mumbled: “8th almonds means in the name of 8th Imam.” Then looked at Khadijeh again, whose lips were dry but smiling.

The woman wished God blessings for them and left quickly.

Khadijeh said: “Did you hear?”

Pasandeh replied: “What do you mean?

I am talking about the prayer of Eid-e-fitr.” Khadijeh answered.

The white bird came down and landed on Pasandeh’s stick without any fear.

Fascinated by the white bird Pasandeh said: “God has opened the way before us Khadijeh. We will go to Marv.”

And then some raped almonds fell to the ground near her. The white bird flied away from the stick and sat on khadijeh’s shoulder.

Pasandeh suggested: “Let us think that this white bird is Imam’s messenger, who came here to invite us to Marv.”

Khadijeh said: “What a sweet idea?” And then turned towards the bird and said, “We accept invitation of our lord, and would come to Marv.”

For a few days Mamoon’s palace was crowded by couriers. Like white and black birds, couriers were coming and going between Mamoon’s palace and Imam Reza house.

Imam Reza took the messege to Mamoon, “Imam says I have accepted to be the prince provided that I don’t get involved in governmental affairs.”

Mamoons black courier took this message to Imam Reza (p.b.u.h): “Mamoon says that. I just want to assure people that you are a prince. I want them to realize your value and importance.”

Imam Reza said, All right. I will perform Eyd-e-Fitr Prayer. But there is a condition.

Mamoon laughed and thought, “Does he have any other choice than obeying my orders?”

Imam Reza said, “To perform Eyd-e-Fitr prayer, I want to leave my house in the same way as the Prophet Mohammad, and Imam Ali did.”

Mamoon keeps on laughing and send a message to him, “It is up to you, you may leave your house in any way you wish. You just perform Eyd-e-Fetr prayer.”

A day before Eyd-e-Fitr, after the call for prayer(recite of Azan) two women, a little girl and a boy, together with a young man, trailing two white horses, left Nishabour city, and started a journey towards the endless desert. They were Pasandeh, Khadijeh, Ahmad who had just recovered from a long illness and his parents. Ahmad was walking ahead and was trailing one of the white horses. His mother said: “Mount the horse my son. You have just come out of the bed.”

“Listen to your mother Son of the Almond” Pasandeh addressed the boy. “It’s better for you.”

But Ahmad was walking ahead, turning back some times, laughing without any reason and some times he was walking so fast that made his mother panic. She was trying to stop him from running so fast, but his father who was calm and patient soothed her down and said, “No… Let him show his regained health.”

Mother became calm and watched her son who had just recovered from an illness; but he was quick and strong. Khadijeh, who was walking along the soft and hot sands of the desert was listening to these conversations silently and was thinking about the name grandmother has selected for Ahmad, “Son of the almond”.

Father said: “God willingly we shall arrive in Marv tomorrow before prayer ceremony.”

Mother said: “We should not lower our speed, otherwise…”

Pasandeh said: “Don’t worry; we will arrive in time. It is not really a very long way to Marv.” And dug her stick in soft soils as she continued walking.

Father said to Khadijeh: “Why don’t you get on the horse? You must be very tired.”

Khadijeh accepted and mounted the horse. It was then when she saw the white bird appearing from the distance.

She said: “The bird grandmother, the bird…”

The white bird landed on the horse’s head to rest.

Khadijeh said: “Now you and me can talk.”

It was night, and Imam was alone; Alone and sad. From the day that he was informed that Mamoon was not going to change his mind, Imam became sadder. He did not like to get involved in governmental affairs. If he was performing Eyd-e-Fetr prayer, Mamoon would have told people that Imam Reza had recognized his government; while Mamoon’s government was not based on truth and justice; and Imam accepted to be prince just because Mamoon had threatened him with death. He said to Imam Reza, “If you do not accept to be my successor (prince) I will cut your head.”

Tomorrow was Eyd-e-Fetr and he broke his fast and prayed all the night.

Pasandeh said: “O, my dear! Say there is no god but Allah.”

Khadijeh repeated: “There is no god but Allah.”

Pasandeh said: “Now that you said this witness, and you have already accepted Velaya (Leadership) of Imam Reza you are in God’s Castel. Close your eyes my dear girl, and imagine yourself in God’s castle.”

Khadijeh closed her eyes. The sky was full of flying almonds. The white bird was flying from side to side in the desert and then landed on her hands.

Pasandeh said: “Now you are safe from God’s punishment here in God’s castle.”

Ahmad asked: “Does God have a castle like the kings, like Mamoon for example?”

Pasandeh replied: “Yes, God owns a castle, but it is different from the kings’ castle. You may enter the castle of a king to get imprisoned and tortured, but you enter God’s castle to be safe and secure.”

Ahmad’s mother said: “There is only one God, and that’s Allah.”

Ahmad’s father whispered from the other side of the fire: “There is only one God and that’s Allah.”

The two white horses, fastened to a tree nearby whinnied softly.

Father said: “Horses are scared.” His wife got uneasy. Pasandeh smiled and said: “No problem. Aren’t the horses allowed to say there is only one God, and that’s Allah?”


Khadijeh said: “but horses…”

Pasandeh replied: “We all hear. The entire world hears, and whoever and whatever can hear will reply. Everybody replies in his own way.”

And then she addressed the horses and said: “Do you believe that there is only one God and that is Allah? If so, you are welcome to God’s castle.”

Ahmad looked at the white bird that was sleeping in Khadije lap and said; “Look this bird is sleeping in a safe castle without saying there is only one God, and that’s Allah.”

Pasandeh laughed and petted his soft and black hair and said: “You have become witty my little boy!”

Suddenly Ahamd said: “I want almonds.”

His mother replied: “If you eat them all, there would be no almonds left for Imam!”

Pasandeh put her hand in her bag, and gave a handful of almonds to Ahmad and said: “Eat them my dear boy! If I were these almonds, I should have liked to go into your stomach. It is better for them to go in a happy stomach, than being in the bag of an old woman like me.”


The father stole a look inside the bag of almonds. Pasandeh offered him: “Do you want almonds young man?”

Father got embarrassed and replied: “No. No… I just wanted to be sure that there are enough almonds left for Imam.”

Pasandeh gave him a handful of almonds and said: “There are enough almonds. You don’t worry. Imam likes those who like almonds! Eat son of almond! Don’t you want almonds khadijeh? What about you aunt? Do you want almonds?

Ahmad put an almond in his mouth and took a piece of burning wood from the fire and started running in the desert.

His father asked: “What is inside these almonds? He became so energetic after eating them.” Pasandeh replied: “There is love inside these almonds. The love that our son has in his heart for his Imam. That’s all.”

And then Pasandeh looked at the sky. Ramazan (month) was over, and the following day was Eyd-e-Fitr.

Khadijeh looked at her grandmother. She was able to select the best names for everything. A grandmother who greets the tree; who makes friendship with the sun; who knows how to talk to the birds; and appreciates holy months.


“Goodbye the best of sacred and holy months… goodbye Ramazan.”

The white bird closed his eyes and fell asleep and the fire was glowing warmly there.

Everybody was there. They were waiting on the roofs and in the streets. They were waiting for Imam, to come out of his house. They wanted Imam to conduct the prayer ceremony, but they didn’t want him to be forced to do so by Mamoon.

Someone said: “He will not come for the ceremony. He agreed to be his successor, provided that Mamoon will not force him into politics.”

Someone else said: “He will come; we will see, Mamoon would make Imam to perform the prayer, in the same way that he forced him to become his successor.”

Waiting, waiting and waiting; the soldiers, guards, and army officers and generals were waiting while sitting on the back of their horses.

Time was passing, but there was no sign of Imam. That big door would not open, and Imam had not shown his shining face. It was still dusk; sun had not risen, and the sky was full of gray pigeons.

Someone said, to himself, “That I will feed all these birds if I could see Imam. Come out our Imam.”

Nevertheless, Imam did not come out of his house, until the 5 tired passengers arrived.

“My greetings to Imam of almond blossoms” Pasandeh, at the moment she arrived at Marv.

Imam came out. He was dressed in a white dress, and had a white turban on his head. He had a stick in his hand; affection and love in his looks.

Everybody cried in happiness. Imam took a few steps towards the crowd and then stopped.

Khadijeh: “He saw us… one moment, only one moment he glanced at me, and I’m sure he remembered me.”

Ahmad; “Be quiet…just look and remember whatever you see. We will tell each other what we saw”.

Imam ordered his attendants: “Repeat whatever I do”

And then he moved forward again.

Ahmad’s father: “Imam is barefoot”.

Pasandeh: “My greetings to you, who follow our Prophets’ tradition”.

The white bird flied away from passande’s stick towards Imam, and everybody saw the white bird opened his way through all the gray pigeons, and landed on Imam’s hand.

Ahmad’s mother started sobbing. Khadijeh remembered the day when she had poured out water on Imam’s dusty hands.

Imam stopped walking again and held up his dress to reveal his bare feet.

Ahmad: “I can see Imam’s feet”.

Imam took a few steps, and raised his head up to the sky and said “God is greater than one may think”.

All his attendants followed him and repeated. The crowd said “God is Great”; The sky said, “God is Great”. The soldiers, and the high rank officers of the army impressed by the behavior of Imam, got off their horses, took off their shoes, and followed Imam barefooted.

Ahmad’s mother cried in excitement. The others also started crying. Everybody was crying and saying “God is great”, and Pasandeh was touching the almonds in the bag for the last time.

Mamoon was in his palace. He was pleased and satisfied. What a bright day! I don’t hear the birds flapping around the palace! What is this noise? “God is great”? Are these people of my city shouting “God is great”?

A frightened and terrified guard entered and explained whatever was going on in the town.

Mamoon: “He is doing the same things that Prophet Muhammad and his fathers did. Bring him back. If he goes on with the prayer performance in this way, people will be impressed by him…”

The guard left the palace immediately to reach Imam. Imam was surrounded by people. The guard pulled aside the crowd, and opened his way towards Imam. “Stay away, stay away, and do not disturb Imam!” The Soldier said: But no attention was paid by the people. They surrounded Imam, watching him eagerly.

“O’ Imam, you have the sweet smell of our Prophet.” People said.

The guard sent by Mamoon called the other guards. One… Two… ten… guards finally succeeded to reach Imam. The guard whispered to Imam “You should go back home! It seems that we had troubled you! Please go back home…we will ask the same person who used to perform the prayer ceremony every year, to conduct today’s ceremony”.

Imam put on his shoes, got on his horse and went back to his house. The white bird was sitting on the neck of his horse, going with him.

Pasandeh did not miss the chance, and threw a handful of almonds behind Imam. Pigeons opened their wings. All the people said together “God is greater than what one may think.”

Each one of the almonds became a tree; a tree with so many branches. The town was filled with almonds. The horses’ mane, women’s scarf full of almonds; the earth and the sky were full of almonds. And the little girl and boy, who were running behind Imam’s horse, were the protectors of the Almond trees.






Dr.H. Fereidouni




Edited by


Dr. Alaedin Pazargadi

Table of Contents



Imani Mahdi: the Last Rising Sun and the Promised One of the Nations 5

Imam Mahdi in the Bible ‘ 7

Imam Mahdi in Islamic Sources 11


Reformer and the Single World-Wide Sovereignty from the

Viewpoint of Philosophers 3

The Characteristics of the World Ruler 17

The Biography of Imam Mahdi

The Benefits of the Last Imam 29

The Longevity of Imam Mahdi 31

Longevity and the Bible 35

The Form of His Rising 39

The World after the Rise of Imam Mahdi 41

What is Expectation?



In the Name of God

the Beneficent, the Merciful






We can see the appearance of a reformer in the oldest historic texts, and it is one of the most essential lines of human thought, so it is linked with human history. You will find the expectation of a better future in the culture of various nations, as it is combined with their nature and their intellect, and the more perfect a religion is, the greater is your expectation.


Expectation is an old hope which is propounded to the human communities for a better future by various religions and philosophers. In this field of thought the great messengers of Allah had the biggest role and duty. Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad (A.S) have declared this principle in their decrees, and other great men like Budah, Zoraster etc. have spoken of it, too. It is noticeable that, we can find a very great difference between the reformers in Islam specially in Shiism and in other religions and ideologies1 because in other religions and ideologies, the reformer was (needed) just for a nation or for a limited region. But, in Islamic sources we can find that a reformer has been required for the world and all nations.


If other ideologies have introduced him ambiguously Islam has introduced him with all his characteristics and qualities. If in their culture the reformer belongs to another world, in Islam the Imam and reformer rise from the people to perform many tasks and providing them frequent assistance1 If in other religions a person waiting for the advant of the reformer is free from any responsibility, in Islam the very act of expectation creates a responsibility for that person and for all such believers. The

Hindoos named the reformer “Barahman-CaIa”, the Zoroastrians called him “SaG-Chiant” the Jews named him “Jusha” the Christians call him “Jesus” and “The Son of Man” and finally the Muslims call the reformer “Mahdi”- “Chaem” and Muhammad.






In this chapter we have references from the Bible which can be the evidence of our claim about the reformer:

“For the wicked shall be cut off, but those Who wait for the Lord shall possess the land.”

A psalm of David 37: 9


“The righteous shall possess the land and dwell upon it for ever.”

A psalm of David 37: 29


“In his days may righteousness flourish and peace abound, till the moon be no more; May he have dominion from sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the earth.”

A psalm of David 32:7,8


You can see in other parts of the Old Testament phrases as the following:

“There shall come forth a shoot from the stumps of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of his roots. And the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him the spirit of wisdom and understanding the spirit of counsel and ‘night, the spirit of knowledge and the fear of the Lord.

And his delight shall be in the fear of the Lord.

He shall not judge by what his eyes see, or decide by what his ears hear;

but with righteousness he shall judge the poor,

and decide with equity for the meek of the earth;

and he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth,

and with the breath of his lips he shall slay the wicked.

Righteousness shall be the girdle of his waist,

and faith fullness the girdle of his Loins The wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid,

and the calf and the lion and the fatling together,

and a little child shall lead them.

The cow and the bear shall feed;

their young shall lie down together; and the lion shall eat straw like the ox, The sucking child shall play over the hole of the asp,

and the weaned child shall put his hand on the adder’s den.

Isiah 11: 1-9


In the above good tidings you can expect a day when justice and security will cover the surface of the earth and human -beings live happy and prosperous. In the latter phrases it has been mentioned that the reformer is a “‘Shoot from the stamp of Jesse” and it must be taken into consideration that the “Jesse” means “strong” and Jesse is the father of David, and we Muslims believe that our expected reformer “Imam Mahdi” is the son of Nargess whose great grandfather is David. When you read these characteristics about that day, you can precisely say that our world hasn’t seen such a day, hence you will believe and accept that man will witness these days in the future.


I/we refer to the New-Testament. We will find some good tidings for better days. These are some of the references about this matter.


“When the Son of man comes in his glory. and all the angels with him, then he will sit on his glorious throne.

Before him will be gathered all the nations, and he will separate them one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats”

Matthew 25, 31-33

With a brief glance. the dear reader will find out that the “Son of the man” cannot be Jessus because all these good tidings speak about the future, so it is obvious that the 1’Son of the man” has to come in the future.


“He who conquers and who preserves my work until the end, I will give him power over the nations, and he shall rule them with a rod of iron, as when earthen pots are broken pieces, even as I myself have received power from my Father. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.”

The revelation to John 2: 26-29


It must be actually heard what the spirit says to the churches.


The reformer in the above words can’t b Jesus, because the verbs in this good tiding belong to the future, so we must expect better days for man in the future. We can see that various religions have tried to draw a very nice picture for their followers, and by this drawing, sow seeds of hope in their hearts and minds.






A researcher will surely find many verses in the holy Quran and Islamic traditions about this very important matter which we choose some and mention here:


“O, you who believe! whoever from among you turns back from his religion, then Allah will bring a people, He shall love them and they shall love Him, lowly before the believers, mighty against the unbelievers; they shall strive hard in Allah1 5 way and shall not fear the censure, of any censurer, this is Allah’s grace; He gives it to whom He pleases, and Allah is Ample-giving, Knowing.”

(Quran Maidah 54)

These are many traditions about this verse which explain that this verse is about Imam Mahdi (greeting to him).

“They desire to put out the light of Allah with their mouths, and Allah will not consent save to perfect His Light, though the unbelievers are averse.”

(Quran Baraat 32)


The sixth Imam of Shi’as Imam Sadegh says about this verse, “It is about Imam Mahdi (greeting on him)”:

“And certainly we wrote in the Book after the reminder that (as for) the land, My righteous servants shall inherit it.”

(Quran Anbiya 105)

Our fifth Imam Hazrat Bagher declares after this Verse: “Righteous servants were the followers of Imam Mahdi.”Allah has promised to those of you who believe and do good that He will most certainly make them rulers in the earth, as He made rulers those before them, and that He will most certainly establish for them their religion which He has chosen for them, and that He will most certainly, after their fear, give them security in exchange; they shall serve Me, not associating aught with Me; and whoever is ungrateful after this, these it is who are the transgressors.”

(Quran Nur 55)


Imam Sajjad (the fourth Imam) says that verse was about Mahdi (A S): “And we desired to bestow a favour upon those who were deemed weak in the land, and to make them the Imams, and to make them the Imams, and to make them the heirs.” (Quran Qasas 5)

It is stated by Imam Ah that Allah will rouse Imam Mahdi and he strengthens the weak.

“They desire to put out the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will perfect His light, though the unbelievers may be averse.” (No matter what any people do, Allah will make Islam successful) (Quran Saff 8)


Imam Sadegh (A.S) declares about the above verse this completing of the light of Allah will be achieved by Imam Mahdi (greeting upon him). Certainly there can be found many phrases in Islamic sources about this very important matter, some of which we have mentioned.







Since ancient times, philosophers have proposed some solutions for human communities because of the existence of injustice, cruelty and ferocity in these communities. One of these ways is “Creating a single world-government”


You can find many of these viewpoints in various history books of philosophy, and we mention some of these viewpoints of philosophers in this chapter:

(1) Plato offers ‘Utopia’ as an ideal city for human life which is full of peace and prosperity.

(2) Oscar Wild says, “The Cosmorama map which doesn’t show the ‘Utopia’ hasn’t any value to see because this map has ignored the land on which humanity has descended, so when humanity comes upon such a country he looks around and when he finds a better region he sails his ship to that region.

History of Philosophy By Will Durrant

Oscar Wild says that looking at a map which lacks the ideal country has no value, and the ideal country is a place where humanity has alighted.


(3) Nehru the late Prime-minister of India has a very fine statement, he says:

“The world in which we are living is full of brutality and ferocity. In my opinion human fate is necessary, and this necessity is now greater than ever. We believe that the future is better than now, and we are working for those better days, so we can easily bear the difficulties in our present life.”


The Message of Unesco Magazine

This is a very fine and interesting hope for the future which is declared by Nehru.

(4) We must mention another statement by Rabind ¬Ranat Tagor the Indian poet which is similar to Nehru’s statement.

“Now I don’t commit this crime to lose my hope, and lose my belief in the future of human beings, and think that this failure is the final defeat of humanity. I am looking to the future, and see a future when this great catastrophe ends, history leaves turn over and the sky is illuminated, We do not know; maybe the dawn breaks from the east where the sun rises and at that time human beings can be happy and prosperous.”

You, dear reader, can see that this is a very attractive anticipation for a better future. Tagor says that he was very hopeful of better days

(5) Van Loon says:

“Our world needs people who can hold the helm of the ship of civilization. Such persons ought to be brave and have faith, and must know that mankind is at the start of his way and, so they must guide mankind to the ideal harbour. For this reason they have to know the new ways of sailing. These people should spend some years in the school of time, to manage to reach the front of the ship which is the captain’s place. It is probable that dissatisfied sailors will not obey them and may even kill them, but at the end the great captain will bring the ship to its destination and human beings will consider them as great captains.”

Man’s Story By Hendrick Van Loon

As you see Van Loon states that we need a captain who can guide the ship of mankind to a safe and ideal harbour.


Toynby, the historian and philosopher speaks about a single world government: “The only way for peace and saving human beings is the constitution of a unique world government and prohibition of atomic weapons.


He said these sentences in the peace conference in New York. Toynby confesses that the only person for saving man is a reformer who can guide human beings all over the world.


Of course he doesn’t speak of the characteristics of the reformer, but everybody knows that the constitution of a single world government needs a leader. But as to who can be the leader of this government, he can’t say anything, We will however speak about the reformer and his characteristics later on.


One of the most important confessions belongs to Sartre who has been famous in our time and is the founder of the Existantialism. He says, “To create real social understanding, everybody has to regard his neighbour as his neighbour regards him, and this is not possible now, but in my opinion when sentimental, economic and cultural variations occur in the people, this becomes possible, a single world government.”

Jean Paul Sartre in the book

“What I am”



him, and this is not possible now, but in my opinion when sentimental, economic and cultural variations occur in the people, this becomes possible, a single world government.”

Jean Paul Sartre in the book

“What I am”

Bertrand Russel has very intresting remarks: We are every day waiting for the third international war, but if it happens, nobody who is hopeful about the future will lose his belief, and it is a duty for us to keep our hope alive even though darkness, and sorrow, surround the world, and we must think of the future. Clearly, the greatest adversity for man is war and the best way for protection against war is creating a single world government. As long as this government has not been established, great wars are inevitable. Russel and other thinkers confess that the world needs a single government, but they cannot find a leader for this government. If we suppose that the present leaders in various countries can be suitable for this

government, can we expect better days in our world?

No! Of course not. So it is obvious that, because now-a-days we are witnessing the results of their policies in the world, we have not any hope in these leaders. For this reason we say that a responsible leader for this world government ought to be another man, or we should rather say that we need a divine man.

In another chapter we shall discuss this leader and his characteristics more fully.



In the previous chapter we showed that many thinkers and philosophers and nearly all religions have confessed that in order to save the world, we need a single world government. In this Chapter, we want to discuss this important matter “Who can be the ruller of this government and with what characteristics. A man who wants to have such a great and important responsibility ought to have this characteristics:

(1) He must be truthful in his claim, and when he invites the people to a better condition and better

living, and when he says that he has come to save the world from brutality and unjustice, he must be truthful in all these calims and if he isn’t truthful, he will be defeated.

(2) He must have a right plan and laws for saving man. Our history has shown very truthful men who have been interested in reforming in the world, bu t they did not succeed because although they

were truthful, they had not the proper plan and rules for their goal.

(3) He ought to have no weak point either personally or genetically, because if he has such points he will be defeated by a threat or allurement







of his enemies. So they do not succeed in their aim,

(4) Their ancestors must be known for innocence and chastity, because a man who belongs to a noble family can sooner win the confidence of people to listen to his call and help him.

We will now discuss these questions as to who has these four characteristics and who can be the founder and ruler of the world government?

I am sure that you dear reader will say that we do not know even one man with the above characteristics. A leader who is truthful, and offers the right plan without any weak point, and with noble ancestors and family.

But we can say that nobody among ordinary people can be our ideal man for founding and ruling this world. So we have explicitly confess that the only man who can be responsible and capable of this great affair is our last Imam, Hazrat Mahdi (greeting upon him)

He has the four above characteristics, because he is truthful in his claim, and his aim is actually saving the people of the world from unjustice and cruelty; he has the best and most correct plan and rules which are the Holy Quran and without any the prosperity and happiness of human beings.

He has no weak point, because he is innocent; he has committed no fault and sin, and he belongs to a family the like of which human history hasn1t seen at all. He is from a family whose members are known for chastity, knowledge, humanity, devotion, generosity and piety. If we require history to introduce to us a family with those qualities, it will show us only one family, the family of our Prophet Hazrat Muhammad.


Our expected reformer is the son of eleventh Imam, whose ancestors are Imam Ah, Imam Hossein and other eminent Imams. He is the only man who can be worthy of this title: “The ruler of world government”.





Imam Mahdi is the son of Imam Hassan Askari and his mother was Nargass or Sussan who had a very strange history, because she was taken captive in one of the wars betw½een the Muslims and Romans, and she was a Roman princess and had married her causin. But this ceremony which had taken place was interrupted and she didn’t accept this marriage. After this happening she had a very wonderful dream as it is written in history books. She saw in her dream, a very glorious ceremony where Jesus and his disciples had gathered in her palace. Meanwhile the Prophet of Islam, Hazrat Muhammad and a group entered the palace.

Jesus went forward to welcome Hazrat Muhammad and embraced him. Then the Prophet of Islam said:

“I have come to ask for the hand of the daughter of your successor Shamoon for my son, Imam Hassan. Jesus said to Shamoon, “It is a very great honour for you to give your daughter to that holy man.”

Then Hazrat Muhammad (G .H,) climbed the chair and read a sermon and concluded the marriage contract with his son Imam Hassan Askari and took the disciples as witnesses to this sacred marriage.

When she woke up she became ill and some nights after she saw the Holy Mary and the greatest woman in the world Hazrat Fatima Zahra, the dear daughter of Hazrat Muhammad (G .H.) in another dream;


Holy Mary began to introduce Hazrat Fatima to Nargess and said that she was the best woman in the world,

when Nargess knew this lady started to complain to her of her seperation from her son, Imam Hassan, the Holy Fatima said: “As you are not a Muslim it is impossible for you to marry my son”. Nargess replied: “lam very eager to be a Muslim”. So Nargess was converted to Islam in the sleep.

After that she met Imam Hassan in her sleep every night.

One night her dear husband Imam Hassan told her:

‘Your father is collecting an army to fight against the Muslims and you can join army and go with them. Then you will be taken captive by the Muslims, and they will take you with them and I shall buy you in the market through my servant Beshr-Ibn-Soleyman”.

After that night she went with the army and she was taken captive by the Muslim soldiers, and then Beshr came and bought her for his Lord Imam Hassan Askari, and this holy marriage took place in 254 (A H) (Hejira) or 877 (A.D). The birth of the last Imam Hazrat Mahdi happened in 255 (A .H) or (878 AD) on the 15th Shaaban. He was five years old and then his father died

His birth is very wonderful, and we briefly mention this important happening: His father’s aunt Hakima says: “I went to see Imam Hassan, and he told me not to return because they were expecting a baby to be born that night, a baby who would become his successor and would be the last Imam in the future. I asked Imam Hassan who his mother was and he replied that his mother was Nargess. I told him: “I don’t see any sign of pregnancy in her. The Imam smiled and said: “It will be clear by the end of the night because my son is like Moses and his mother is like the mother of Moses, because the cruel and guilty emperor (Pharaoh) was watching every pregnant woman as he knew that the son would destroy his authority and empire. So he was waiting for the birth of this baby. But he couldn’t find Moses, as Allah wanted him to live, then Imam Has san said to his aunt, “My dear aunt, my son is like Moses; you can’t see any sign of pregnancy in Nargess.”

When Hakima heard the insistence of Imam Has san, she decided to stay there that night.

She got up at midnight for prayer, and then she started her prayer, and all the time she was watching Nargess, but she couldn’t see any trace of childbirth in Nargess, because she slept calmly

Near dawn Nargess woke up and she felt uncomfortable.

Hakima touched her breast and asked her,

“My dear, do you feel anything?”

Imam Hassan Askari ordered Hakima to read some holy phrases from the Quran.


When the moment of birth was near a bright curtain was seen between the two ladies, Nargess and Hakima, and after some moments Hakima saw a very beautiful boy by Nargess who had descended on the earth and was reading this Verse:


“And we desired to bestow a favour upon those who were deemed weak in the land, and to make them the Imams, and to make them the heirs.” (Qasas 5)


It seems hard to believe that a newly-born baby would begin to speak, but everybody who knows and believes Allah and his power can easily believe this extraordinary matter. As we know that holy Jesus too spoke in his first moments of birth.


Hazrat Mahdi and Jesus were similar in two points of view.

(1) Speaking in the cradle.

(2) Jesus had been nominated as the Prophet of in childhood, and Imam Mahdi has been chosen in his childhood.


After the birth, his father Imam Hassan ordered his aunt Hakima to bring his child to him and kissed him and caressed him and wanted him to speak. The baby started to read some verses of the Quran and then Imam Hassan ordered one of his companions to buy a sheep and sacrifice it and distribute the flesh among the poor.

The intimate companions of Imam Has san were very glad and congratulated Imam Hassan

When two very intimate companions met they congratulated each other, but advised that the birth of Imam Mahdi should be kept secret, and they should not tell this secret to anyone. Here Imam Hassan had two important duties:


(1) To bring up his son to become the next leader in the distant future.


(2) To protect his son and the next leader from the cruel and sinful caliph, because they were expecting his birth, as they knew that Imam Mahdl would destroy palaces of injustice. So they wanted to search for him to find and kill him, The best way against these aims was hiding the birth of Imam Mahdi except from very close friends and companions of Imam Hassan Askari


After this happening (birth of Imam Mahdi in 255 A.H or 878A.D) for five years he lived secretly, and in 260 (A.H) or 893 (A,D) he became the formal Imam after the death of his father Imam Hassan Askari


After the year 260 (Hegri A.H) he has had two periods of absence:

(1) The short absence

(2) The long absence

The short one was for 69 years from 260-329 (A H) or 893-962 (A.D) and in his short absence he had four special mediators between him and the people. These four mediators were called deputies, and they were:

(1) Uthman ibn Sai’d Amri

(2) Muhammad ibn Uthman

(3) Hossein ibn Ruh Nawbakhti

(4) Ali ibn Muhammad Simari


By studying the character and beliefs and piety of these individuals, the greatness of their personalities becomes clear to us.


Ali ibn Muhammad Simari was the last special deputy.


His death coincided with the 15th of Shaaban 329A.H,


The last letter of Hazrat Mahdi (G.H) to the fourth special deputy was addressed to this honourable man.

In this order the Imam announced the death of Ali-ibn Muhammad and the end of the special deputation:

“In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful. You are going to die in six days, may Allah grant patience to your brothers in faith on your departure. So, be prepared, but appoint no one in your place, because from the day of your death the period of my major absence will begin. Henceforth, no one will see me, unless and until Allah makes me appear. My reappearance will take place after a very long time when people will have grown tired of waiting and those who are weak in their faith will say: “What? Is he still alive?” When men will come cruel and inconsiderate, and the world will be full of injustice and violence.”


After the year 329 (A.H) (962 A.D) we are in the period of long absence. But we believe that our living Imam is among the people of the world, and he actually lives on the earth, and even though he has been living a very long time)he seems like a youth, or a 35-year young man.


Our last Imam is waiting for Allah’s permission for his glorious and victorious rise, but in this period he is not idle. In another chapter of our book we will talk about the benefits bestowed by our kind and dear Imam.




One of the most important and difficult questions about Imam Mahdi is this question:

“What are the benefits of an absent Imam, because we need an Imam to be amongst the people and to be recognized by all and to be consulted about their difficulties and questions. But when we don’t know him or his place, how can we benefit from such an absent Imam?”


As an answer to these questions we mention some important matters and we classify our answers:


(1) The Imam is beneficial for himself before benefitting the others, because we know that as holy the Quran says, the aim of creation is spiritual progress, and the Imam like other people is advancing every day by his prayers and worships, so he is improving his life. Finally, we can have such an advantage from our discussion that his life is useful for himself without any relationship with others.


(2) We believe that, as our Islamic sources and references say, Allah’s blessing reaches the people through the special innocent leaders (who are called a prophet and Imam). So, when we say we need various blessings of Allah, like knowledge, power, sustenance and even life’s blessing, many of our Islamic traditions say that to receive these blessings of God we need an Imam.

We even believe that for establishing laws in the world like the rotation of the earth and other stars around the sun, rain, snow, growth of herbs etc… a living Imam is necessary, and it makes no difference for us to know and see this Imam or not.

In conclusion we say that all the world needs the Imam for its survival.


(3) This very long life of our Imam (1105 years) in his absence gives him another readiness for his very important duty.


The explanation of the above sentence is: None of the prophets and reformers had a duty like our Imam Mahdi1 because he is responsible to convert all the people into Islam. He is responsible for these two important affairs: Monotheism and social justice, and these two duties certainly need a great readiness for him. For this reason, the long life of Imam and his absence from human societies give him some possibilities for his glorious and victorious moment of rising.


(4) The belief in the existence of a great reformer for reforming and progressing in their improvements because they know that if they stay in the way of reform and improvement and understand the rising time of Imam Mahdi, they will join his group, and will be considered as his companion. But they are not aware of the time of his rise, they will be comfortable and calm, because they have done their duty and have played their role in the time of his absence.


(5) Our Islamic books are full of adventures of the people who were involved with the Imam Mahdi, They had become free from their needs and discomforts.





One or the most important questions and even objections about our last Imam is his longevity For, the Shi’as believe their Imam is 1105 years old (1983-878) and this figure does not seem believable, not seem believable.

In relation with this figure of his age the first question that arises is: “Is it possible and believable for us that a human being can live such a long time? As we know and see the average age in our time is 60-80 years for a human being and science can’t tell us that the body cells can be alive for 1105 years, because the maximum age is 100-200 years, so how we can believe that we have a figure amounting to 1105 years. It seems that the last Shi’a Imam is not a real man and he seems to be a fable!!


With the help of Allah we clarify this problem and analyze it and will find a convincing answer:

(1) The first answer is this question: “What is life?”

Can we find amongst the biologists a man who is able to give us a correct answer to this question? What is the difference between living and dead matters? For example what is the difference between dead carbon which makes the coke and living carbon which is combined with other substances in a human cell? I am sure that nobody can answer these questions.


To get more information about this complicated matter of the life we mention two examples:

a) There are some creatures which are called Macrolicotus that are sent to the shore pits by the waves, and after these pits are dried they are dried and transported to other places by the wind, and they stay there for a long time, and everybody who looks at them supposes that they are dead, because they haven’t any sign of life, but after a long period, under suitable conditions they show themselves alive.


b) In 1935 Dr. Stanley of the Medical Institute of Rockfeller in Princeton in U.S.A could obtain a virus which is called the Musaic virus in pure chemical substance form.

He tore the tobacco leaves which are the hosts of this virus and got the extracts of these leaves, and he could obtain them by centrifugal force in pure form and made purified viruses in crystallized form. Before this experiment everybody believed that a crystallized matter is not alive at all. So we must believe that these viruses must be dead, but Dr. Stanley proved that these crystallized viruses are alive and if we put them on tobacco leaves, after a long time they proliferate and infect the whole leaves.


Attention to these two examples shows us that life is not a known problem, and in relation with

This discussion, we can mention the title of a chapter of a book (One, Two, Three, …… Infinity (By George Gamof ) called “The Puzzle of Life”. By studying these cases we can find that, the reality of life is not clear and understandable even by physiologists and biologists let alone ordinary people.


(2) The second answer to this question is: Can we fix a limit far age? Can we claim that the maximum age of a human being is 200 years? Really it is difficult and even impossible for us to mention and fix a maximum for the age of human beings


(3) Another point which ought to be mentioned here is this: What is natural, eternal life or death? Of course we can state this matter in another form, which of two these states need a reason! To die or live?

Everybody answers that life doesn’t need any reason, and we don’t ask why Mr X or Mr Y is alive, but when we hear that a person has died after a long life, we naturally ask why he died.


It is proper to mention what Professor Wismann says about this matter:


“What is natural is everlasting life, not death.”


(4) We can find many exceptions in the permanent biological laws, and in our century we have many examples of people who had a long age.

Some years ago, it was written in a newspaper

that in China there is a man who is called Lee-Ching, and he is about 250 years old, and he has had 23 wives. He is still healthy and his hairs are still black.


b) According to the report of the Institute of Gerontology of U.S S .R one of the most important factors for a longer life is working. A qualified man of this institute says that they knew a peasant who was 124, a carpenter who is 128, and a shepherd who is 131 years old.

Russian scientists claim that they have had about 19304 persons in their country who were more than 100 years old.

As everybody knows that oldest man in Russia was Shir Ah Muslim Of who was 167 years old when he died.

So as we can say that longevity is not impossible for human beings according to science and reason.




Here we will give some examples from the Bible about longevals.


In the Old Testament which is acceptable to the Jews and Christians we can find the story of longevals with a long age:

“When Adam had lived a hundred and thirty years, he became the father of a son in his own likeness, after his image, and named him Seth, 4 The days of Adam after he became the father of Seth were eight hundred years, and he had other sons and daughters.5 Thus all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years, and he died … 6


when Seth had lived a hundred and five years, he became the father of Enosh 7 , Seth lived after the birth of Enosh eight hundred and seven years, and had other sons and daughters. 8 Thus all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years, and he died. 9


When Enosh had lived ninety years, he became the father of Kenan 10 Enosh lived after

the birth of Kenan eight hundred and fifteen years, and had other sons and daughters 11. Thus all the days of Enosh were nine hundred and five years, and he died. 12


When kenan had lived seventy years, he became the father of Mahal’alel.13 Kenan lived after the birth of Mahal’alel eight hundred and forty years, and had other sons and daughters. 14 Thus all the days of Kenan were nine hundred and ten years and he died.15


When Mahal1alel had lived sixty five, he became the father of Jared. 16 Mahal1alel lived after the birth of Jared eight hundred and thirty years, and had other sons and daughters .17 Thus all the days of Mahal’alel were eight hundred and ninety five years, and he died .18


When Jared had lived a hundred and sixty- two years he became the father of Enosh. 19 Jared lived after the birth of Enosh eight hundred years, and he had other sons and daughters 20 Thus all the days of Jared were nine hundred and sixty-two years, and he died .. 21

When Methu’selah had lived a hundred and eighty-seven years, he became the father of Lamech.26 Methu’selah lived after the birth of Lamech seven hundred and eighty-two years, and had other sons and daughters. 27 Thus all the days of Methu1selah were nine hundred and sixty-nine years, and he died … 28

Old Testament Chapter 5,6 (Genesis)


All the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years, and he died.29

Old Testament Chapter 9 (Genesis)

We can summarize what we mentioned from the Old Testament about the longevals:


Adam 930 years, Seth 912 years, Enosh 905 years, Kenan 910 years, Mahal’alel 895 years, Jared 962 years, Metu’selah 969 years, and Noah 950 years.


These are some samples from longevals in true history, so the longevity of our Imam is not strange and impossible and everybody who believes in the Bible will believe the longevity of Imam Mahdi1


At the end of this chapter we must add that, when we believe in Allah, it is very easy for us to believe in Imam Mahdi who is the last reformer for human beings. He is a man who is responsible for carrying out the program of all prophets, and we believe that Allah has wanted to keep him for his great and important duty. For this reason Allah says: “I have wanted to keep him alive for long years”. Here is a question:


Can Allah keep the last Imam alive for long years or not? We can answer that Allah can surely do so.





As we read in the Islamic traditions Imam Mahdi shall rise and fight against his enemies with the sword’ so here we are faced with a question. This is an important and interesting question:

Many people ask that as everybody knows and even can see, we are in a strange and wonderful time of human progress and civilization1 and our world is full of various forms of weapons like atomic, hydrogenic and even neutronic bombs which are very strange and powerful, and we can see all forms of tanks, guns and machine-guns.


In view of all this, how can we believe that Imam Mahdi will rise and fight against his enemies with only primitive and ancient weapons like the sword5 and is It acceptable that he will defeat his enemies who are armed with modern and advanced weapons, with his sword.


In answer we can say:

His rise is not like a human rise, because he is responsible to do the most difficult work in human history. As we spoke of this great duty in the previous pages, we can say he has an extraordinary duty, so he is allowed to use his extraordinary power which Allah has given to him, and with this explanation we can say that his rise with the sword is a symbolic explanation. It means that he is ordered to convert human beings into Islamic faith, and for this important duty he uses his power, and the sword in Islamic traditions is a symbol of power.


To confirm our explanation there are some traditions in this field.

(1)One of the aids of Imam Mahdi are angels which are invisible powers, and they are at the service of Imam Mahdi by the permission of Allah.


(2)His second weapon are natural powers like rain, storm, sun, cloud etc, … and we can suppose that nobody can fight against natural powers.


(3)The third instrument for him against his enemies is fear, because Allah will infuse His fear into the hearts of his enemies, so they are frightened for Imam Mahdi. Therefore, he has a very strong aid which is called a psychic weapon.


In conclusion, we can have this advantage that as his rise and fight against materialim and any form of injustice, darknesses and disaster is a divine duty and program. For this reason Allah will help him and make him victorious against all enemies.






As we said previously, the rise of the last Imam is combined with justice, because he is ordered by Allah to carry out divine laws in human societies, and establish absolute justice all over the world. So it will be very interesting for us to know what views we have about the future, and after the rise of our promised Imam. We can select some phrases from the Islamic references in this field:


(1)Our Prophet Hazrat Muhammad says: “When Our Qua’em (promised Imam) rises, justice will spread all over the world. After it has been filled with cruelty an infustice, and this happening will take place before Resurrection.”


(2)The first Imam of the Shi ‘as Imam Ali (G.H) says:


“When our Mahdi rises, the sky will offer its rain, the earth will grow its herbs, the rancour will be removed from the hearts of human beings, and wild beasts will live with sheep, cows and domestic animals and even a young girl will go from the east to the west and nobody asks her where she is going?


3) Our eighth Imam Hazrat Reza (G H) says:

“My fourth son is Qua1em3 who purifies the earth by the order of Allah, when he rises. He will spread justice all over the world, and at that time nobody oppresses another.”


(4)Hazrat Bagher (G.H) the fifth Imam says:

“Mahdi will kill all polytheists and atheists and leaves no one on the earth except Monotheists In his time, even an old woman will travel from the east to the west of the world, and nobody hinders her, and Allah will let all the seeds grow from the earth, and will let the sky offer rain.


(5)Our sixth Imam Hazrat Sadegh (G H) says:

“When our Qua’em rises the earth will be illuminated with the light of Allah, and the people will become free – of the sun, and everybody will live very long. and life-span becomes longer, even everyone will have a thousand children.”


We hope to see the days of his glorious rise.





The time of the rise and rule of Imam Mahdi is the time of justice, prosperity and the time of heavenly laws, so it is obvious that anybody who wants to be a disciple of Imam Mahdi must be wholly qualified as a follower for his advent and prepare himself for it.


Our holy Quran says:


“The earth will be for pious servant, the leaders of the earth will be such human beings as pious servants.”

So we clearly see that a servant must be pious and competent to be a disciple of Imam Mahdi, and to be a leader of those who want to have the next leadership of the world.

One of the greatest objections about the expectation and the belief of Shi ‘as is this

The expectation of the absent Imam creates idleness, indifference, and sleepiness, because the Shi ‘as believe that the reformer comes and removes all injustice, cruelty, and sinfulness

The answer to this objection is:

“A believer in the last heavenly reformer is a man who spends all his time reforming and building up especially human reforms, because he believes that he is waiting for an Imam who comes and changes human life; he comes and destroys all bad habits and morals in human societies; he comes and fights against all injustice, cruelty and guilt. He comes to show the real visage of right living to the people of the world; he comes to execute true human laws; he comes to fight against all the ideologies which invite human beings to idleness and pessimism; he comes to end the age of all religions, and in short, he is the enemy of all bad habits, morals and behavior. So let us see who can be a person who waits for such an Imam?”

It is clear that a man who claims that he is waiting for Imam Mahdi has to be the enemy of all bad habits, morals, and behaviour.

A man who is expecting future bright days must try to create such an environment, which is based on justice, monotheism, kindness and favour.

Such a man must fight against all cruelty and guilt. It would be illogical to believe in this expectation without making any more in the direction of building a better society.

In conclusion we must add that the people who are expecting the rise of a reformer must reform themselves.



بسم اللّه الرحمن الرحيم







Introduction & Translation by:

Vahid Majd



December 2005














“Certainly, I just conveyed what I have been ordered to convey as an argument against everyone, be him present or absent, a direct witness or not, and already born or not yet born. Hence, everyone who is present should convey (this sermon) to those who are absent, every parent should convey it to his/her children, (and they should continue to do so) until the Day of Judgement.”

— A part of Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH&HF) last public sermon delivered in Ghadir Khum







To the Most Truthful,

The Greatest Sign of Allah,

The Judge of the Day of Religion,

The Allotter of Paradise and Hell,

The Greatest News about Whom People Differ,

The Greatest Distinguisher of Truth from Falsehood,

The Master of All Deputies of the Prophets,

The Brother of the Messenger of Allah,

The Commander of the Believers,

The Leader of the Pious,

Ali Ibn Abi Talib,

Peace Be Upon Him.










The Ghadir event and its significance 1

What does the sermon establish for Ali (PBUH)? 7

Does successorship only refer to political authority? 7

The rights and virtues of Imam Ali and other Imams 10

His followers, his enemies, and their fate 14

The Ghadir event leaves no excuse 16

Our obligations towards the sermon and the event 18

The necessity of submitting to the Prophet’s sayings 18

Learning, acknowledging, and protecting the text of the sermon 22

Acting upon the instructions of the sermon and observing the covenant 22

Transmitting the sermon through modern ways 24

Keeping alive the event and observing its anniversary 26

Thanking Allah for this greatest blessing 28

Some statistics about the text of the sermon 31

An overview of the sermon 33

Documentation of the sermon 36


Part 1 Praising Allah and Regarding Him pure 48

Part 2 Preparation for delivering an important commandment from Allah 59

Part 3 Open declaration of the leadership of Ali Ibn Abi Talib (PBUH) and the Imams after him 66

Part 4 Announcing the perfection of religion due to Ali’s appointment and reminding the People of his virtues 80

Part 5 Referring to the aims of the hypocrites 87

Part 6 Adherents of Ahl al-Bait (PBUT) and their enemies 95

Part 7 Mentioning Imam al-Mahdi (PBUH) 101

Part 8 Exhorting people to give their pledge 104

Part 9 Finality of the religious laws and the role of the Imams 106

Part 10 Pronouncing the covenant and taking the oath of allegiance 113

Endnotes 122





The Ghadir event and its significance

Seventy days before his demise, when Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HF) was returning to Medina after his last pilgrimage to Mecca, he reached the pond of Khum (Ghadir Khum) near Juhfa. It was the 18th of the month of Dhul-Hijja of the year 10 AH (March 15, 632 AD). By this time, the Prophet (PBUH&HF) had conveyed all of the divine commandments to his nation except for the formal and explicit public announcement of his divinely appointed successors as the leaders, guardians, and guides for the believers for all days to come.

By the order of Allah, the Prophet (PBUH&HF) stopped at the pond of Khum, gathered the crowd of pilgrims, and delivered his last universal speech. In this sermon, he presented his last religious instruction which finalized the last divine religion and made Islam the perfect religion in the sight of Allah. Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (PBUH), the fifth Imam and successor of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) said:

آخِرُ فَرِيضَةٍ أَنْزَلَهَا اللَّهُ تَعَالَى الْوَلَايَةُ ثُمَّ لَمْ يُنْزِلْ بَعْدَهَا فَرِيضَةً ثُمَّ نَزَّلَ الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ… فَأَقَامَهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ بِالْجُحْفَةِ

“The last obligatory duty that Allah sent down was al-Walaya (adherence to the guardian assigned by Allah). Then, He sent down the verse: ‘Today, I completed your religion…’ once the Messenger of Allah established it in Juhfa area.”

This message was the most unique in the entire mission of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) due to the revelation of Verse 67, Chapter 5 of the Holy Quran before his speech. In this revelation, Allah warned His Messenger that failing to deliver this last message would nullify his entire mission. This unprecedented warning proves that this last message contained the most important religious commandment of Allah for the Muslim nation.

Moreover, the contents of this last message were so crucial to the faith that the Prophet (PBUH&HF) emphatically required all those who directly or indirectly heard the sermon of Ghadir Khum to convey it to people who were not aware of its details, and parents to convey it to their children for all generations to come. Hence, this sermon addresses all Muslim generations of the world until the Day of Judgement. This emphasis naturally implies that the content of this message has a vital role in the future of the Muslims, their spiritual health, and their felicity in the Hereafter.

The main issue that the Prophet (PBUH&HF) addressed in his speech in Ghadir Khum was that Allah appointed Ali Ibn Abi Talib (PBUH) as the guardian (Wali), the master (Mawla), the leader (Imam), and the commander (Amir) of all believing men and women, the deputy and the executor of his affairs (Wasi), and his successor (Khalifa). His sayings and commands should be preferred over the opinions of all others in every matter. Obeying him is obeying Allah, and disobeying him is disobeying Allah. Whoever follows him (and his sayings) is a believer under the guardianship of Allah, and whoever turns away from him (or his sayings) is a disbeliever under the guardianship of Satan.

Guardianship (al-Walaya) expresses a bilateral relation between the guardian and the people. Observing al-Walaya by people means adhering to the guardian and acknowledging his authority by heart, tongue, and action. On the other hand, the action of al-Walaya by the guardian means offering protection from evil, spiritual assistance, care, support, and guidance for his adherents. A divinely appointed guardian guards his adherents from misguidance, spiritual destruction, wrongdoing, and sin as much as they adhere to him and his commands. Establishing al-Walaya has been the ultimate goal of religion and the fruit of the entire efforts of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HF) during his mission.

One who submits to Allah’s representative and adheres to him has indeed acknowledged Allah’s authority and guardianship and is a true monotheist in obeying Allah. Acknowledging the guardianship of the leaders that Allah appointed and submitting to them is the greatest pillar of faith. It safeguards the followers from the wrath and punishment of Allah. Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (PBUH) said:

بُنِيَ الْإِسْلَامُ عَلَى خَمْسٍ عَلَى الصَّلَاةِ وَ الزَّكَاةِ وَ الصَّوْمِ وَ الْحَجِّ وَ الْوَلَايَةِ وَ لَمْ يُنَادَ بِشَيْ‏ءٍ كَمَا نُودِيَ بِالْوَلَايَةِ فَأَخَذَ النَّاسُ بِأَرْبَعٍ وَ تَرَكُوا هَذِهِ يَعْنِي الْوَلَايَة

“Islam is established by five things: prayer, charity, fasting, pilgrimage, and al-Walaya (adhering to the guardians authorized by Allah). None (among them) was called for as (emphatically as) al-Walaya was called for. However, people accepted the first four and abandoned al-Walaya.”

People who refused to submit to the leaders that Allah appointed resemble the Satan who refused to submit to the viceregent of Allah, Adam (PBUH), and consequently, became an outcast and went under the curse of Allah forever as mentioned in the Holy Quran. It is narrated that Imam al-Ridha (PBUH) said:

مَثَلُ المُؤْمِنِينَ فِي قَبُولِهِمْ وَلَاءُ أَمِيرِ المُؤْمِنِينَ فِي يَوْمِ غَدِيرِ خُم كَمَثَلِ المَلَائِكَةِ فِي سُجُودِهِمْ لِآدَمَ، وَ مَثَلُ مَنْ أَبَى وَلَايَةُ أَمِيرِ المُؤْمِنِينَ فِي يَوْمِ الغَدِيرِ مَثَلُ إِبْلِيسَ

“The similitude of the believers in accepting the guardianship of the Commander of the Believers (Ali) on the day of Ghadir Khum is that of the angels in prostrating before Adam (i.e., submitting to him), and the similitude of those who turned away from the guardianship of the Commander of the Believers on the day of Ghadir is that of the devil (Iblis).”

In one of his speeches on the anniversary of the day of Ghadir, Imam Ali (PBUH) said:

وَ لَا يَقْبَلُ دِيناً إِلَّا بِوَلَايَةِ مَنْ أَمَرَ بِوَلَايَتِهِ وَ لَا يَنْتَظِمُ أَسْبَابُ طَاعَتِهِ إِلَّا بِالتَّمَسُّكِ بِعِصَمِهِ وَ عِصَمِ أَهْلِ وَلَايَتِهِ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَى نَبِيِّهِ ص فِي يَوْمِ الدَّوْحِ مَا بَيَّنَ بِهِ عَنْ إِرَادَاتِهِ فِي خُلَصَائِهِ وَ ذَوِي اجْتِبَائِهِ وَ أَمَرَهُ بِالْبَلَاغ وَ تَرْكِ الْحَفْلِ بِأَهْلِ الزَّيْغِ وَ النِّفَاقِ وَ ضَمِنَ لَهُ عِصْمَتَهُ مِنْهُم‏… فَكَمَّلَ اللَّهُ دِينَهُ وَ أَقَرَّ عَيْنَ نَبِيِّهِ وَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ الْمُتَابِعِينَ وَ كَانَ مَا قَدْ شَهِدَهُ بَعْضُكُمْ وَ بَلَغَ بَعْضَكُمْ وَ تَمَّتْ كَلِمَةُ اللَّهِ الْحُسْنَى عَلَى الصَّابِرِين‏…

“Allah does not accept the faith (of an individual) except after he acknowledges the guardianship of whom He required. He does not arrange the means of His obedience (for an individual) except after he adheres to His ropes and the ropes of His authorized people. Thus, Allah sent down to His Prophet (PBUH&HF) on the day of the large trees that which explained His will for His sincere and chosen servants. Allah commanded him to convey (the message) without being concerned about the hypocrites or the deviants, and guaranteed him protection against their evil… By that, Allah completed His religion, and delighted the eyes of His Prophet (PBUH&HF), and the believers. Some of you witnessed this event and some received its news. This (appointment) concluded the beautiful word of Allah for those who observe patience… ”

What does the sermon establish for Ali (PBUH)?

Does successorship only refer to political authority?

Some people do terrible injustice to the event of Ghadir by portraying it as a matter of transferring political power. They unwittingly borrow the Sunni understanding of the term Khalifa, interpreting it as “a ruling successor”. They state that the main goal of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) in Ghadir Khum was to establish Imam Ali (PBUH) as a political leader after his departure.

Were it truly so, the matter would have been a historical matter, and it would be meaningless to quarrel over the right of Imam Ali (PBUH) to rule after passing 1400 years. It is almost fourteen centuries too late to decide whether Ali (PBUH) should have been the first or the fourth ruling governor after the departure of the Prophet (PBUH&HF). Were there a mistake during the upheaval after his departure, it should not be stressed, because no one can change the past, and believing that Ali (PBUH) should have been the first ruler instead of the fourth would have no consequence in today’s life.

This viewpoint ultimately led some to believe that the differences between the Shia and the Sunnis are limited to some minor historical disagreements, which do not have any bearing on their salvation in the Hereafter, and that their beliefs are the same; thus, they should abandon their differences for the sake of their prosperity in the life of this world.

By considering the issue of successorship to be a matter of political rule, they have unknowingly belittled the goals and the achievements of Allah’s Messenger and his successors, peace be upon them, for historical records show that, due to a lack of sincere supporters, they were unable to implement their ideal divine government. Besides, most of the Shia Imams (PBUT) never attempted to implement their own government and used to refer those who questioned their stance to Imam Mahdi (PBUH) who will appear at the end of time and will establish the Kingdom of Justice on earth.

On the other hand, a brief look at the sermon of Ghadir shows that the Prophet (PBUH&HF) wanted to pass on much more than political authority to Imam Ali (PBUH) and the Imams after him. An examination of his words shows that they are the guardians that Allah appointed, and people must acknowledge their authority inside their hearts and follow them in all aspects of life. People will benefit from them as their Imams and will be rewarded by Allah only if they accept them willingly and not through political dominion. Whether or not the guardians that Allah appointed become a ruling authority, the believers of all generations have a duty to abide by their instructions. Therefore, it is not too late to follow their commands, accept them as guardians, submit to them, prefer their sayings over one’s own and other’s opinions, consider them as the center of truth, evaluate everything by their standard, and keep aloof from their enemies who opposed their commands.

It is also interesting to observe that the Prophet (PBUH&HF) mentioned the titles Wali, Mawla, and Imam for Ali (PBUH) in his sermon over 27 times, whereas he used the word Khalifa for him only three times. Even under the Sunni implication of the word Khalifa (successor)—which limits it to political rule—it is clear that the Prophet (PBUH&HF) stressed spiritual leadership in his speech, which would guarantee the salvation of those who follow the Imam, and would lead them towards Paradise. Worldly issues never took priority for the Prophet (PBUH&HF) and his successors. Imam Ali himself has said:

وَ اللَّهِ لَدُنْيَاكُمْ هَذِهِ أَهْوَنُ فِي عَيْنِي مِنْ عِرَاقِ خِنْزِيرٍ فِي يَدِ مَجْذُوم

“By Allah, this world of yours is more despicable in my eyes than a pig bone in the hand of a leper.”

Certainly, had the majority of people followed the sayings of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) concerning the divinely appointed guide, he would have naturally come to power. Thus, Imam Ali’s exclusive qualification for political rule is only one of the natural outcomes of the guardianship (Walaya) that the Prophet (PBUH&HF) established for him on behalf of Allah on the day of Ghadir. In this manner, the spiritual authority of Imam Ali (PBUH) and his pure descendants is still effective over the remaining believers until the Day of Judgement, irrespective of the support of the majority of people for them or their political authority.

Believing in the Imam’s virtues in one’s heart and adhering to his words in disguise (al-Taqiyya) under tyrannical rule are not only sufficient for salvation in the Hereafter but also rewarded many-fold, because observing faith is more difficult at times of terror and fear. According to the traditions, worship during the days of tyrannical government is more rewarding for the believers than worship during the time of the just government, though this fact should not prevent the believers from praying to Allah for the manifestation of the Kingdom of Justice on earth by Imam al-Mahdi (PBUH).

The rights and virtues of Imam Ali and other Imams

The sermon of Ghadir Khum confirms the following rights and virtues of Imam Ali (PBUH) and the Imams after him:

1- Allah has decreed absolute authority for them over the believers, and thus, just like the Prophet (PBUH&HF), all their commands must be obeyed unconditionally.

2- Like the Prophet (PBUH&HF), they have priority over people, and they have more rights over the believers than what they have over their own souls. They should be preferred over others (in position, sayings, ideas, commands, etc.) for Allah has preferred them.

3- Allah has made them the leaders of the believers and the medium of divine guidance after the Prophet (PBUH&HF). They guide people towards the pleasure of Allah, keep them from His disobedience and His wrath, and lead them to Paradise.

4- Allah has made them the guardians of the faithful, who protect their close adherents from evil and misguidance.

5- They are the “Straight Path” of Allah, whom people are ordered to follow.

6- They have all the knowledge of the Prophet (PBUH&HF). Allah has placed the knowledge of everything in them. They are the inheritors of all branches of knowledge. Particularly, they possess the complete knowledge of religion. They are authorized to expound the religion and explain its commandments and prohibitions.

7- Allah has authorized them to interpret the Holy Quran and to explain its meaning after the Prophet (PBUH&HF). No one knows its interpretations, its hidden warnings, and its mysteries except through them. They guide people to the truth of the Quran and call them to it.

8- They are the executors of the will of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) and the deputies of his affairs (Wasi). Imam Ali (PBUH) was the greatest in virtue and rank among the deputies of all the prophets (most of whom were prophets themselves) just as the Prophet (PBUH&HF) was the greatest among all prophets (PBUT).

9- Imam Ali (PBUH) is the most virtuous amongst the creation of Allah so long as creation exists.

10- Imam Ali (PBUH) was foremost in accepting Islam and worshipping Allah.

11- Imam Ali (PBUH) fought against the enemies of Allah by His command and was the greatest helper of religion.

12- Imam Ali (PBUH) was the greatest aid and defender of the Prophet (PBUH&HF). He fought on his behalf and offered his life as a sacrifice for him. His relation to the Prophet (PBUH&HF) was that of Aaron to Moses (PBUT).

13- Imam Ali (PBUH) was the dearest and the closest to the Prophet (PBUH&HF). He is from the Prophet (PBUH&HF), and the Prophet (PBUH&HF) is from him. The Prophet (PBUH&HF) called him his brother.

14- The title of “the Commander of the Believers” exclusively belongs to him.

15- Allah and His Prophet (PBUH&HF) are pleased with him. All verses of the Holy Quran that express Allah’s satisfaction or praise in their ideal sense have been revealed about him.

16- The divine light, the divine guidance, and the divine leadership have been placed in Imam Ali (PBUH) and the Imams from his descendants up to Imam Mahdi (PBUH), the last divinely appointed Imam. The earth will never lack an Imam until the Day of Judgement.

17- Imam Ali (PBUH) and the Imams of his descendents are the trustees of Allah, His appointed judges, the vessels of divine knowledge , the greatest proofs of Allah among His creation, and His exhaustive arguments against them.

18- Imam Ali (PBUH) and the pure members of his progeny constitute one of the two weighty symbols besides the Holy Quran. If people adhere to both, they will be never misled. Each one of the two guides to the other and agrees with it.

19- Imam Ali (PBUH) and the Imams of his progeny are the most learned about the religion. The lawful and unlawful things are only those that the book of Allah, the Messenger, and the Imams, have declared so, respectively.

20- The last Imam of his descendants, the Mahdi (PBUH), shall establish the global kingdom of justice. He will revive Allah’s religion, and will overcome all religions and ideas. He will annihilate falsehood, will purify the earth from the enemies of Allah, will avenge the blood of all the friends of Allah, and will re-establish the rights of Allah, the Prophet (PBUH&HF), and his family.

His followers, his enemies, and their fate

In the sermon of Ghadir Khum, the Prophet (PBUH&HF) describes the followers and the enemies of Imam Ali (PBUH) and the Imams after him, and informs them of their destinies:

1- Those who acknowledge the authority of Imam Ali (PBUH) are the triumphant Party of Allah and the true believers who will achieve felicity and a great reward.

2- Whoever doubts any of the Imams has doubted them all, and his abode is the everlasting Hellfire. Whoever doubts the sayings of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) in this sermon concerning them has doubted all of what Allah has revealed to the Prophet (PBUH&HF) throughout his entire mission. Such a person is accursed and under the wrath of Allah.

3- If anyone chooses a religion other than submission to the guardianship of Imam Ali (PBUH), Allah will never accept it from him, nor will He accept his deeds, and he will be among the losers on the Day of Judgement.

4- Allah loves whoever loves Ali (PBUH). He keeps up His support, protection, guidance, forgiveness, and mercy for anyone who keeps attached to Ali (PBUH), listens to him, and remains under his guardianship.

5- Anyone who turns away from Imam Ali (PBUH), he has rejected Allah’s guardianship and has gone under the guardianship of Satan. Such a person has attained the curse of Allah and His wrath.

6- As long as someone denies Ali’s authority, Allah will never turn to him nor will He ever forgive him. If he dies like that, he will remain in Hell forever. This is a decisive decree by Allah that will never change.

7- The friends of Imam Ali (PBUH) are those who believe in his guardianship and never doubt their belief. They detest those who oppose Allah and His Messenger even if they are their closest kin.

8- The enemies of Imam Ali (PBUH) are those who turn away from his guardianship, doubt the virtues that Allah has bestowed upon him, are jealous of him, abandon support for him, reject his sayings, disagree with his actions, oppose his commands, or have friendship with those who oppose him.

9- His enemies are the wretched, the misguided, the arrogant, the brothers of Satan, and the rejecters of faith. Their deeds are all in vain. Their lasting punishment will not be lessened, and they will never be pardoned.

10- Those who usurped the rights of the family of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) are the leaders who invite people to Hell. Allah and His Prophet (PBUH&HF) are clear of them and their actions. They, their supporters, and their followers will be in the lowest pit of the Hellfire.

The Ghadir event leaves no excuse

During the Sermon, the Prophet (PBUH&HF) stressed that his speech completes Allah’s argument against everyone until the Day of Judgement. After the departure of the Prophet (PBUH&HF), other members of Ahl al-Bait (PBUT) emphasized this fact as well. Lady Fatima (PBUH), the Prophet’s daughter, said:

فَمَا جَعَلَ الله ُلِأَحَدٍ بَعْدَ غَدِيرِ خُم مِنْ حُجَّةٍ وَ لَا عُذْرٍ

“Allah did not leave any argument or any excuse for anyone after the event of Ghadir Khum.”

Similarly, when Imam Ali (PBUH) addressed the immigrants and the helpers in the Prophet’s Mosque (after they had pledged fealty to Abu Bakr), he reminded them of his exclusive right for the leadership of the community and their covenant with the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) concerning him. Some of the helpers said to Imam Ali, “O Abul Hasan! Had the helpers heard your arguments before giving their pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr, none would have disputed your rule.” In response to them, Imam Ali (PBUH) said:

فَقَالَ عَلِيٌّ ع يَا هَؤُلَاءِ أَ كُنْتُ أَدَعُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص مُسَجًّى لَا أُوَارِيهِ وَ أَخْرُجُ أُنَازِعُ فِي سُلْطَانِهِ وَ اللَّهِ مَا خِفْتُ أَحَداً يَسْمُو لَهُ وَ يُنَازِعُنَا أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ فِيهِ وَ يَسْتَحِلُّ مَا اسْتَحْلَلْتُمُوهُ وَ لَا عَلِمْتُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص تَرَكَ يَوْمَ غَدِيرِ خُمٍّ لِأَحَدٍ حُجَّةً وَ لَا لِقَائِلٍ مَقَالًا

“Did you want me to leave the shrouded body of the Messenger of Allah without burial and come out to quarrel for his sovereignty? By Allah! I could not believe anyone would yearn for it, dispute with us Ahl al-Bait (PBUT) in it, and make lawful to do what you did (in usurping our rights). I do not see that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) left any place for any controversial talks, any plea, or any argument for anyone (by his speech) on the day of Ghadir Khum.”

The above testimonies, among others, show that the speech of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) at Ghadir Khum in defining the position of Imam Ali (PBUH) is clear, evident, and definitive, and it exhausts arguments brought by anyone. Thus, it can be presented as a comprehensive proof to everyone.

Our obligations towards the sermon

and the event

The necessity of submitting to the Prophet’s sayings

One of the important differences that distinguishes Islam from all the early divine religions is that it states that it is the final religion of Allah. It offers the ultimate divine instructions for people in terms of beliefs and practices, and all its commandments and prohibitions are effective until the Day of Judgement. Believers of all generations are required to submit to the sayings of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) to achieve felicity. Allah states in the Holy Quran:

وَ ما كانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَ لا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ أَمْراً أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ وَ مَنْ يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَ رَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلالاً مُبيناً

“It is not permissible for a believer, man or woman, to exercise choice in a matter for which Allah and His Messenger issued a command. Whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he has surely strayed off (the path), a manifest straying.”

وَ مَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِما أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولئِكَ هُمُ الْكافِرُون‏

Whoever does not judge according to what Allah has sent down is a disbeliever.

يا أَيُّهَا الَّذينَ آمَنُوا لا تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيِ اللَّهِ وَ رَسُولِهِ وَ اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَميعٌ عَليمٌ

“O You who believe! Do not precede Allah and His Messenger; and be watchful of (your duties toward) Allah. Verily, Allah hears and knows all things.”

فَلا وَ رَبِّكَ لا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّى يُحَكِّمُوكَ فيما شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لا يَجِدُوا في‏ أَنْفُسِهِمْ حَرَجاً مِمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَ يُسَلِّمُوا تَسْليماً

“But no, by your Lord, they have not truly believed until they make you judge in all disputes between them, find in their souls no resistance against your decision, and submit (to you) with complete conviction.”

يا أَيُّهَا الَّذينَ آمَنُوا أَطيعُوا اللَّهَ وَ أَطيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ فَإِنْ تَنازَعْتُمْ في‏ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَ الرَّسُولِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَ الْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ

“O You who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those who are given authority from among you; and if you had a dispute in a matter, return it to Allah and His Messenger if you believe in Allah and the Last Day.”

قُلْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللَّهَ فَاتَّبِعُوني‏ يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللَّهُ وَ يَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَ اللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحيمٌ. قُلْ أَطيعُوا اللَّهَ وَ الرَّسُولَ فَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لا يُحِبُّ الْكافِرينَ

“Say, ‘If you truly love Allah, follow me; Allah will love you and will forgive you your sins; and Allah is oft-forgiving and the most merciful.’ Say, ‘Obey Allah and His Messenger.’ But if they turn back, Allah loves not those who reject faith.”

Therefore, it is necessary for a believer to follow all the sayings of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) which have reached us in the form of traditions. Opposing the traditions of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) means opposing Allah and disbelieving the above-mentioned verses of the Holy Quran. Weakening and disregarding the sayings of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) that have been handed down to us means believing that the Quranic verses, which require us to follow his sayings, are useless in our time.

Particularly, for such an important issue as the message of Ghadir Khum, rejecting it means believing that Allah and His Prophet (PBUH&HF) have failed to convey the message that, according to the Quran, if not conveyed, would be as if nothing of His religion was conveyed, and religion would remain deficient and unsatisfactory in the sight of Allah.

It is, therefore, our duty to acquire and learn this final message of the Prophet (PBUH&HF), to comply with what it entails, and to follow its directions.

Learning, acknowledging, and protecting

the text of the sermon

The sermon of Ghadir Khum constitutes the last instructions of the last prophet of Allah in his last days. Hence, it is of prime importance for every believer to study the text of the sermon with care, reflect on it, and acknowledge all its implications in one’s heart.

In the sermon of Ghadir, the Prophet (PBUH&HF) has emphasized that all his final commandments and prohibitions are effective forever and should never be altered by people’s desires, needs, ideas, opinions, or tendencies in any era. He (PBUH&HF) considered it a duty of every believer to learn and comprehend the instructions of the sermon as it was handed down to them, and to protect them from any alteration or change for the use of the current and future generations.

Acting upon the instructions of

the sermon and observing the covenant

After understanding and acknowledging the message of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) in the heart, one must put it in practice in his/her life. Calling people toward the truth by self-practice is the most beautiful and the most effective method of propagating the truth, which protects the message on a practical level and keeps it alive in the community.

The covenant taken by the Prophet (PBUH&HF) from all people who eventually hear the sermon includes the following verbal declarations:

1- We heard and understood the divine message concerning the authority and the rights of Ali (PBUH) and the Imams of his offspring.

2- We pledge our fealty to them by our hearts, our souls, our tongues, and our hands.

3- We are satisfied with the message and submit to it.

4- We will never deny it, nor will we break the covenant.

5- We will never doubt it.

6- We will obey it by our actions.

7- We will live and die with this belief.

8- We will never change nor replace its instructions.

9- We will convey it to our children, family, and friends, near or far.

10- We take Allah as witness to this covenant, and His Prophet (PBUH&HF), Allah’s Angels, His forces, and His servants, and anyone who obeyed it.

According to the saying of the Prophet (PBUH&HF), this covenant is taken by the order of Allah, and anyone who pledges his allegiance to him, Imam Ali, and the pure Imams of his progeny according to the terms of the covenant has indeed pledged his allegiance to Allah, the mighty and the majestic. This fact is also verified by the Holy Quran.

The Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) stated that those who precede others in acknowledging their covenant with Imam Ali (PBUH) and the Imams after him and truly believe in their guardianship are those who succeed in attaining the gardens of bliss.

Transmitting the sermon through modern ways

As the Prophet (PBUH&HF) ordered, every Muslim who receives his message should transmit it to other members of his community, especially the youth and children.

Transmitting the sermon is the greatest manifestation of enjoining what is right (Amr bil ma’ruf) . The Prophet (PBUH&HF) mentioned that the most important example of enjoining the right is conveying what he said in this sermon to truth-seeking individuals who have not heard its details, urging them to follow it as an order from Allah and His Prophet (PBUH&HF), and advising them against violating it.

Introducing the position and virtues of Imam Ali (PBUH) to the people is the best possible deed, because it makes known to people the authentic source of inquiry for all righteous deeds. The Prophet (PBUH&HF) stated in the sermon that without recognizing Imam Ali (PBUH), there is neither any value nor any effect in enjoining other righteous deeds.

Therefore, it is the duty of all believing men and women to inform other Muslims, who are prepared to hear the truth, about the content of this sermon without screening it according to personal opinion.

What follow are some suggestions to make the text as well as the meanings of this sermon popular in our community:

1- Holding frequent special meetings for reciting the Arabic text of the sermon, its translation, and its explanation. Seeking nearness to Allah by reminding about the Prophet’s statements on the day of Ghadir, and making such spiritual gatherings as the medium of one’s requests before Allah.

2- Reciting a part of the sermon, even a small amount, in any general gathering, and reminding about one’s obligation towards it.

3- Holding classes of memorizing the text of the sermon for the youth, organizing competitions, quizzes, and offering prizes for learning the contents of the sermon.

4- Presenting the books containing the full text of the Prophet’s (PBUH&HF) sermon at Ghadir Khum as gifts to the family and friends.

5- Making decorative objects, goods, and greeting cards, etc., on which the key phrases of the sermon are written or carved.

6- Developing extracurricular programs in schools for teaching the text of the sermon to the students.

7- Translating the sermon into different languages and publishing them in papers and on the Internet.

Keeping alive the event and observing its anniversary

There are many traditions on the importance of observing the anniversary of the event of Ghadir Khum. To be brief, only three traditions are partially quoted below. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) said:

يَوْمُ غَدِيرِ خُمٍّ أَفْضَلُ أَعْيَادِ أُمَّتِي وَ هُوَ الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي أَمَرَنِيَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى ذِكْرُهُ فِيهِ بِنَصْبِ أَخِي عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ عَلَماً لِأُمَّتِي يَهْتَدُونَ بِهِ مِنْ بَعْدِي وَ هُوَ الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي أَكْمَلَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ الدِّينَ وَ أَتَمَّ عَلَى أُمَّتِي فِيهِ النِّعْمَةَ وَ رَضِيَ لَهُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينا.

“The day of Ghadir Khum is the greatest religious festival (Eid) of my nation. It was the day that Allah, exalted is His rememberance, commanded me to appoint my brother, Ali Ibn Abi Talib, as the guiding banner for my nation, by whom they will be rightly guided after me. It was the day in which Allah finalized religion and fulfilled His blessings on my nation and was pleased that Islam be their faith.”

Imam al-Sadiq (PBUH) said to one of his companions:

صِيَامُ يَوْمِ غَدِيرِ خُمٍّ يَعْدِلُ صِيَامَ عُمُرِ الدُّنْيَا … وَ هُوَ عِيدُ اللَّهِ الْأَكْبَرُ وَ مَا بَعَثَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ نَبِيّاً قَطُّ إِلَّا وَ تَعَيَّدَ فِي هَذَا الْيَوْمِ وَ عَرَفَ حُرْمَتَهُ وَ اسْمُهُ فِي السَّمَاءِ يَوْمُ الْعَهْدِ الْمَعْهُودِ… لَعَلَّكَ تَرَى أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ خَلَقَ يَوْماً أَعْظَمَ حُرْمَةً مِنْهُ لَا وَ اللَّهِ لَا وَ اللَّهِ لَا وَ اللَّه

“Fasting on the day of Ghadir is equivalent to fasting throughout the entire age of the world… It is the greatest festival of Allah. Allah has not sent any prophet but that he celebrated this day as Eid and was aware of its sanctity. It is known in the heavens as ‘The Day of the Famous Covenant’… You might think that Allah, the mighty and the majestic, has created a day more sacred than that. No, by Allah! No, by Allah! No, by Allah!”

Imam Ridha (PBUH) said:

قَالَ الرِّضَا ع حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي عَنْ أَبِيهِ ع قَالَ إِنَّ يَوْمَ الْغَدِيرِ فِي السَّمَاءِ أَشْهَرُ مِنْهُ فِي الْأَرْض‏… وَ اللَّهِ لَوْ عَرَفَ النَّاسُ فَضْلَ هَذَا الْيَوْمِ بِحَقِيقَتِهِ لَصَافَحَتْهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ فِي كُلِّ يَوْمٍ عَشْرَ مَرَّاتٍ

“Certainly, the day of Ghadir is more famous in the heavens than in the earth… and by Allah, had people truly known the superiority of this day, the angels would have been shaking hands with them ten times a day.”

Thanking Allah for this greatest blessing

Being grateful to the benefactor for his favors is a matter of rational necessity. The wiser the servant, the more gratitude he expresses in words and actions to his master. Allah states in the Holy Quran:


وَ لَقَدْ آتَيْنا لُقْمانَ الْحِكْمَةَ أَنِ اشْكُرْ لِلَّهِ وَ مَنْ يَشْكُرْ فَإِنَّما يَشْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَ مَنْ كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ حَميد

“We indeed bestowed wisdom upon Luqman: ‘Be grateful to Allah.’ Certainly, whoever is grateful does so to the profit of his own soul, but if any is ungrateful, verily Allah is free of all wants and is abundantly praised.”

In addition, the greater the favor, the more appreciation that is due. Divine guardianship (al-Walaya) is the greatest favor that Allah has bestowed upon His creation. The more gratitude that someone expresses to Allah by adhering to it, the more benefit he receives from it. On the other hand, the more someone rejects Allah’s mercy, the more he is entitled to His curse, which lies in the absence of His mercy and protection. Allah states:

لَئِنْ شَكَرْتُمْ لَأَزيدَنَّكُمْ وَ لَئِنْ كَفَرْتُمْ إِنَّ عَذابي‏ لَشَديد

“If you are grateful, I will increase your (benefits from My favor); but if you show ingratitude, truly My torment is intense indeed.”

On the anniversary of the event of Ghadir Khum, Imam al-Sadiq (PBUH) praised and thanked Allah, saying:

اللَّهُمَّ سَمِعْنَا وَ أَطَعْنَا وَ أَجَبْنَا دَاعِيَكَ بِمَنِّكَ فَلَكَ الْحَمْدُ غُفْرانَكَ رَبَّنا وَ إِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَ بِرَسُولِهِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ صَدَّقْنَا وَ أَجَبْنَا دَاعِيَ اللَّهِ وَ اتَّبَعْنَا الرَّسُولَ فِي مُوَالَاةِ مَوْلَانَا وَ مَوْلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ‏ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ وَ أَخِي رَسُولِهِ وَ الصِّدِّيقِ الْأَكْبَرِ وَ الْحُجَّةِ عَلَى بَرِيَّتِهِ الْمُؤَيَّدِ بِهِ نَبِيُّهُ وَ دِينُهُ الْحَقُّ الْمُبِينُ عَلَماً لِدِينِ اللَّهِ وَ خَازِناً لِعِلْمِهِ وَ عَيْبَةِ غَيْبِ اللَّهِ وَ مَوْضِعِ سِرِّ اللَّهِ وَ أَمِينِ اللَّهِ عَلَى خَلْقِهِ وَ شَاهِدِهِ فِي بَرِيَّتِهِ اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّنا سَمِعْنا مُنادِياً يُنادِي لِلْإِيمانِ أَنْ آمِنُوا بِرَبِّكُمْ فَآمَنَّا رَبَّنا فَاغْفِرْ لَنا ذُنُوبَنا وَ كَفِّرْ عَنَّا سَيِّئاتِنا وَ تَوَفَّنا مَعَ الْأَبْرارِ رَبَّنا وَ آتِنا ما وَعَدْتَنا عَلى‏ رُسُلِكَ وَ لا تُخْزِنا يَوْمَ الْقِيامَةِ إِنَّكَ لا تُخْلِفُ الْمِيعادَ فَإِنَّا يَا رَبَّنَا بِمَنِّكَ وَ لُطْفِكَ أَجَبْنَا دَاعِيَكَ وَ اتَّبَعْنَا الرَّسُولَ وَ صَدَّقْنَاهُ وَ صَدَّقْنَا مَوْلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ كَفَرْنَا بِالْجِبْتِ وَ الطَّاغُوتِ فَوَلِّنَا مَا تَوَلَّيْنَا وَ احْشُرْنَا مَعَ أَئِمَّتِنَا فَإِنَّا بِهِمْ مُؤْمِنُونَ مُوقِنُونَ وَ لَهُمْ مُسَلِّمُون‏ …

“O Allah! We listened, obeyed, and answered the caller from You due to Your favor. Thus, praise belongs to You. We seek Your forgiveness, our Lord, and towards Your (reward or punishment) is the eventual turn. We believed in Allah, who is Unique and has no partner, believed in His Messenger, Muhammad, answered the caller of Allah and followed the Messenger in adhering to our master, the commander and the guardian of the believers, Ali Ibn Ali Talib. He is the servant of Allah, the brother of His Prophet, the most truthful, His exhaustive argument against His creation, the supporter of His Prophet, and His true and clear religion. He is a flag of the religion of Allah, the treasurer of His (issued) knowledge, the chest of what is hidden by Allah, the place of His secrets, and the trustee of Allah and His witness over His creation.

O Allah! We have heard the call of one calling (us) to faith, ‘Believe in Your Lord,’ thus we have believed. Our Lord! Forgive us our sins, blot out from us our evil deeds, and take our souls in the company of the righteous. Our Lord! Grant us what You promised to us through Your messengers, and disgrace us not on the Day of Judgement, for You never break Your promise.

Surely it was by Your favor and Your grace that we acknowledged the Prophet and the Commander of the Believers (Ali), and disbelieved in al-Jibt and al-Taghut. Thus, keep us attached to what we have adhered to. Resurrect us with our Imams, for we believe in them, have confidence in their (authorities and virtues), and are submissive before them …”

Some statistics about the text of the sermon

Here are some statistical facts about the sermon:

– The Prophet (PBUH&HF) explicitly mentioned the name of Imam Ali (PBUH) in his sermon about forty times besides many more instances that he (PBUH&HF) referred to him by pronoun.

– He (PBUH&HF) repeatedly used the following titles for Imam Ali (PBUH) in this sermon:

– Wali and Mawla (guardian) fifteen times.

– Imam (leader) twelve times.

– Amir (commander) seven times.

– Wasi (executor of the will and deputy of the affairs) seven times.

– Akh (brother) four times.

– Khalifa (successor) three times.

– Hadi (guide) three times.

– The Prophet explicitly mentioned the word A’imma (Imams), referring to the eleven Imams after Imam Ali (PBUH), nine times in his sermon.

– The sermon also refers to over one hundred verses of the Holy Quran concerning Imam Ali (PBUH) and his authority, his followers, and their enemies.

– The number of sentences categorized by some important subjects of the sermon is as follows:

– Over fifty sentences on the Walaya of Imam Ali (PBUH).

– Twenty sentences about his virtues, yet stressing that it is impossible to enumerate all his virtues in the sermon.

– Twenty-five sentences about the followers (Shia) of Imam Ali (PBUH) and their enemies.

– Ten sentences on the Walaya of the Imams (PBUT) after him.

– Twenty sentences specifically about Imam Mahdi (PBUH), the last divinely appointed Imam who will establish the divine government on earth at the end of time.

– Twelve sentences about the importance of the Quran, and introducing Imam Ali (PBUH) and his children as its exclusive authorized interpreters.

– Ten sentences on urging people to pledge their fealty to Imam Ali (PBUH) and the Imams after him from his offspring.

An overview of the sermon

The text of the Sermon can be divided into the following ten major parts:

Part 1: The opening of the sermon is dedicated to praising Allah and regarding Him pure from any resemblance with His creation. It includes great lessons on the Unity of the Essence of Allah. In addition, it contains important information concerning His names, attributes, and actions.

Part 2: This part of the speech informs the listeners of the reasons behind delivering this sermon. It includes the revelations that came down to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) just before the event, and the divine order concerning what he must convey to the people. It also explains the reason that the Prophet (PBUH&HF) has delayed the speech until he reached that place.

Part 3: The Prophet (PBUH&HF) officially declares Allah’s decree regarding the appointment of Imam Ali (PBUH) and the pure Imams after him. He then enumerates some of the virtues of Imam Ali (PBUH), his rights, and the duties of people regarding him.

Part 4: The Prophet (PBUH&HF) announces that Allah has completed His religion through the leadership of Imam Ali (PBUH) and reminds people more about his exclusive virtues.

Part 5: The Prophet (PBUH&HF) recites some verses of the Holy Quran concerning the hypocrites, and states what they intend to do after him. He advises people against violating Allah’s commands and emphasizes that what will happen after him is but a test for people, which will distinguish the believers from the disbelievers.

Part 6: The Prophet (PBUH&HF) gives a detailed description of the followers and the enemies of Ahl al-Bait (PBUH), and informs people of the final destiny of each, giving references to many verses of the Holy Quran.

Part 7: To give hope to the believers despite all the future misconduct of the enemies of Allah, the Prophet (PBUH&HF) informs people that justice and faith will finally prevail, and the righteous will inherit the earth. He (PBUH&HF) dedicates this part of his speech to describe Imam al-Mahdi (PBUH) and to confirm his advent as a promise from Allah and His decisive decree.

Part 8: Reciting some verses of the Holy Quran, the Prophet (PBUH&HF) informs people that pledging allegiance to Imam Ali (PBUH) is, in fact, identical to pledging allegiance to Allah, the mighty and the majestic.

Part 9: The Prophet (PBUH&HF) emphasizes that the divine commandments including the obligatory and prohibited actions will never change in future, and that Imam Ali (PBUH) and other Imams of his offspring are fully aware of all final commandments and their limits. They are the expounders of the religion and the divinely appointed judges for any question pertaining to religion.

Part 10: The Prophet (PBUH&HF) asks people to recite the sentences of the covenant with him. He takes their verbal oath of allegiance to Imam Ali (PBUH) and other Imams of his family. He also asks people who can reach him to confirm their oath by shaking hands with him, Ali, al-Hasan, and al-Husain, peace be upon them.

Documentation of the sermon

Different pieces of the sermon of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) at the pond of Khum are found separately in many books narrated through numerous Shia and Sunni authorities. However, the most complete text of the sermon that has reached us, which covers most aforementioned pieces, is found in a number of books of traditions; the most distinguished of those which have been preserved to this date, is al-Ihtijaj, compiled by Ahmad Ibn Ali al-Tabarsi, an outstanding Shia scholar who lived in the 5th century AH.

Since various parts of this speech have been reported in numerous earlier books of traditions, the most comprehensive text available in al-Ihtijaj, is classified as parallel or frequent (Mutawatir). Thus, it should be relied upon irrespective of its chain of narrators.

Al-Tabarsi has often omitted the chain of the narrators of the traditions in his book, because as he stressed, he only narrated traditions that were famous among the Shia traditionists before him. However, due to the importance of the Sermon of Ghadir, al-Tabarsi has quoted the chain of the narrators for this tradition in al-Ihtijaj, which constitutes the following sound authorities traced back to Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (PBUH), the fifth divinely appointed Imam of guidance after the Prophet (PBUH&HF):

حدثني السيد العالم العابد أبو جعفر مهدي بن أبي حرب الحسيني المرعشي رضي الله عنه قال أخبرنا الشيخ أبو علي الحسن بن الشيخ السعيد أبي جعفر محمد بن الحسن الطوسي رضي الله عنه قال أخبرني الشيخ السعيد الوالد أبو جعفر قدس الله روحه قال أخبرني جماعة عن أبي محمد هارون بن موسى التلعكبري قال أخبرنا أبو علي محمد بن همام قال أخبرنا علي السوري قال أخبرنا أبو محمد العلوي من ولد الأفطس و كان من عباد الله الصالحين قال حدثنا محمد بن موسى الهمداني قال حدثنا محمد بن خالد الطيالسي قال حدثنا سيف بن عميرة و صالح بن عقبة جميعا عن قيس بن سمعان عن علقمة بن محمد الحضرمي عن أبي جعفر محمد بن علي ع‏

The detailed sermon, with few minor differences in wording, has been reported in the following books as well:

1- al-Yaqin, Sayyid Ibn Tawus (d. 664 AH), pp. 343-361, narrated from Imam al-Baqir (PBUH) with the following chain of narrators:

حدثنا أحمد بن محمد الطبري قال أخبرني محمد بن أبي بكر بن عبد الرحمن قال حدثني الحسن بن علي أبو محمد الدينوري قال حدثنا محمد بن موسى الهمداني قال حدثنا محمد بن خالد الطيالسي قال حدثنا سيف بن عميرة عن عقبة عن قيس بن سمعان عن علقمة بن محمد الحضرمي عن أبي جعفر محمد بن علي ع

2- Rawdhat al-Wa’idhin, Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan al-Fattal al-Nishaburi (d. 508), part 1, pp. 89-99, narrated from Imam al-Baqir (PBUH), with the chain of narrators omitted by the author due to its popularity in the scholastic circles.

3- Iqbal al-A’mal, Sayyid Ibn Tawus (d. 664 AH), pp. 454-457, narrated from Hudhaifa Ibn Yaman, through the Sunni authorities with the following chain of narrators:

اعلم أن ما نذكر في هذا الفصل ما رواه أيضا مخالفو الشيعة المعتمد عليهم في النقل فمن ذلك ما رواه عنهم مصنف كتاب الخالص المسمى بالنشر و الطي و جعله حجة ظاهرة باتفاق العدو و الولي و حمل به نسخة إلى الملك شاه مازندران رستم بن علي لما حضره بالري فقال فيما رواه عن رجالهم فصل: و عن أحمد بن محمد بن علي المهلب أخبرنا الشريف أبو القاسم علي بن محمد بن علي بن القاسم الشعراني عن أبيه حدثنا سلمة بن الفضل الأنصاري عن أبي مريم عن قيس بن حنان عن عطية السعدي عن حذيفة بن اليمان‏

4- al-Tahsin, Sayyid Ibn Tawus (d. 664 AH), p. 584, narrated from Zaid Ibn Arqam, through the Sunni authorities with the following chain of narrators:

أبو المفضل محمد بن عبد الله الشيباني قال أخبرنا أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير الطبري و هارون بن عيسى بن السكين البلدي قالا حدثنا حميد بن الربيع الخزاز قال حدثنا يزيد بن هارون قال حدثنا نوح بن مبشر قال حدثنا الوليد بن صالح عن ابن امرأة زيد بن أرقم و عن زيد بن أرقم‏

Unless otherwise specified in the endnotes and shown by brackets and marks in the text, the presented Arabic text of the sermon and its English translation are according to the original text of al-Ihtijaj, Ahmad Ibn Ali al-Tabarsi, vol. 1, pp. 56-66, narrated from Imam al-Baqir (PBUH). The phrases within the brackets are either the extra phrases that only appear in the other books named above, or preferred lexically among different phrases with similar meanings given in the above-mentioned documents.




بِسمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ


خُطبَةُ رَسُولِ اللّهِ (صَلَّى اللّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ) يَوْمَ غَدِيرِ خُم





Imam al-Baqir (PBUH) said:

قَالَ حَجَّ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص مِنَ الْمَدِينَةِ وَ قَدْ بَلَّغَ جَمِيعَ الشَّرَائِعِ قَوْمَهُ غَيْرَ الْحَجِّ وَ الْوَلَايَةِ فَأَتَاهُ جَبْرَئِيلُ ع فَقَالَ لَهُ يَا مُحَمَّدُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ جَلَّ اسْمُهُ يُقْرِئُكَ السَّلَامَ وَ يَقُولُ لَكَ إِنِّي لَمْ أَقْبَضْ نَبِيّاً مِنْ أَنْبِيَائِي وَ لَا رَسُولًا مِنْ رُسُلِي إِلَّا بَعْدَ إِكْمَالِ دِينِي وَ تَأْكِيدِ حُجَّتِي وَ قَدْ بَقِيَ عَلَيْكَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَرِيضَتَانِ مِمَّا يَحْتَاجُ أَنْ تُبَلِّغَهُمَا قَوْمَكَ فَرِيضَةُ الْحَجِّ وَ فَرِيضَةُ الْوَلَايَةِ وَ الْخِلَافَةِ مِنْ بَعْدِكَ فَإِنِّي لَمْ أُخْلِ أَرْضِي مِنْ حُجَّةٍ وَ لَنْ أُخْلِيَهَا أَبَداً فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ جَلَّ ثَنَاؤُهُ يَأْمُرُكَ أَنْ تُبَلِّغَ قَوْمَكَ الْحَجَ‏ وَ تَحُجَّ وَ يَحُجَّ مَعَكَ كُلُّ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْحَضَرِ وَ الْأَطْرَافِ وَ الْأَعْرَابِ وَ تُعَلِّمَهُمْ مِنْ حَجِّهِمْ مِثْلَ مَا عَلَّمْتَهُمْ مِنْ صَلَاتِهِمْ وَ زَكَاتِهِمْ وَ صِيَامِهِمْ وَ تُوقِفَهُمْ مِنْ ذَلِكَ عَلَى مِثَالِ الَّذِي أَوْقَفْتَهُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ جَمِيعِ مَا بَلَّغْتَهُمْ مِنَ الشَّرَائِعِ فَنَادَى مُنَادِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص فِي النَّاسِ أَلَا إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ يُرِيدُ الْحَجَّ وَ أَنْ يُعَلِّمَكُمْ مِنْ ذَلِكَ مِثْلَ الَّذِي عَلَّمَكُمْ مِنْ شَرَائِعِ دِينِكُمْ وَ يُوقِفَكُمْ مِنْ ذَلِكَ عَلَى مِثْلِ الَّذِي أَوْقَفَكُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ غَيْرِهِ فَخَرَجَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص وَ خَرَجَ مَعَهُ النَّاسُ وَ أَصْغَوْا إِلَيْهِ لِيَنْظُرُوا مَا يَصْنَعُ فَيَصْنَعُوا مِثْلَهُ فَحَجَّ بِهِمْ وَ بَلَغَ مَنْ حَجَّ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص مِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ وَ أَهْلِ الْأَطْرَافِ وَ الْأَعْرَابِ سَبْعِينَ أَلْفَ إِنْسَانٍ أَوْ يَزِيدُونَ عَلَى نَحْوِ عَدَدِ أَصْحَابِ مُوسَى ع السَّبْعِينَ أَلْفاً الَّذِينَ أَخَذَ عَلَيْهِمْ بَيْعَةَ هَارُونَ ع فَنَكَثُوا وَ اتَّخَذُوا الْعِجْلَ وَ السَّامِرِيَّ وَ كَذَلِكَ أَخَذَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص الْبَيْعَةَ لِعَلِيٍّ ع بِالْخِلَافَةِ عَلَى نَحْوِ عَدَدِ أَصْحَابِ مُوسَى فَنَكَثُوا الْبَيْعَةَ وَ اتَّخَذُوا الْعِجْلَ وَ السَّامِرِيَّ سُنَّةً بِسُنَّةٍ وَ مِثْلًا بِمِثْلٍ وَ اتَّصَلَتِ التَّلْبِيَةُ مَا بَيْنَ مَكَّةَ وَ الْمَدِينَةِ فَلَمَّا وَقَفَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص بِالْمَوْقِفِ أَتَاهُ جَبْرَئِيلُ عَنِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى فَقَالَ يَا مُحَمَّدُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ يُقْرِئُكَ السَّلَامَ وَ يَقُولُ لَكَ إِنَّهُ قَدْ دَنَا أَجَلُكَ وَ مُدَّتُكَ وَ أَنَا مُسْتَقْدِمُكَ عَلَى مَا لَا بُدَّ مِنْهُ وَ لَا عَنْهُ مَحِيصٌ فَاعْهَدْ عَهْدَكَ وَ قَدِّمْ وَصِيَّتَكَ وَ اعْمِدْ إِلَى مَا عِنْدَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ وَ مِيرَاثِ عُلُومِ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ وَ السِّلَاحِ وَ التَّابُوتِ وَ جَمِيعِ مَا عِنْدَكَ مِنْ آيَاتِ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ فَسَلِّمْهَا إِلَى وَصِيِّكَ وَ خَلِيفَتِكَ مِنْ بَعْدِكَ حُجَّتِي الْبَالِغَةِ عَلَى خَلْقِي عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ فَأَقِمْهُ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَماً وَ جَدِّدْ عَهْدَهُ وَ مِيثَاقَهُ وَ بَيْعَتَهُ وَ ذَكِّرْهُمْ مَا أَخَذْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ بَيْعَتِي وَ مِيثَاقِي الَّذِي وَاثَقْتَهُمْ بِهِ وَ عَهْدِي الَّتِي عَاهَدْتَ إِلَيْهِمْ مِنْ وَلَايَةِ وَلِيِّي وَ مَوْلَاهُمْ وَ مَوْلَى كُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ وَ مُؤْمِنَةٍ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ فَإِنِّي لَمْ أَقْبَضْ نَبِيّاً مِنَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ إِلَّا بَعْدَ إِكْمَالِ دِينِي وَ إِتْمَامِ نِعْمَتِي بِوَلَايَةِ أَوْلِيَائِي وَ مُعَادَاةِ أَعْدَائِي وَ ذَلِكَ كَمَالُ تَوْحِيدِي وَ دِينِي وَ إِتْمَامُ نِعْمَتِي عَلَى خَلْقِي بِاتِّبَاعِ وَلِيِّي … مَقْرونٌ طَاعَتُهُ بِطَاعَةِ مُحَمَّدٍ نَبِيِّي وَ مَقْرونٌ طَاعَتُهُ مَعَ طَاعَةِ مُحَمَّدٍ بِطَاعَتِي مَنْ أَطَاعَهُ فَقَدْ أَطَاعَنِي وَ مَنْ عَصَاهُ فَقَدْ عَصَانِي جَعَلْتُهُ عَلَماً بَيْنِي وَ بَيْنَ خَلْقِي مَنْ عَرَفَهُ كَانَ مُؤْمِناً وَ مَنْ أَنْكَرَهُ كَانَ كَافِراً وَ مَنْ أَشْرَكَ بَيْعَتَهُ كَانَ مُشْرِكاً وَ مَنْ لَقِيَنِي بِوَلَايَتِهِ دَخَلَ الْجَنَّةَ وَ مَنْ لَقِيَنِي بِعَدَاوَتِهِ دَخَلَ النَّارَ فَأَقِمْ يَا مُحَمَّدُ عَلِيّاً عَلَماً وَ خُذْ عَلَيْهِمُ الْبَيْعَةَ وَ جَدِّدْ عَهْدِي وَ مِيثَاقِي لَهُمُ الَّذِي وَاثَقْتَهُمْ عَلَيْهِ فَإِنِّي قَابِضُكَ إِلَيَّ وَ مُسْتَقْدِمُكَ عَلَيَّ فَخَشِيَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص قَوْمَهُ وَ أَهْلَ النِّفَاقِ وَ الشِّقَاقِ أَنْ يَتَفَرَّقُوا وَ يَرْجِعُوا إِلَى جَاهِلِيَّةٍ لِمَا عَرَفَ مِنْ عَدَاوَتِهِمْ وَ لِمَا تَنْطَوِي عَلَيْهِ أَنْفُسُهُمْ لِعَلِيٍّ ع مِنَ الْعَدَاوَةِ وَ الْبَغْضَاءِ وَ سَأَلَ جَبْرَئِيلَ أَنْ يَسْأَلَ رَبَّهُ الْعِصْمَةَ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَ انْتَظَرَ أَنْ يَأْتِيَهُ جَبْرَئِيلُ ع بِالْعِصْمَةِ مِنَ النَّاسِ مِنَ اللَّهِ جَلَّ اسْمُهُ فَأَخَّرَ ذَلِكَ إِلَى أَنْ بَلَغَ مَسْجِدَ الْخَيْفِ فَأَتَاهُ جَبْرَئِيلُ ع فِي مَسْجِدِ الْخَيْفِ فَأَمَرَهُ بِأَنْ يَعْهَدَ عَهْدَهُ وَ يُقِيمَ عَلِيّاً عَلَماً لِلنَّاسِ وَ لَمْ يَأْتِهِ بِالْعِصْمَةِ مِنَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ بِالَّذِي أَرَادَ حَتَّى بَلَغَ كُرَاعَ الْغَمِيمِ بَيْنَ مَكَّةَ وَ الْمَدِينَةِ فَأَتَاهُ جَبْرَئِيلُ فَأَمَرَهُ بِالَّذِي أَتَاهُ فِيهِ مِنْ قِبَلِ اللَّهِ وَ لَمْ يَأْتِهِ بِالْعِصْمَةِ فَقَالَ يَا جَبْرَئِيلُ إِنِّي أَخْشَى قَوْمِي أَنْ يُكَذِّبُونِي وَ لَا يَقْبَلُوا قَوْلِي فِي عَلِيٍّ فَرَحَلَ فَلَمَّا بَلَغَ غَدِيرَ خُمٍّ قَبْلَ الْجُحْفَةِ بِثَلَاثَةِ أَمْيَالٍ أَتَاهُ جَبْرَئِيلُ عَلَى خَمْسِ سَاعَاتٍ مَضَتْ مِنَ النَّهَارِ بِالزَّجْرِ وَ الِانْتِهَارِ وَ الْعِصْمَةِ مِنَ النَّاسِ فَقَالَ يَا مُحَمَّدُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ يُقْرِئُكَ السَّلَامَ وَ يَقُولُ لَكَ يا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ ما أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ فِي عَلِيٍّ وَ إِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ فَما بَلَّغْتَ رِسالَتَهُ وَ اللَّهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَ كَانَ أَوَائِلُهُمْ قَرِيباً مِنَ الْجُحْفَةِ فَأَمَرَهُ أَنْ يَرُدَّ مَنْ تَقَدَّمَ مِنْهُمْ وَ يَحْبِسَ مَنْ تَأَخَّرَ عَنْهُمْ فِي ذَلِكَ الْمَكَانِ لِيُقِيمَ عَلِيّاً عَلَماً لِلنَّاسِ وَ يُبَلِّغَهُمْ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فِي عَلِيٍّ ع وَ أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ قَدْ عَصَمَهُ مِنَ النَّاسِ فَأَمَرَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص عِنْدَ مَا جَاءَتِ الْعِصْمَةُ مُنَادِياً يُنَادِي فِي النَّاسِ بِالصَّلَاةِ جَامِعَةً وَ يَرُدُّ مَنْ تَقَدَّمَ مِنْهُمْ وَ يَحْبِسُ مَنْ تَأَخَّرَ عَنْهُمْ وَ تَنَحَّى عَنْ يَمِينِ الطَّرِيقِ إِلَى جَنْبِ مَسْجِدِ الْغَدِيرِ أَمَرَهُ بِذَلِكَ جَبْرَئِيلُ عَنِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ اسْمُهُ وَ فِي الْمَوْضِعِ سَلَمَاتٌ فَأَمَرَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص أَنْ يُقَمَّ مَا تَحْتَهُنَّ وَ يُنْصَبَ لَهُ أَحْجَارٌ كَهَيْئَةِ الْمِنْبَرِ لِيُشْرِفَ عَلَى النَّاسِ فَتَرَاجَعَ النَّاسُ وَ احْتُبِسَ أَوَاخِرُهُمْ فِي ذَلِكَ الْمَكَانِ لَا يَزَالُونَ فَقَامَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص فَوْقَ تِلْكَ الْأَحْجَارِ ثُمَّ حَمِدَ اللَّهَ وَ أَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ فَقَال‏…

The Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) intended to leave Medina to perform pilgrimage having already conveyed all the commandments to his community except for the pilgrimage and the guardianship (of the nation) (al-Walaya).

Thus, Gabriel (PBUH) came to him saying, “O Muhammad! Surely, Allah, majestic is His name, offers peace to you, and tells you, ‘Verily, I have not taken the soul of any of my prophets or messengers except after completing My religion and affirming My proof. Of the commandments, two obligatory duties still remain which you need to convey to your nation: namely, (the details of) the duty of performing pilgrimage, and the duty of (people in) acknowledging the guardianship (of the believers) and following your successor after you. Certainly, I have never left nor shall I ever leave My earth empty of a proof.’

Therefore, Allah, majestic is His praise, commands you to perform pilgrimage along with everyone who is capable of attending from the dwellers of the cities and suburbs as well as the Bedouins. Teach them the pilgrimage as you taught them the prayers, the purification tax, and fasting. Make them aware of its (details) as you made them aware of other religious obligations.”

Thus, the announcer of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) informed people that he (PBUH&HF) intended to go on pilgrimage and to teach them this religious obligation. (Because of his announcement,) the number of people from the inhabitants of Medina and its suburbs as well as (other) Arabs who went on pilgrimage along with the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) was in excess of 70,000 —this is equivalent to the number of people from whom Moses (PBUH) took pledge of allegiance for Aaron (PBUH), but they later chose the calf (for worship) and the Samiri. Likewise, the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) took the pledge of allegiance from this number of people for Ali (PBUH), but they later broke their pledge and chose the calf and the Samiri of their time (as their leaders), following exactly the custom of their predecessors — Repeating the words of compliance with the call of Allah (al-Talbiya), the Prophet (PBUH&HF) traveled from Mecca to Medina and performed the rituals of pilgrimage.

When he was in the stopping place (al-Mina), the Angel Gabriel brought him a message from Allah, the most High, saying, “O Muhammad! Your Lord, the mighty and the majestic, greets you and states, ‘Indeed, your inevitable time (of departure) has approached; thus, fulfill your obligation; make your will earlier; entrust what is with you of knowledge, the heritage of the early prophets in terms of knowledge and signs, the weapon, and the chest to the executor of your will and your successor, who is My far reaching proof over My creation and My exhaustive argument against them, Ali Ibn Abi Talib (PBUH).

Raise him as a guiding flag for people, remind and renew people’s covenant and pledge about adhering to the authorized representative of Mine and the master of every believing man and woman, Ali Ibn Abi Talib (PBUH). Verily, I have never taken the soul of any of the prophets except after perfecting My religion, and completing My bounty by means of requiring adherence to My authorized friends and enmity against My enemies.

As such, the pinnacle of monotheism, faith in My religion, and completion of My blessings over My creation is (achieved only) through following Ali, whose obedience is joint to the obedience of Muhammad (PBUH&HF), My Prophet, as well as My obedience. Anyone who obeys him has indeed obeyed Me, and anyone who disobeys him has indeed disobeyed Me. I have placed him as a (distinguishing) flag amongst My creation so that whoever recognizes him is a believer, whoever denies him is a disbeliever, and whoever associates anyone in pledge with him is a polytheist (in obedience of Allah). One who meets Me (on the Day of Judgement) having accepted him as his guardian shall enter Paradise, and one who meets me having enmity of him shall enter the Fire. Hence, O Muhammad, raise him as the banner (of truth), remind and renew people’s covenant and pledge that you have already taken (informally in several occasions), for I shall soon take your soul.’”

Because what he (PBUH&HF) knew of the inner enmity and hatred of the hypocrites and the dissenters against Ali (PBUH), the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) was concerned about them lest (upon conveying this message) they disperse (people) and return them to the days of ignorance. Thus, he requested Angel Gabriel to ask his Lord for protection from the evil deign of people, and waited to receive this protection for delivering the message.

Similarly, when the Prophet (PBUH&HF) reached the Khif mosque as well as the time the Prophet (PBUH&HF) reached Kuraa al-Ghamim after leaving Mecca for Medina, Gabriel came to him bringing the same order without giving protection. The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said, “O Gabriel, I am afraid that my people will reject me and will not accept my saying concerning Ali (PBUH).”

Once they reached the pond of Khum, three miles before Juhfa, it was five hours past sunrise. At that moment, Gabriel descended upon him again with an admonition and a guarantee of protection from the evil of people, saying, “O Muhammad! Surely, Allah, the mighty and the majestic, conveys greetings to you and states, ‘O Messenger! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord—regarding Ali (PBUH)—and if you do not, you have not conveyed His message at all, and Allah shall protect you from (evil) people.’”

By that time, the front end of the caravan had already reached Juhfa. Thereupon, the Prophet (PBUH&HF) sent for all people who were ahead to return, and waited until those who were behind reached the pond. Then he (PBUH&HF) called for group prayer.

There were some trees in that place. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) ordered (his companions) to clean up the place under the trees and gather the rocks and put them in one place in the form of a pulpit to overlook the crowd. Then, the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) stood over those rocks, and gave the following sermon:









Part 1

Praising Allah and

Regarding Him pure جزء 1

حمده سبحانه و التسبيح له

Praise belongs to Allah Who is exalted above (all the creation) in His Oneness, الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي

عَلَا فِي تَوَحُّدِهِ،

and is near (to His creation) in His loneliness. وَ دَنَا فِي تَفَرُّدِهِ،

Sublime is His authority, وَ جَلَّ فِي سُلْطَانِهِ،

and great are the pillars of His (names). وَ عَظُمَ فِي أَرْكَانِهِ،

His knowledge encompasses everything while He is lofty in status. وَ أَحاطَ بِكُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ عِلْماً،

وَ هُوَ فِي مَكَانِهِ،

He subdues all the creation through His power and evidence. وَ قَهَرَ جَمِيعَ الْخَلْقِ بِقُدْرَتِهِ

وَ بُرْهَانِهِ.

He has always been praiseworthy and shall always be praised. حَمِِيداً لَمْ يَزَلْ،

مَحْمُوداً لَا يَزَالُ،

[He is the glorified Whose glory has no end. [وَ مَجيداً لايَزولُ،

He begins and repeats (the creation), وَ مُبْدِئاً وَ مُعيداً،

and to Him all affairs are returned.]■ وَ كُلُّ أَمْرٍ إِلَيْهِ يَعُودُ.]■

He is the maker of what has been elevated (i.e., heavens), بَارِئُ الْمَسْمُوكَاتِ،

the expander of what has been spread out (i.e., the earth), وَ دَاحِي الْمَدْحُوَّاتِ،

and the dominator of the planets and the heavens. وَ جَبَّارُ الأرَضِينَ و السَّمَاوَاتِ.

He is holy and exalted above all purifications, the Lord of the angels and the spirit. قُدُّوسٌ سُبُّوحٌ،

رَبُّ الْمَلَائِكَةِ وَ الرُّوحِ.

He grants to all that He created. مُتَفَضِّلٌ عَلَى جَمِيعِ مَنْ بَرَأَهُ.

He prolongs His grace to all that He originated. مُتَطَوِّلٌ عَلَى جَمِيعِ مَنْ أَنْشَأهُ.

He sees all eyes, and eyes do not see Him. يَلْحَظُ كُلَّ عَيْنٍ،

وَ الْعُيُونُ لَا تَرَاهُ.

He is generous, forbearing, and patient. كَرِيمٌ حَلِيمٌ ذُو أَنَاةٍ.

He made His mercy encompass everything, قَدْ وَسِعَ كُلَّ شَيْ‏ءٍ رَحْمَتُهُ،

and He favored them by His grace. وَ مَنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ بِنِعْمَتِهِ.

He does not hasten His revenge, لَا يَعْجَلُ بِانْتِقَامِهِ،

nor does He take the initiative on what (He knows) they deserve of His punishment. وَ لَا يُبَادِرُ إِلَيْهِمْ بِمَا اسْتَحَقُّوا مِنْ عَذَابِهِ.

He comprehends the secrets, قَدْ فَهِمَ السَّرَائِرَ،

and knows what the hearts conceal. وَ عَلِمَ الضَّمَائِرَ.

Hidden things are not concealed from Him, وَ لَمْ تَخْفَ عَلَيْهِ الْمَكْنُونَاتُ،

nor do they make Him doubtful. وَ لَا اشْتَبَهَتْ عَلَيْهِ الْخَفِيَّاتُ.

He encompasses (in knowledge) and dominates everything, لَهُ الْإِحَاطَةُ بِكُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ،

وَ الْغَلَبَةُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ،

and has strength and power over everything. وَ الْقُوَّةُ فِي كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ،

وَ الْقُدْرَةُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ.

Nothing is like Him , and He is the establisher of “the thing” when it was nothing. و لَيْسَ مِثْلُهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ، وَ هُوَ

مُنْشِئُ الشَّيْ‏ءِ حِينَ لَا شَيْ‏ءَ.

He is everlasting [and free of need]♦, who acts justly; دَائِمٌ [غَنِيٌّ و]♦ قَائِمٌ بِالْقِسْطِ،

there is no god but He, the mighty, the wise. لا إِلهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ.

He is exalted beyond being grasped by visions, while He grasps all visions, and He is subtle, well aware (of all things). جَلَّ عَنْ أَنْ تُدْرِكَهُ الْأَبْصَارُ،

وَ هُوَ يُدْرِكُ الْأَبْصارَ،

وَ هُوَ اللَّطِيفُ الْخَبِيرُ.

None can reach His description by seeing Him, nor can anyone find out how He is, secretly or openly, and (He is not known) except by what Allah, the mighty and the majestic, has made as the signs of Himself. لَا يَلْحَقُ أَحَدٌ وَصْفَهُ مِنْ مُعَايَنَةٍ، وَ لَا يَجِدُ أَحَدٌ كَيْفَ هُوَ مِنْ سِرٍّ وَ عَلَانِيَةٍ، إِلَّا بِمَا دَلَّ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ

I testify that He is Allah, Whose holiness overspreads all ages, وَ أَشْهَدُ بِأَنَّهُ اللهُ الَّذِي مَلَأَ الدَّهْرَ قُدْسُهُ،

Whose light overwhelms perpetuity , وَ الَّذِي يَغْشَى الْأَبَدَ نُورُهُ،

Who enforces His command without consulting an advisor. وَ الَّذِي يُنَفِّذُ أَمْرَهُ بِلَا مُشَاوَرَةِ مُشِيرٍ،

There is no partner with Him in (His) planning, nor is there any discrepancy in (His) management. وَ لَا مَعَهُ شَرِيكٌ فِي تَقْدِيرٍ

وَ لَا تَفَاوُتٍ فِي تَدْبِيرٍ.

He shaped whatever He

originated without

a preexisting model, صَوَّرَ مَا أَبْتَدَعَ عَلَى غَيْرِ مِثَالٍ،

and created whatever He created without getting assistance from anyone, burdening Himself, or having any need to find out a solution. وَ خَلَقَ مَا خَلَقَ بِلَا مَعُونَةٍ مِنْ أَحَدٍ وَ لَا تَكَلُّفٍ وَ لَا احْتِيَالٍ.

He originated it (in His will), thus it came into being, and He formed it (in His intention), thus it became distinct. أَنْشَأَهَا فَكَانَتْ،

وَ بَرَأَهَا فَبَانَتْ.

So, He is Allah, the One that there is no god but He, فَهُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ،

Who is proficient in skill, and beautiful in action. الْمُتْقِنُ الصَّنْعَةِ الْحَسَنُ الصَّنِيعَةِ.

He is the just Who never oppresses, and the most generous to Whom all affairs are referred. الْعَدْلُ الَّذِي لَا يَجُورُ، وَ الْأَكْرَمُ الَّذِي تَرْجِعُ إِلَيْهِ الْأُمُورُ

I further testify that He is [Allah]■ that before His magnificence everything is lowly, before His might everything is humble, وَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّهُ [اللَّهُ]■ الَّذِي

تَوَاضَعَ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ لِعَظَمَتِهِ،

وَ ذَلَّ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ لِعِزَّتِهِ،

before His power everything surrenders, and before His awe everything yields. وَ اسْتَسْلَمَ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ لِقُدْرَتِهِ،

وَ خَضَعَ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ لِهَيْبَتِهِ.

He is the king of all domains, the turner of the heavenly bodies in their orbits, مَلِكُ الْأَمْلَاكِ

وَ مُفَلِّكُ الْأَفْلَاكِ،

the dominator of the sun and the moon, each of which pursues its course to an appointed time. وَ مُسَخِّرُ الشَّمْسِ وَ الْقَمَرِ،

كُلٌّ يَجْرِي لِأَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى

He makes night overtake day, and day overtake night, (each one) seeking the other rapidly . يُكَوِّرُ اللَّيْلَ عَلَى النَّهارِ وَ يُكَوِّرُ النَّهارَ عَلَى اللَّيْلِ، يَطْلُبُهُ حَثِيثاً

He is the destroyer of every stubborn tyrant, and the annihilator of every rebellious Satan. قَاصِمُ كُلِّ جَبَّارٍ عَنِيدٍ،

وَ مُهْلِكُ كُلِّ شَيْطَانٍ مَرِيدٍ.

Neither has there been any opposing power beside Him, nor any peer. لَمْ يَكُنْ مَعَهُ ضِدٌّ وَ لَا نِدٌّ.

He is Unique and impenetrable. He never begets nor is He begotten, and none can ever be a match for Him. أَحَدٌ صَمَدٌ، لَمْ يَلِدْ وَ لَمْ يُولَدْ،

وَ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُواً أَحَدٌ.

He is the only God, the glorious Lord, Who wills, and thus carries out, Who intends, and thus decrees, Who knows, and thus takes into account. إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ، وَ رَبٌّ مَاجِدٌ،

يَشَاءُ فَيُمْضِي، وَ يُرِيدُ فَيَقْضِي،

وَ يَعْلَمُ فَيُحْصِي،

He causes death and gives life. He impoverishes and enriches. He makes (men) laugh and makes (them) weep. [He brings near and drives away.]♦ He denies and grants. وَ يُمِيتُ وَ يُحْيِي، وَ يُفْقِرُ وَ يُغْنِي وَ يُضْحِكُ وَ يُبْكِي، [وَ يُدْنِي وَ يُقْصِي]♦، وَ يَمْنَعُ وَ يُعْطِى.

For Him is sovereignty, so is praise. In His hand is all goodness, and He is powerful to do everything. لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ،بِيَدِهِ الْخَيْرُ وَ هُوَ عَلى‏ كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ قَدِيرٌ.

He lets night enter the day, and day enter night; there is no god but He, the mighty, the oft-forgiving. يُولِجُ اللَّيْلَ فِي النَّهارِ،

وَ يُولِجُ النَّهارَ فِي اللَّيْلِ،

لا إِلهَ إِلاّ هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْغَفَّارُ.

He is the responder to supplication, open-handed in granting, the enumerator of breaths, and the Lord of the Jinn and the humans. مُجِيبُ الدُّعَاءِ، وَ مُجْزِلُ الْعَطَاءِ، مُحْصِي الْأَنْفَاسِ،

وَ رَبُّ الْجِنَّةِ وَ النَّاسِ.

Neither does anything bring difficulty for Him, nor does the cry of those who appeal for help annoy Him, nor does the insistence of those who insist exhaust Him or force Him to assent. لَا يُشْكِلُ عَلَيْهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ، وَ

لَا يُضْجِرُهُ صُرَاخُ الْمُسْتَصْرِخِينَ، وَ لَا يُبْرِمُهُ إِلْحَاحُ الْمُلِحِّينَ،

He (is Who) protected the righteous, and gave success to the prosperous. الْعَاصِمُ لِلصَّالِحِينَ،

وَ الْمُوَفِّقُ لِلْمُفْلِحِينَ،

He is the guardian of the faithful, and the Lord of the worlds, وَ مَوْلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ،

وَ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ،

Who deserves that all His creations thank Him and praise Him [in any situation. الَّذِي اسْتَحَقَّ مِنْ كُلِّ مَنْ خَلَقَ أَنْ يَشْكُرَهُ وَ يَحْمَدَهُ [عَلَى كُلِّ حالٍ.

I (therefore) praise Him and thank Him]■ in joy and sorrow, and in hardship and comfort. أَحْمَدُهُ وَ أَشْكُرُهُ]■ عَلَى السَّرَّاءِ وَ الضَّرَّاءِ، وَ الشِدَّةِ وَ الرَّخَاءِ

I believe in Him, His angels, His books, and His messengers. أُومِنُ بِهِ وَ بِمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَ كُتُبِهِ وَ رُسُلِهِ

I listen to His command, obey Him, proceed towards whatever pleases Him, and submit to what He decreed, longing for His obedience and fearing His punishment, أَسْمَعُ أَمْرَهُ وَ أُطِيعُ، وَ أُبَادِرُ إِلَى كُلِّ مَا يَرْضَاهُ، وَ أَسْتَسْلِمُ لِمَا قَضَاهُ، رَغْبَةً فِي طَاعَتِهِ، وَ خَوْفاً مِنْ عُقُوبَتِهِ،

for He is Allah against Whose schemes no one should feel secure, nor should anyone be in fear of injustice from Him. لِأَنَّهُ اللَّهُ الَّذِي

لَا يُؤْمَنُ مَكْرُهُ،

وَ لَا يُخَافُ جَوْرُهُ.


Part 2

Preparation for

delivering an important commandment from Allah جزء 2

التمهيد لإبلاغ

أمر إلهى هام

I confess before Him that submissiveness befits my soul, and I bear witness that Lordship befits Him. أُقِرُّ لَهُ عَلَى نَفْسِي بِالْعُبُودِيَّةِ،

وَ أَشْهَدُ لَهُ بِالرُّبُوبِيَّةِ.

I convey what He revealed to me, lest should I not do it, He may make lawful that a calamity befalls me; وَ أُؤَدِّي مَا أَوْحَى إِلَيَّ حَذَراً مِنْ أَنْ لَا أَفْعَلَ فَتَحِلَّ بِي مِنْهُ قَارِعَةٌ،

that which no one can turn away from me even if he has great schemes [and sincere friendship]■, (for) there is no god but He. لَا يَدْفَعُهَا عَنِّي أَحَدٌ وَ إِنْ عَظُمَتْ حِيلَتُهُ [وَ صَفَتْ خُلَّتُهُ]■،

لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ

He has informed me that if I do not convey what He has revealed to me [about Ali’s right]♦, (it is as if) I have not conveyed His message at all. لِأَنَّهُ قَدْ أَعْلَمَنِي أَنِّي إِنْ لَمْ أُبَلِّغْ مَا أَنْزَلَ إِلَيَّ [فِي حَقِّ عَلِىٍّ]♦ فَمَا بَلَّغْتُ رِسَالَتَهُ،

Certainly, He, the most holy, the most high, has guaranteed for me protection [from the (evil of) people]♦, and He is Allah, Who is sufficient and bountiful. وَ قَدْ ضَمِنَ لِي تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى الْعِصْمَةَ [مِنَ النّاسِ]♦،

وَ هُوَ اللَّهُ الْكَافِي الْكَرِيمُ.

Thus, He revealed to me (this verse): “In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful. O Messenger! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord—regarding Ali Ibn Abi Talib and his leadership—and if you do not, you have not conveyed His message at all, and Allah shall protect you from (evil) people.” فَأَوْحَى إِلَيَّ: بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ، يا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ ما أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ – في عَلِيٍّ يَعْنِي فِي الْخِلاَفَةِ لِعَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ – وَ إِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ فَما بَلَّغْتَ رِسالَتَهُ، وَ اللَّهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ.

O people! I have never been neglectful of conveying what Allah, the exalted, sent down to me, and I shall now explain to you the reason behind the revelation of this verse. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، مَا قَصَّرْتُ فِي تَبْلِيغِ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ تَعَالى إِلَيَّ،

وَ أَنَا مُبَيِّنٌ لَكُمْ سَبَبَ نُزُولِ هَذِهِ الْآيَةِ.

Verily, Gabriel came down to me three times giving the order of my Lord, Who is the security (of the believers) , that I should stand in this scene and inform everyone, white and black, that: إِنَّ جَبْرَئِيلَ هَبَطَ إِلَيَّ مِرَاراً ثَلَاثاً يَأْمُرُنِي عَنِ السَّلَامِ رَبِّي – وَ هُوَ السَّلَامُ – أَنْ أَقُومَ فِي هَذَا الْمَشْهَدِ فَأُعْلِمَ كُلَّ أَبْيَضَ وَ أَسْوَدَ،

Ali Ibn Abi Talib is my brother, my deputy and the executor of (my affairs) (Wasi), my successor [over my nation]♦ (Khalifa), and the leader (Imam) after me, أَنَّ عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طَالِبٍ أَخِي

وَ وَصِيِّي وَ خَلِيفَتِي [عَلَى أُمَّتِي]♦

وَ الْإِمَامُ مِنْ بَعْدِي،

whose position to me is like that of Aaron to Moses except that there shall be no prophet after me, الَّذِي مَحَلُّهُ مِنِّي مَحَلُّ هَارُونَ مِنْ مُوسَى إِلَّا أَنَّهُ لَا نَبِيَّ بَعْدِي.

and that he is your guardian (Wali) after Allah and His messenger. وَ هُوَ وَلِيُّكُمْ بَعْدَ اللَّهِ وَ رَسُولِهِ.

Indeed, Allah, the most holy, the most high, had (already) sent down to me a verse from His book about this, saying, وَ قَدْ أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى عَلَيَّ بِذَلِكَ آيَةً مِنْ كِتَابِهِ:

“Only your guardian is Allah and His messenger and those of the believers who establish the prayers and pay the charity while they bow down.” إِنَّما وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَّهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاةَ وَ يُؤْتُونَ الزَّكاةَ وَ هُمْ راكِعُونَ.

Ali Ibn Abi Talib [was the one who]♦ kept alive prayers and paid charity while bowing down in ruku’. He intends (the pleasure of) Allah, the mighty and the majestic, in all situations. وَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ [الَّذِي]♦ أَقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وَ آتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَ هُوَ رَاكِعٌ، يُرِيدُ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فِي كُلِّ حَالٍ.

I asked Gabriel to plead to Allah, [(Who is) the security (of the believers),]♦ to excuse me from conveying it to you, O people, وَ سَأَلْتُ جَبْرَئِيلَ أَنْ يَسْتَعْفِيَ ‌لِي [السَّلامَ]♦ عَنْ تَبْلِيغِ ذَلِكَ إِلَيْكُمْ – أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ-

due to my knowledge on the fewness of the pious, the numerousness of the hypocrites, the corruption and the treachery of the sinful, and the trickery of those who ridicule Islam, لِعِلْمِي بِقِلَّةِ الْمُتَّقِينَ،

وَ كَثْرَةِ الْمُنَافِقِينَ،

وَ إِدْغَالِ الْآثِمِينَ،

وَ خَتْلِ الْمُسْتَهْزِءِينَ بِالْإِسْلَامِ،

those whom Allah described in His book as: “They say with their tongues what is not in their hearts,” taking it lightly, while it is a grave matter in the sight of Allah, الَّذِينَ وَصَفَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي كِتَابِهِ‏ بِأَنَّهُمْ يَقُولُونَ بِأَلْسِنَتِهِمْ ما لَيْسَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ، وَ يَحْسَبُونَهُ هَيِّناً وَ هُوَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ عَظِيمٌ.

and due to their annoying me on many occasions, so much so that they called me (all) “ear”, claiming I am so because of Ali’s frequent attendance in my presence and my attention to him, وَ كَثْرَةِ أَذَاهُمْ لِي غَيْرَ مَرَّةٍ، حَتَّى سَمَّوْنِي أُذُناً، وَ زَعَمُوا أَنِّي كَذَلِكَ لِكَثْرَةِ مُلَازَمَتِهِ إِيَّايَ وَ إِقْبَالِي عَلَيْهِ،

until Allah, the mighty and the majestic, sent down (the following verse) in this regard: حَتَّى أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فِي ذَلِكَ:

“And of them are some who annoy the Prophet and say: He is an ear (for accepting what he hears, particularly from Ali). وَمِنْهُمُ الَّذِينَ يُؤْذُونَ النَّبِيَّ

وَ يَقُولُونَ هُوَ أُذُنٌ.

Say: One whom you call ‘ear’ is best for you; He believes in Allah, safeguards the believers, and is a mercy for those of you who believe. And for those who harm the messenger of Allah, there shall be a painful torment.” قُلْ أُذُنٌ (عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّهُ أُذُنٌ) خَيْرٍ لَكُمْ، يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَ يُؤْمِنُ لِلْمُؤْمِنينَ وَ رَحْمَةٌ لِلَّذينَ آمَنُوا مِنْكُمْ، وَ الَّذينَ يُؤْذُونَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ لَهُمْ عَذابٌ أَليم‏.

Had I wished to name those who have called me so, to point out towards them, or to lead to them by their signs, I would have done so. وَ لَوْ شِئْتُ أَنْ أُسَمِّيَ الْقَائِلِينَ بِذَلِكَ بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ لَسَمَّيْتُ، وَ أَنْ أُومِئَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِأَعْيَانِهِمْ لَأَوْمَأْتُ،

وَ أَنْ أَدُلَّ عَلَيْهِمْ لَدَلَلْتُ.

Yet, by Allah, I have

indeed dealt with their affairs magnanimously. وَ لَكِنِّي وَ اللَّهِ فِي أُمُورِهِمْ

قَدْ تَكَرَّمْتُ.

Nevertheless, Allah is not satisfied with me until I convey what He has sent down to me [regarding the right of Ali.]♦” وَ كُلَّ ذَلِكَ لَا يَرْضَى اللَّهُ مِنِّي إِلَّا أَنْ أُبَلِّغَ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ إِلَيَّ

[فِي حَقِّ عَلِيٍّ]♦.

Then, the Prophet (PBUH) recited (again the following verse): “O Messenger! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord—with regard to Ali—and if you do not, you will not have conveyed His message at all, and Allah shall protect you from (evil) people.” ثُمَّ تَلَا ص:

يا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ،

بَلِّغْ ما أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ

– فِي عَلِيٍّ –

وَ إِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ فَما بَلَّغْتَ رِسالَتَهُ، وَ اللَّهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ.


Part 3

Open declaration

of the leadership of

Ali Ibn Abi Talib (PBUH)

and the Imams after him جزء 3

إعلان إمامة

على بن ‌أبى ‌طالب (ع)

و الأئمة من بعده جهراً

O people! Know that Allah has assigned him (i.e., Ali) as a guardian and a leader for you, فَاعْلَمُوا مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، أَنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ نَصَبَهُ لَكُمْ وَلِيّاً وَ إِمَاماً،

whose obedience is obligatory for the immigrants, the helpers, and those who follow (them) in goodness, مُفْتَرَضَةً طَاعَتُهُ

عَلَى الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَ الْأَنْصَارِ،

وَ عَلَى التَّابِعِينَ بِإِحْسَانٍ،

and for everyone, whether nomad or city resident, Arab or non-Arab, free or slave, وَ عَلَى الْبَادِي وَ الْحَاضِرِ،

وَ عَلَى الْأَعْجَمِيِّ وَ الْعَرَبِيِّ،

وَ الْحُرِّ وَ الْمَمْلُوكِ،

young or old,

white or black, and

for every monotheist. وَ الصَّغِيرِ وَ الْكَبِيرِ،

وَ عَلَى الْأَبْيَضِ وَ الْأَسْوَدِ،

وَ عَلَى كُلِّ مُوَحِّدٍ.

His (i.e., Ali’s) decree is to be carried out, his saying is sanctioned (as law), and his command is effective. مَاضٍ حُكْمُهُ، جَائِزٌ قَوْلُهُ،

نَافِذٌ أَمْرُهُ،

Cursed is whoever opposes him, blessed with mercy is whoever follows him, faithful is whoever

acknowledges his (virtues and rights). مَلْعُونٌ مَنْ خَالَفَهُ،

مَرْحُومٌ مَنْ تَبِعَهُ،

مُؤْمِنٌ مَنْ صَدَّقَهُ.

Indeed, Allah has covered him and those who listen to him and obey him with mercy and forgiveness. فَقَدْ غَفَرَ اللَّهُ لَهُ وَ لِمَنْ سَمِعَ مِنْهُ وَ أَطَاعَ لَهُ.

O people! This is the last stand I make in this gathering; مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، إِنَّهُ آخِرُ مَقَامٍ أَقُومُهُ فِي هَذَا الْمَشْهَدِ،

Thus, listen, obey, and submit to the command of your Lord, فَاسْمَعُوا وَ أَطِيعُوا وَ انْقَادُوا لِأَمْرِ رَبِّكُمْ.

for Allah, the mighty and the majestic, is your master, then [His Messenger]♦, Muhammad, who is now addressing you, is your master. فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ هُوَ مَوْلَاكُمْ، ثُمَّ [رَسُولُهُ]♦ مُحَمَّدٌ وَلِيُّكُمْ

الْقَائِمُ الْمُخَاطِبُ لَكُمْ،

Then, after me, Ali is your master and your leader by the command of Allah, your Lord. ثُمَّ مِنْ بَعْدِي عَلِيٌّ وَلِيُّكُمْ

وَ إِمَامُكُمْ بِأَمْرِ اللَّهِ رَبِّكُمْ،

Then, leadership shall be in my progeny, within his offspring, until the Day you meet Allah and His Messenger. ثُمَّ الْإِمَامَةُ فِي ذُرِّيَّتِي مِنْ وُلْدِهِ إِلَى يَوْمٍ تَلْقَوْنَ اللَّهَ وَ رَسُولُهُ.

Nothing is lawful except what Allah declared so (in His book), [as well as His Messenger, and them (i.e., the Imams)]♦, لَا حَلَالَ إِلَّا مَا أَحَلَّهُ اللَّهُ

[وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ هُمْ]♦،

and nothing is unlawful except Allah declared so (in His book), [as well as His Messenger, and them]♦, وَ لَا حَرَامَ إِلَّا مَا حَرَّمَهُ اللَّهُ

[وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ هُمْ]♦.

(for) Allah, the mighty and the majestic, has informed me of the permissible and the forbidden things, وَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ عَرَّفَنِي الْحَلَالَ وَ الْحَرَامَ،

and I have made known to him (i.e., Ali) what my Lord has taught me of His Book, the permissible, and the forbidden things. وَ أَنَا أَفْضَيْتُ بِمَا عَلَّمَنِي رَبِّي

مِنْ كِتَابِهِ وَ حَلَالِهِ وَ حَرَامِهِ إِلَيْهِ.

O people! There is no knowledge except that Allah has kept its account in (the heart of) me, مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، مَا مِنْ عِلْمٍ

إِلَّا وَ قَدْ أَحْصَاهُ اللَّهُ فِيَّ،

and I have recorded the details of all the knowledge that I was taught, in (the heart of) the leader of the pious, (Ali (PBUH)). وَ كُلَّ عِلْمٍ عُلِّمْتُ فَقَدْ أَحْصَيْتُهُ فِي إِمَامِ الْمُتَّقِينَ.

Certainly, there is no knowledge except that I have taught it to Ali, and he is the evident Imam [whom Allah mentions in the Chapter of Yasin: “… And We have kept the detailed account of everything in an evident Imam.” ]♦ وَ مَا مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِلَّا وَ قَدْ عَلَّمْتُهُ عَلِيّاً وَ هُوَ الْإِمَامُ الْمُبِينُ [الَّذِي ذَكَرَهُ اللَّهُ فِي سُورَةِ يَس: وَ كُلَّ شَىْ‏ءٍ أَحْصَيْناهُ فِي إِمامٍ مُبينٍ]♦

O people! Do not stray from him, nor should you flee from him, nor should you refuse his guardianship and his authority, مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، لَا تَضِلُّوا عَنْهُ،

وَ لَا تَنْفِرُوا مِنْهُ،

وَ لَا تَسْتَنْكِفُوا مِنْ وَلَايَتِهِ.

for he is the one who guides to truth and acts upon it, and crushes falsehood and proscribes it, accepting no blame, in the path of Allah, from any blamer. فَهُوَ الَّذِي يَهْدِي إِلَى الْحَقِّ وَ يَعْمَلُ بِهِ، وَ يُزْهِقُ الْبَاطِلَ وَ يَنْهَى عَنْهُ وَ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ فِي اللَّهِ لَوْمَةُ لَائِمٍ

He is the first to believe in Allah and in His Messenger; and he is the one who offered his life as a sacrifice for the Messenger of Allah. إِنَّهُ أَوَّلُ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَ رَسُولِهِ، وَ الَّذِي فَدَى رَسُولَ اللَّهِ بِنَفْسِهِ.

[ I commanded him, on behalf of Allah, to sleep in my bed, and he did it to sacrifice himself for me. ]♦ [أَمَرْتُهُ عَنِ‏ اللّهِ أَنْ يَنامَ فِي مَضْجَعى، فَفَعَلَ فادِياً لِي بِنَفْسِهِ]♦.

He was with the Messenger of Allah when no one among men worshipped Allah in the company of His Messenger other than him. وَ الَّذِي كَانَ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ

وَ لَا أَحَدَ يَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ مَعَ رَسُولِهِ

مِنَ الرِّجَالِ غَيْرُهُ.

O people! Prefer him (over all others), for Allah has indeed preferred him, and turn to him, for Allah has indeed appointed him (as your guide). مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ،

فَضِّلُوهُ فَقَدْ فَضَّلَهُ اللَّهُ،

وَ اقْبَلُوهُ فَقَدْ نَصَبَهُ اللَّهُ،

O people! He is an Imam authorized by Allah, and Allah shall never turn to anyone (in mercy) who denies his authority, nor shall He ever forgive him; مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، إِنَّهُ إِمَامٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ،

وَ لَنْ يَتُوبَ اللَّهُ عَلَى أَحَدٍ أَنْكَرَ وَلَايَتَهُ وَ لَنْ يَغْفِرَ لَهُ،

this is a decisive decree by Allah that He shall do so to anyone who opposes His command about him, and shall torment him with the most painful torment, which lasts forever and ever. حَتْماً عَلَى اللَّهِ أَنْ يَفْعَلَ ذَلِكَ بِمَنْ خَالَفَ أَمْرَهُ فِيهِ،

وَ أَنْ يُعَذِّبَهُ عَذَاباً نُكْراً

أَبَدَ الْآبادِ وَ دَهْرَ الدُّهُورِ،

Hence, beware lest you oppose him, and thus, arrive at a fire whose fuel is people and stones, prepared for the disbelievers. فَاحْذَرُوا أَنْ تُخَالِفُوهُ

فَتَصْلُوا نَاراً وَقُودُهَا النَّاسُ

وَ الْحِجارَةُ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْكافِرِينَ.

O people! By Allah, all early prophets and messengers have given the glad tiding of my advent. أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، بِي وَ اللَّهِ بَشَّرَ الْأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ.

I am the seal of the prophets and the messengers, and the proof (of Allah) over all the creatures, of the inhabitants of the heavens and the earths. وَ أَنَا خَاتَمُ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ وَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ، وَ الْحُجَّةُ عَلَى جَمِيعِ الْمَخْلُوقِينَ مِنْ أَهْلِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَ الْأَرَضِينَ.

He who doubts this, is indeed a disbeliever, with the disbelief of the early era of ignorance. فَمَنْ شَكَّ فِي ذَلِكَ فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ كُفْرَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَى.

And he who doubts anything of what I have said this (day), has doubted all that has been revealed to me. وَ مَنْ شَكَّ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْ قَوْلِي هَذَا، فَقَدْ شَكَّ فِي كُلِّ مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَىَّ،

[And anyone who doubts any of the Imams, has doubted them all]♦, and anyone who doubts us, shall be in the Fire. [وَ مَنْ شَكَّ فِي وَاحِدٍ مِنَ الْأَئِمَّةِ فَقَدْ شَكَّ فِي الْكُلِّ مِنْهُمْ]♦، وَالشَّاكُّ فِينَا فِي النَّارِ.

O people! Allah, the mighty and the majestic, has bestowed this virtue upon me out of His kindness and His grace. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، حَبَانِيَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ بِهَذِهِ الْفَضِيلَةِ مَنّاً مِنْهُ عَلَيَّ وَ إِحْسَاناً مِنْهُ إِلَيَّ،

And there is no god but He. My praise is for Him forever and ever, and in all circumstances. وَ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ، لَهُ الْحَمْدُ مِنِّي أَبَدَ الْآبِدِينَ وَ دَهْرَ الدَّاهِرِينَ،

وَ عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ.

O people! Prefer Ali (over all others), for he is the best of the people, men or women, after me so long as Allah sends down His sustenance and (and so long as) the creation exists. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، فَضِّلُوا عَلِيّاً

فَإِنَّهُ أَفْضَلُ النَّاسِ بَعْدِي

مِنْ ذَكَرٍ وَ أُنْثَى مَا أَنْزَلَ‏ اللَّهُ الرِّزْقَ وَ بَقِيَ الْخَلْقُ.

Under curse and again under curse, under wrath and again under wrath, is he who rejects this saying of mine and does not does not agree with it. مَلْعُونٌ مَلْعُونٌ مَغْضُوبٌ مَغْضُوبٌ مَنْ رَدَّ عَلَيَّ قَوْلِي هَذَا وَ لَمْ يُوَافِقْهُ

Certainly, Gabriel has informed me of this from Allah, the most high, Who also said: أَلَا إَِنَّ جَبْرَئِيلَ خَبَّرَنِي عَنِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى بِذَلِكَ وَ يَقُولُ:

“Anyone who bears enmity against Ali and refuses his authority, for him shall be My curse and My wrath.” مَنْ عَادَى عَلِيّاً وَ لَمْ يَتَوَلَّهُ

فَعَلَيْهِ لَعْنَتِي وَ غَضَبِي.

Thus, every soul should look to what he has sent forth for the morrow. Be watchful of (your duty towards) Allah lest you should oppose Him and (your) foot should slip after its stability. Verily, Allah is well-acquainted with (all) that you do. فَلْتَنْظُرْ نَفْسٌ ما قَدَّمَتْ لِغَدٍ،

وَ اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ أَنْ تُخَالِفُوهُ

فَتَزِلَّ قَدَمٌ بَعْدَ ثُبُوتِها،

إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبِيرٌ بِما تَعْمَلُونَ.

O people! He (i.e., Ali) is “the side of Allah” that is mentioned in Allah’s Book. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، إِنَّهُ جَنْبُ اللَّهِ الَّذِي ذُكِرَ فِي كِتَابِهِ،

He, the exalted, says, “Lest a soul should (then) say: ‘Ah! Woe onto me that I abused and neglected (my duties towards) the side of Allah.’” فَقَالَ تَعَالَى: أَنْ تَقُولَ نَفْسٌ

يا حَسْرَتى‏ عَلى‏ ما فَرَّطْتُ

فِي جَنْبِ اللَّهِ.

O people! Reflect on the Quran and comprehend its verses. Look into its clear verses and do not follow its ambiguous parts, مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، تَدَبَّرُوا الْقُرْآنَ

وَ افْهَمُوا آيَاتِهِ، وَ انْظُرُوا إِلَى مُحْكَمَاتِهِ وَ لَا تَتَّبِعُوا مُتَشَابِهَهُ.

for by Allah, none shall be able to explain to you its warnings and its mysteries, nor shall anyone clarify its interpretation, other than the one that I have grasped his hand, brought up beside myself, [and lifted his arm,]♦ فَوَ اللَّهِ لَنْ يُبَيِّنَ لَكُمْ زَوَاجِرَهُ وَ لَا يُوَضِّحُ لَكُمْ تَفْسِيرَهُ إِلَّا الَّذِي أَنَا آخِذٌ بِيَدِهِ وَ مُصْعِدُهُ إِلَيَّ وَ شَائِلٌ بِعَضُدِهِ [وَ رَافِعُهُ بِيَدَيَّ]♦،

the one about whom I inform you that whomever I am his master, this Ali is his master; وَ مُعْلِمُكُمْ أَنَّ مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ فَهَذَا عَلِيٌّ مَوْلَاهُ

and he is Ali Ibn Abi Talib, my brother, the executor of my (will), whose appointment as (your) guardian and leader has been sent down to me from Allah, the mighty and the majestic. وَ هُوَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ

أَخِي وَ وَصِيِّي،

وَ مُوَالَاتُهُ مِنَ اللَّهِ

عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ أَنْزَلَهَا عَلَيَّ.

O people! [Indeed, I am leaving amongst you two weighty and precious things that if you adhere to both, you will never go astray.]§ مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ،

[إِنِّي تَارِكٌ فِيكُمُ الثَّقَلَيْن،

إِنْ أَخَذْتُمْ بِهِمَا لَنْ تَضِلُّوا]§،

Verily, Ali and the pure ones among my offspring are the lesser weight, and the Quran is the greater weight. إِنَّ عَلِيّاً وَ الطَّيِّبِينَ مِنْ وُلْدِي

هُمُ الثِّقْلُ الْأَصْغَرُ،

وَ الْقُرْآنُ الثِّقْلُ الْأَكْبَرُ،

Each one [of the two]♦ informs about the other and agrees with it. They shall never part until they return to me at the Pool (of al-Kawthar on the Day of Judgement). وَ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ [مِنْهُما]♦ مُنْبِئٌ عَنْ صَاحِبِهِ وَ مُوَافِقٌ لَهُ، لَنْ يَفْتَرِقَا حَتَّى يَرِدَا عَلَيَّ الْحَوْضَ.

Behold! They (i.e., the Ahl al-Bait (PBUT)) are the trustees of Allah amongst His creation, and His people of wisdom on His earth.” أَلَا إِنَّهُمْ أُمَنَاءُ اللَّهِ فِي خَلْقِهِ

وَ حُكَمَاؤُهُ فِي أَرْضِهِ.

Thereafter, Allah’s Messenger (PBUH&HF) took the upper arm of Imam Ali (PBUH) by his hand, raised it, and said: ثُمَّ ضَرَبَ بِيَدِهِ عَلَى عَضُدِهِ فَرَفَعَهُ وَ قَالَ:

[“O people! Who has more priority over you than yourself?” People said:

“Allah and His messenger.” [اَيُّها النَّاسُ، مَنْ اَوْلى بِكُمْ مِنْ اَنْفُسِكُمْ؟ قَالوا: اَللَّهُ و رَسُولُهُ.

Then, he (PBUH&HF) said: “Behold! Whosoever I am his master, this Ali is his master. O Allah! Stay firm in supporting those who stay firm in following him, be hostile to those who are hostile to him, help those who help him, and forsake those who forsake him.]* فَقالَ: أَلا مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ

فَهذا عَلِيٌّ مَوْلَاهُ،

اللَّهُمَّ وَالِ مَنْ وَالَاهُ

وَ عَادِ مَنْ عَادَاهُ وَ انْصُرْ

مَنْ نَصَرَهُ و اخْذُلْ مَنْ خَذَلَهُ.]*

O people! This Ali is my brother, the executor of my (affairs), the container of my knowledge, my successor over my nation, and over the interpretation the Book of Allah, the mighty and the majestic, and the true inviter to its (implications). مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ،

هَذَا عَلِيٌّ أَخِي وَ وَصِيِّي

وَ وَاعِي عِلْمِي وَ خَلِيفَتِي عَلَى أُمَّتِي وَ عَلَى تَفْسِيرِ كِتَابِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ الدَّاعِي إِلَيْهِ.

He is the one who acts according to what pleases Him, fights His enemies, causes to adhere to His obedience, and advises against His disobedience. وَ الْعَامِلُ بِمَا يَرْضَاهُ وَ الْمُحَارِبُ لِأَعْدَائِهِ وَ الْمُوَالِي عَلَى طَاعَتِهِ وَ النَّاهِي عَنْ مَعْصِيَتِهِ.

Surely, He is the successor of the Messenger of Allah, the commander of the believers, the guiding Imam, and the killer of the oath breakers, the transgressors, and the apostates. إِنَّهُ خَلِيفَةُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ

وَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ الْإِمَامُ الْهَادِي وَ قَاتِلُ النَّاكِثِينَ وَ الْقَاسِطِينَ

وَ الْمَارِقِينَ.

I speak by the authority of Allah. The word with me shall not be changed. بِأَمْرِ اللَّهِ أَقُولُ، ما يُبَدَّلُ الْقَوْلُ لَدَيَ‏،

I say with the command of Allah: بِأَمْرِ رَبِّي أَقُولُ:

O Allah! Be the guardian of him who adheres to him. اللَّهُمَّ وَالِ مَنْ وَالَاهُ

Be the enemy of him who bears enmity against him. وَ عَادِ مَنْ عَادَاهُ

Curse him who rejects him. وَ الْعَنْ مَنْ أَنْكَرَهُ

Be wrathful towards him who denies his right. وَ اغْضَبْ عَلَى مَنْ جَحَدَ حَقَّهُ.

Indeed, I have now fulfilled (my duty). Indeed, I have now conveyed (the Message). Indeed, I have now made (you) hear (it). Indeed, I have now clarified (it). أَلَا وَ قَدْ أَدَّيْتُ، أَلَا وَ قَدْ بَلَّغْتُ،

أَلَا وَ قَدْ أَسْمَعْتُ،

أَلَا وَ قَدْ أَوْضَحْتُ،

Indeed, Allah, the mighty and the majestic, so said, and so did I on His behalf. أَلَا وَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ قَالَ

وَ أَنَا قُلْتُ عَنِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ.

Indeed, there is no commander for the faithful save this brother of mine, and it is not permissible to call anyone other than him with the title of “the Commander of the Believers” after my departure. أَلَا إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ غَيْرَ أَخِي هَذَا، وَ لَا تَحِلُّ إِمْرَةُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ بَعْدِي لِأَحَدٍ غَيْرِهِ.


Part 4

Announcing the perfection of religion due to Ali’s appointment and reminding the People of his virtues جزء 4

إعلان إكمال الدّين

بنصب علي (ع)

و ذكر بعض فضائله

O Allah! (I testify that) You did send down [this verse regarding Ali, Your authorized representative, at the time of the explanation of his authority and appointment today:]□ اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّكَ أَنْزَلْتَ [الْآيَةَ فِي عَلِيٍّ وَلِيِّكَ عِنْدَ تَبْيينِ ذَلِكَ وَ نَصْبِكَ إِيّاهُ لِهَذَا الْيَوْمِ:]□

“This day, I perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and was satisfied that Islam be your religion.” اَلْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ

وَ أَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي

وَ رَضيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلامَ ديناً.

You (also) said, “If anyone desires a religion other than Islam (submission to Walaya of Ali), never shall it be accepted from him, and in the Hereafter, he shall be one of the losers.” و قُلْتَ: وَ مَنْ يَبْتَغِ

غَيْرَ الْإِسْلامِ دِيناً فَلَنْ يُقْبَلَ مِنْهُ،

وَ هُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخاسِرِينَ.

O Allah! I implore You to witness that I have conveyed (Your message). اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أُشْهِدُكَ أَنِّي قَدْ بَلَّغْتُ.

O people! Allah, the mighty and the majestic, has indeed perfected your religion through his (i.e., Ali’s) leadership. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، إِنَّمَا أَكْمَلَ اللَّهُ

عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ دِينَكُمْ بِإِمَامَتِهِ،

Thus, whoever does not follow his example and the example of those of my children from his loins who will take his position until the Day of Judgement—when deeds are presented before Allah, the mighty and the majestic— فَمَنْ لَمْ يَأْتَمَّ بِهِ وَ بِمَنْ

يَقُومُ مَقَامَهُ مِنْ وُلْدِي

مِنْ صُلْبِهِ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ

وَ الْعَرْضِ عَلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ،

they are the ones whose deeds become vain and fruitless, and they shall be in Hellfire forever. فَأُولئِكَ الَّذينَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمالُهُمْ

وَ فِي النَّارِ هُمْ خالِدُونَ.

“Their torment shall not be lightened, nor shall it be postponed.” لا يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمُ الْعَذابُ

وَ لا هُمْ يُنْظَرُونَ.

O people! This is Ali, who has been my greatest aid, the most worthy of you before me, the closest in relation with me, and the dearest to me amongst you (all). مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، هَذَا عَلِيٌّ

أَنْصَرُكُمْ لِي وَ أَحَقُّكُمْ بِي

وَ أَقْرَبُكُمْ إِلَيَّ وَ أَعَزُّكُمْ عَلَيَّ.

Both Allah, the mighty and the majestic, and I are pleased with him. وَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ أَنَا عَنْهُ رَاضِيَانِ.

No verse [in the Quran]♦ has been sent down expressing (Allah’s) pleasure except that (in its absolute sense) it is about him, وَ مَا نَزَلَتْ آيَةُ رِضًى

[فِي الْقُرْآنِ]♦ إِلَّا فِيهِ،

nor has Allah addressed with honor “those who believe” but that He meant him first, وَ مَا خَاطَبَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ

آمَنُوا إِلَّا بَدَأَ بِهِ،

nor has any verse of praise been revealed in the Quran but that it is in his honor, وَ لَا نَزَلَتْ آيَةُ مَدْحٍ

فِي الْقُرْآنِ إِلَّا فِيهِ،

nor did Allah testify Paradise in (the chapter starting with) “Has not passed over man a long period of time” but for him, nor did He reveal it for other than him, nor did He mean to praise by it save him. وَ لَا شَهِدَ اللَّهُ بِالْجَنَّةِ

فِي هَلْ أَتى‏ عَلَى الْإِنْسانِ إِلَّا لَهُ

وَ لَا أَنْزَلَهَا فِي سِوَاهُ

وَ لَا مَدَحَ بِهَا غَيْرَهُ.

O people! He is the patron of the religion of Allah, and the one who argues on behalf of the Messenger of Allah. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ،

هُوَ نَاصِرُ دِينِ اللَّهِ

وَ الْمُجَادِلُ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ.

He is the pious, the pure, the guide, and the rightly guided. وَ هُوَ التَّقِيُّ النَّقِيُّ

وَ الْهَادِي الْمَهْدِيُّ.

Your prophet is the best prophet, the executor (of my will) over you is the best executor and deputy, and his sons are the best deputies. نَبِيُّكُمْ خَيْرُ نَبِيٍّ

وَ وَصِيُّكُمْ خَيْرُ وَصِيٍّ

وَ بَنُوهُ خَيْرُ الْأَوْصِيَاءِ

O people! The progeny of every prophet was from his own loins whereas my progeny is from the loins of Ali. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ،

ذُرِّيَّةُ كُلِّ نَبِيٍّ مِنْ صُلْبِهِ،

وَ ذُرِّيَّتِي مِنْ صُلْبِ عَلِيٍّ.

O people! Surely, Iblis (the greater Satan) caused Adam to be dismissed from the garden through envy. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، إِنَّ إِبْلِيسَ أَخْرَجَ آدَمَ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ بِالْحَسَدِ،

Thus, do not envy him or your deeds shall be nullified and your feet shall slip, فَلَا تَحْسُدُوهُ فَتَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالُكُمْ

وَ تَزِلَّ أَقْدَامُكُمْ.

Verily, Adam was sent down to earth only because of one mistake, while he was the elite of Allah, the mighty and the majestic. فَإِنَّ آدَمَ أُهْبِطَ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ بِخَطِيئَةٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَ هُوَ

صَفْوَةُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ،

How, then, will be your condition, and you are what you really are, and among you are the enemies of Allah? وَ كَيْفَ بِكُمْ

وَ أَنْتُمْ أَنْتُمْ

وَ مِنْكُمْ أَعْدَاءُ اللَّهِ.

Indeed, none hates Ali but a wretched person, none keeps himself attached to Ali but a pious person, and none has faith in his (virtues) but a sincere believer. أَلَا إِنَّهُ لَا يُبْغِضُ عَلِيّاً إِلَّا شَقِيٌّ،

وَ لَا يُوَالِي عَلِيّاً إِلَّا تَقِيٌّ،

وَ لَا يُؤْمِنُ بِهِ إِلَّا مُؤْمِنٌ مُخْلِصٌ.

And in the honor of Ali, by Allah, was the Chapter of al-Asr (Ch. 103) revealed: وَ فِي عَلِيٍّ وَ اللَّهِ

نَزَلَتْ سُورَةُ الْعَصْرِ:

“In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful. By the Time (of rising)! Most surely man is in loss, بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ،

وَ الْعَصْرِ إِنَّ الْإِنْسانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ،

except those who believe, do righteous deeds, and enjoin on each other the truth, and enjoin on each other patience and constancy.” إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَ عَمِلُوا الصَّالِحاتِ، وَ تَواصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ

وَ تَواصَوْا بِالصَّبْر.

O people! I have sought Allah to be my witness and have conveyed my communication to you, مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، قَدْ أَسْتَشْهَدْتُ اللَّهَ وَ بَلَّغَتْكُمْ رِسَالَتِي.

“and the messenger is only obligated to convey clearly.” وَ ما عَلَى الرَّسُولِ

إِلَّا الْبَلاغُ الْمُبِينُ‏.

O people! “Be cautious of (your duties towards) Allah, the caution that He deserves, and do not die except in the state of submission.” مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ،

اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ تُقاتِهِ،

وَ لا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَ أَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ.


Part 5

Referring to the aims

of the hypocrites جزء 5

الإشارة إلي مقاصد المنافقين

O people! Believe in Allah and His Messenger and the light that was sent down with him, مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، آمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَ رَسُولِهِ وَ النُّورِ الَّذِي أُنْزِلَ مَعَهُ،

“before We alter faces then turn them on their backs or curse them as We cursed the Sabbath breakers.” مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ نَطْمِسَ وُجُوهاً فَنَرُدَّها عَلى‏ أَدْبارِها أَوْ نَلْعَنَهُمْ كَما لَعَنَّا أَصْحابَ السَّبْتِ.

[By Allah! No one is intended by this (latter) verse except a certain group of my companions whom I know by their names and their lineage, yet, I have been ordered to ignore them. ]♦ [باِللَّهِ ما عَنى بِهذِهِ الْآيَةِ إِلاَّ قَوْماً مِنْ أَصْحابِي أَعْرِفُهُمْ بِأَسْمائِهِمْ وَأَنْسابِهِمْ، وَ قَدْ أُمِرْتُ بِالصَّفْحِ عَنْهُمْ.]♦

O people! The light (created) by Allah, the mighty and the majestic, has been placed in me, then in Ali, and then in his select descendants up to al-Qa’im al-Mahdi , who shall re-establish the right of Allah as well as all our rights, مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، النُّورُ مِنَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فِيَّ مَسْلُوكٌ، ثُمَّ فِي عَلِيٍّ، ثُمَّ فِي النَّسْلِ مِنْهُ إِلَى الْقَائِمِ الْمَهْدِيِّ الَّذِي يَأْخُذُ بِحَقِّ اللَّهِ

وَ بِكُلِّ حَقٍّ هُوَ لَنَا.

because Allah, the mighty and the majestic, has made us (His) exhaustive argument against the neglectful, the stubborn, the dissenters, the treacherous, the sinful, the unjust, and the usurpers from all worlds. لِأَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ قَدْ جَعَلَنَا حُجَّةً عَلَى الْمُقَصِّرِينَ وَ الْمُعَانِدِينَ وَ الْمُخَالِفِينَ وَ الْخَائِنِينَ وَ الْآثِمِينَ وَ الظَّالِمِينَ وَ الْغَاصِبِينَ مِنْ جَمِيعِ الْعَالَمِينَ.

O people! I warn you that I am the Messenger of Allah. There have been messengers before me who came and passed away. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ،

أُنْذِرُكُمْ أَنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ،

قَدْ خَلَتْ مِنْ قَبْلِيَ الرُّسُلُ،

Then, should I die or be killed, will you turn back on your heels? أَ فَإِنْ مِتُّ أَوْ قُتِلْتُ

انْقَلَبْتُمْ عَلى‏ أَعْقابِكُمْ؟

And whoever turns back on his heels shall not harm Allah in the least, and Allah shall soon reward the grateful [who observe patience.]■ وَ مَنْ يَنْقَلِبْ عَلى‏ عَقِبَيْهِ

فَلَنْ يَضُرَّ اللَّهَ شَيْئاً، وَ سَيَجْزِي اللَّهُ الشَّاكِرِينَ [الصّابِرينَ.]■

Behold! Ali is surely the one described with patience and gratitude, so are after him my offspring from his loins. أَلَا وَ إِنَّ عَلِيّاً هُوَ الْمَوْصُوفُ بِالصَّبْرِ وَ الشُّكْرِ،

ثُمَّ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ وُلْدِي مِنْ صُلْبِهِ.

O people! Do not think that you are doing a favor to Allah by accepting Islam lest His wrath should descend upon you, and lest He should afflict you with His punishment; surely He is ever-watching. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ،

لَا تَمُنُّوا عَلَى اللَّهِ إِسْلَامَكُمْ فَيَسْخَطَ عَلَيْكُمْ فَيُصِيبَكُمْ بِعَذابٍ مِنْ عِنْدِهِ

إِنَّهُ لَبِالْمِرْصادِ.

O people! There shall soon be leaders after me who shall invite (people) to the Fire, and on the Day of Judgement they shall not be helped. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، إِنَّهُ سَيَكُونُ

مِنْ بَعْدِي أَئِمَّةٌ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ،

وَ يَوْمَ الْقِيامَةِ لا يُنْصَرُونَ.

O people! Indeed, Allah and I are both clear of them. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ،

إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَ أَنَا بَرِيئَانِ مِنْهُمْ.

O people! They, their supporters, their followers, and their adherents shall be in the lowest depths of the Fire; and evil, indeed, is the abode of the arrogant. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، إِنَّهُمْ وَ أَنْصَارَهُمْ وَ أَتْبَاعَهُمْ وَ أَشْيَاعَهُمْ

فِي الدَّرْكِ الْأَسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ

وَ لَبِئْسَ مَثْوَى الْمُتَكَبِّرِينَ.

Know that these are, indeed, the People of the Sheet; so, let each one of you look into his own sheet (of deeds)!” أَلَا إِنَّهُمْ أَصْحَابُ الصَّحِيفَةِ، فَلْيَنْظُرْ أَحَدُكُمْ فِي صَحِيفَتِهِ.

(Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (PBUH), here states that except for a small band (who themselves were the People of the Sheet) most people did not comprehend the issue of sheet). (قَالَ فَذَهَبَ عَلَى النَّاسِ إِلَّا شِرْذِمَةً مِنْهُمْ أَمْرُ الصَّحِيفَةِ).

O people! I leave the authority after me as Imamate (leadership) inherited in my offspring until the Day of Judgement. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ،

إِنِّي أَدَعُهَا إِمَامَةً وَ وِرَاثَةً

فِي عَقِبِي إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ.

Certainly, I just conveyed what I have been ordered to convey as an argument against everyone, be him present or absent, a direct witness or not, and already born or not yet born. وَ قَدْ بَلَّغْتُ مَا أُمِرْتُ بِتَبْلِيغِهِ حُجَّةً عَلَى كُلِّ حَاضِرٍ وَ غَائِبٍ،

وَ عَلَى كُلِّ أَحَدٍ مِمَّنْ شَهِدَ

أَوْ لَمْ يَشْهَدْ، وُلِدَ أَوْ لَمْ يُولَدْ.

Hence, everyone who is present should convey (this sermon) to those who are absent, every parent should convey it to his/her children, (and they should continue to do so) until the Day of Judgement. فَلْيُبَلِّغِ الْحَاضِرُ الْغَائِبَ

وَ الْوَالِدُ الْوَلَدَ

إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ.

But, (I have been informed that) some people shall replace this (divinely-assigned leadership) with kingdom through usurpation. May Allah curse the usurpers and dispossessors, وَ سَيَجْعَلُونَهَا

مُلْكاً وَ اغْتِصَاباً.

أَلَا لَعَنَ اللَّهُ الْغَاصِبِينَ

وَ الْمُغْتَصِبِينَ.

And then, “We will soon settle your affairs, O the two weights.” وَ عِنْدَهَا سَنَفْرُغُ

لَكُمْ أَيُّهَ الثَّقَلانِ.

And (also), “on you O the two (greatest enemies) shall be launched a flame of fire and a (flash of) molten brass, thus you shall never prevail.” وَ يُرْسَلُ عَلَيْكُما

شُواظٌ مِنْ نارٍ وَ نُحاسٌ

فَلا تَنْتَصِرانِ.

O people! Without doubt, Allah, the mighty and the majestic, does not leave you in the state you are now, مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لَمْ يَكُنْ لِيَذَرَكُمْ عَلى‏ ما أَنْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ،

until He separates the evil from the good ones. Nor does He make you acquainted with (the knowledge of) the unseen. حَتَّى يَمِيزَ الْخَبِيثَ مِنَ الطَّيِّبِ،

وَ ما كانَ اللَّهُ لِيُطْلِعَكُمْ عَلَى الْغَيْبِ.

O people! There shall be no (wrongful) community but that Allah shall perish it due to the rejection (of truth) by its people. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، إِنَّهُ مَا مِنْ قَرْيَةٍ

إِلَّا وَ اللَّهُ مُهْلِكُهَا بِتَكْذِيبِهَا.

Such is what Allah, the exalted, mentioned (in His book) as to how He destroys the wrongful societies. وَ كَذَلِكَ يُهْلِكُ الْقُرى‏ وَ هِيَ ظالِمَةٌ كَمَا ذَكَرَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى.

This is your leader and your guardian, and these are Allah’s promises. Verily, Allah fulfills His promise. وَ هَذَا إِمَامُكُمْ وَ وَلِيُّكُمْ وَ هُوَ مَوَاعِيدُ اللَّهِ وَ اللَّهُ يَصْدُقُ وَعْدُهُ

O people! Most of the early generations before you have strayed, and surely, Allah destroyed them. He shall be the One who destroys the later generations too. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، قَدْ ضَلَّ قَبْلَكُمْ أَكْثَرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ، وَ اللَّهُ لَقَدْ أَهْلَكَ الْأَوَّلِينَ وَ هُوَ مُهْلِكُ الْآخِرِينَ.

Allah, the exalted, states: “Did We not destroy the former generations? So shall We follow the same for later (generations). Such is how We treat the guilty. Woe on that Day to the rejecters (of truth)!” قالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالى:

أَ لَمْ نُهْلِكِ الْأَوَّلِينَ؟

ثُمَّ نُتْبِعُهُمُ الْآخِرِينَ.

كَذلِكَ نَفْعَلُ بِالْمُجْرِمِينَ.

وَيْلٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِلْمُكَذِّبِين.

O people! Allah gave me the commandments and the prohibitions, and I gave them to Ali by the order of Allah. Hence, the knowledge of all commandments and prohibitions are with him. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، إِنَّ اللَّهَ

قَدْ أَمَرَنِي وَ نَهَانِي،

وَ قَدْ أَمَرْتُ عَلِيّاً وَ نَهَيْتُهُ بِأَمْرِهِ، فَعِلْمُ الْأَمْرِ وَالنَّهْيِ لَدَيْهِ.

Thus, listen to his orders so that you remain safe, obey him so that you are guided, and leave what he prohibits so that you become mature. Conform to what he wants, and do not let different paths separate you from his path. فَاسْمَعُوا لِأَمْرِهِ تَسْلَمُوا،

وَ أَطِيعُوهُ تَهْتَدُوا، وَ انْتَهَوْا لِنَهْيِهِ تَرْشُدُوا، وَ صِيرُوا إِلَى مُرَادِهِ، وَ لَا تَتَفَرَّقُ بِكُمُ السُّبُلُ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ.


Part 6

Adherents of

Ahl al-Bait (PBUT)

and their enemies جزء 6

أولياء أهل البيت (ع) و أعدائهم

O people! I am the Straight Path of Allah whom He commanded you to follow, مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، أَنَا صِرَاطُ اللَّهِ الْمُسْتَقِيمُ الَّذِي أَمَرَكُمْ بِاتِّبَاعِهِ.

and such after me also is Ali, and then my offspring from his loins, the Imams who guide with truth and turn (people) to it.” ثُمَّ عَلِيٌّ مِنْ بَعْدِي،

ثُمَّ وُلْدِي مِنْ صُلْبِهِ

أَئِمَّةٌ يَهْدُونَ بِالْحَقِّ وَ بِهِ يَعْدِلُونَ.

Then, the Prophet (PBUH&HF) recited the entire Quranic chapter of the opening (al-Fatiha) and said: ثُمَّ قَرَأَ ص: الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعالَمِينَ إِلَى آخِرِهَا وَ قَالَ:

“This (chapter) was revealed in my honor and in theirs (i.e., the Imams’) generally and specifically. فِيَّ نَزَلَتْ وَ فِيهِمْ نَزَلَتْ،

وَ لَهُمْ عَمَّتْ وَ إِيَّاهُمْ خَصَّتْ.

They are the authorized friends of Allah, for whom there shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. أُولَئِكَ أَوْلِيَاءُ اللَّهِ الَّذِينَ لا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ لا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ.

Behold! Truly, it is the party of Allah that shall prevail. أَلا إِنَّ حِزْبَ اللَّهِ هُمُ الْغَالِبُونَ.

Lo! It is their enemies who are the dissenters, the transgressors, and the brethren of Satans, who inspire one another with embellished vain discourses by way of deception. أَلَا إِنَّ أَعْدَاءَهُمْ هُمْ أَهْلُ الشِّقَاقِ الْعَادُونَ وَ إِخْوَانُ الشَّيَاطِينِ الَّذِينَ يُوحِي بَعْضُهُمْ إِلى‏ بَعْضٍ زُخْرُفَ الْقَوْلِ غُرُوراً.

Lo! It is their close adherents who are the true believers, whom Allah, the mighty and the majestic, mentions in His Book saying: أَلَا إِنَّ أَوْلِيَاءَهُمْ هُمُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ ذَكَرَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي كِتَابِهِ، فَقَالَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ:

“You will not find any group of people who (truly) believe in Allah and in the Last Day, yet they love those who opposed Allah and His messenger, even though they were their own fathers, sons, brothers, or kinsfolk; Those (who meet this criterion) are the ones in whose hearts He has written faith …” لا تَجِدُ قَوْماً يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَ الْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ يُوادُّونَ مَنْ حَادَّ اللَّهَ وَ رَسُولَهُ وَ لَوْ كانُوا آباءَهُمْ أَوْ أَبْناءَهُمْ أَوْ إِخْوانَهُمْ أَوْ عَشيرَتَهُم أُولئِكَ كَتَبَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الْإِيمانَ إِلَى آخِرِ الْآيَةِ.

Lo! Their close adherents are those whom Allah, the mighty and the majestic, describes as the following: أَلَا إِنَّ أَوْلِيَاءَهُمُ الَّذِينَ وَصَفَهُمُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فَقَالَ:

“Those who believe and do not cover their faith with injustice , are the ones for whom is the security (from Hellfire), and they are the rightly guided.” الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَ لَمْ يَلْبِسُوا

إِيمانَهُمْ بِظُلْمٍ أُولئِكَ

لَهُمُ الْأَمْنُ وَ هُمْ مُهْتَدُونَ.

[Indeed, their close adherents are those who believed and then have not entertained doubt (in their faith). ]♦ [أَلا إِنَّ أَوْلِيائَهُمُ

الَّذينَ آمَنُوا وَلَمْ يَرْتابوا]♦

Lo! Their close adherents shall enter Paradise in peace and security, and the angels shall receive them with greetings saying, “Well have you done! Hence, enter into it to dwell therein forever!” أَلَا إِنَّ أَوْلِيَاءَهُمُ الَّذِينَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ آمِنِينَ، وَ تَتَلَقَّاهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ بِالتَّسْلِيمِ أَنْ طِبْتُمْ فَادْخُلُوها خالِدِينَ.

Indeed, their close adherents are those about whom Allah, the mighty and the majestic, said, they shall enter Paradise (where they shall receive sustenance) without having to account for anything. أَلَا إِنَّ أَوْلِيَاءَهُمُ

الَّذِينَ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ (يُرْزَقونَ فِيها)

بِغَيْرِ حِسابٍ.

Lo! Their enemies are ones who shall arrive at Hell. أَلَا إِنَّ أَعْدَاءَهُمُ الَّذِينَ

يَصِلُونَ سَعِيراً.

Indeed, their enemies are the ones who shall hear the (terrible) drawing in of its breath as it blazes forth, and therein shall be the heaving of sighs and sobs. أَلَا إِنَّ أَعْدَاءَهُمُ الَّذِينَ

يَسْمَعُونَ لِجَهَنَّمَ شَهِيقاً

وَ هِيَ تَفُورُ وَ لَهَا زَفِيرٌ.

Behold! Their enemies are those about whom Allah states: “Whenever a nation enters it, it shall curse its peer.” أَلَا إِنَّ أَعْدائَهُمُ

الَّذينَ قالَ ‏اللَّهُ فِيهِمْ:

كُلَّما دَخَلَتْ أُمَّةٌ لَعَنَتْ أُخْتَها.

Lo! Their enemies are those whom Allah, the mighty and the majestic, describes as: أَلَا إِنَّ أَعْدَاءَهُمْ الَّذِينَ

قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ:

“Every time a group is cast therein, its keepers shall ask them, ‘Did no warner come to you?’ كُلَّما أُلْقِيَ فِيها فَوْجٌ سَأَلَهُمْ خَزَنَتُها أَ لَمْ يَأْتِكُمْ نَذِيرٌ؟

They shall say, ‘Yes indeed. A warner came to us, but we rejected (him) and said, Allah has not revealed anything; you are but in a great error.’ قالُوا بَلى‏ قَدْ جاءَنا نَذيرٌ، فَكَذَّبْنا وَ قُلْنا ما نَزَّلَ اللَّهُ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ،

إِنْ أَنْتُمْ إِلاَّ في‏ ضَلالٍ كَبير.

They shall also say, ‘Had we listened or used our wisdom, we would not have been among the inmates of the blazing fire.’ وَ قالُوا لَوْ كُنَّا نَسْمَعُ أَوْ نَعْقِلُ ما كُنَّا في‏ أَصْحابِ السَّعيرِ.

They shall then confess their sins; but far from mercy shall be the inmates of the burning fire.” فَاعْتَرَفُوا بِذَنْبِهِمْ،

فَسُحْقاً لِأَصْحابِ السَّعير.

In contrast, their close adherents are, indeed, ones who fear their Lord in secret; for them is forgiveness and a great reward. أَلَا إِنَّ أَوْلِيَاءَهُمُ الَّذِينَ

يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ بِالْغَيْبِ

لَهُمْ مَغْفِرَةٌ وَ أَجْرٌ كَبِيرٌ.

O people! What a great difference it is between the burning fire and the great reward! مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، شَتَّانَ مَا بَيْنَ السَّعِيرِ وَ وَالْأَجْرِ الْكَبيرِ.

O people! Our enemy is whom Allah censures and curses, whereas our adherent friend is the one whom Allah praises and loves. فَعَدُوُّنَا مَنْ ذَمَّهُ اللَّهُ وَ لَعَنَهُ،

وَ وَلِيُّنَا مَنْ مَدَحَهُ اللَّهُ وَ أَحَبَّهُ.

O people! Behold! I am a warner and Ali is a guide.

مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ،

أَلَا وَ إِنِّي مُنْذِرٌ وَ عَلِيٌّ هَادٍ.

O people! I am a prophet and Ali is the executor of my (will). مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ،

إِنِّي نَبِيٌّ وَ عَلِيٌّ وَصِيِّي.


Part 7


Imam al-Mahdi (PBUH) جزء 7

ذكر الإمام المهدى (ع)

Know that the seal of the leaders from among us shall be the Qa’im, the Mahdi. أَلَا إِنَّ خَاتَمَ الْأَئِمَّةِ مِنَّا

الْقَائِمُ الْمَهْدِيُّ.

He shall, most certainly, prevail over (all) religious (methods of life). أَلَا إِنَّهُ الظَّاهِرُ عَلَى الدِّينِ.

He shall definitely be the avenger against the

oppressors. أَلَا إِنَّهُ الْمُنْتَقِمُ مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ.

He shall surely be the conqueror of the strongholds and their demolisher. أَلَا إِنَّهُ فَاتِحُ الْحُصُونِ وَ هَادِمُهَا.

He shall be, indeed, the destroyer of every polytheistic group. أَلَا إِنَّهُ قَاتِلُ كُلِّ قَبِيلَةٍ مِنْ أَهْلِ الشِّرْكِ.

He shall be the attainer of vengeance for the blood of all representatives of Allah, the mighty and the majestic. أَلَا إِنَّهُ الْمُدْرِكُ بِكُلِّ ثَارٍ

لِأَوْلِيَاءِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ.

He shall be the supporter of the religion of Allah. أَلَا إِنَّهُ النَّاصِرُ لِدِينِ اللَّهِ.

He shall bring out (people’s share) from (his) deep ocean (of knowledge and divine resources). أَلَا إِنَّهُ الْغَرَّافُ مِنْ بَحْرٍ عَمِيقٍ.

He shall mark each man of distinction by his distinction and every man of ignorance by his ignorance. أَلَا إِنَّهُ يَسِمُ كُلِّ ذِي فَضْلٍ بِفَضْلِهِ، وَ كُلِّ ذِي جَهْلٍ بِجَهْلِهِ.

Behold! He is the elite of Allah, and Allah is his chooser. أَلَا إِنَّهُ خِيَرَةُ اللَّهِ

وَ اللَّهُ مُخْتَارُهُ.

He shall be the heir of every knowledge, and the one who shall encompass [every perception]■. أَلَا إِنَّهُ وَارِثُ كُلِّ عِلْمٍ،

وَ الْمُحِيطُ [بِكُلِّ فَهْمٍ.]■

He shall advise and inform on behalf of his Lord, the mighty and the majestic, and shall remind about the matters pertaining to His faith. أَلَا إِنَّهُ الْمُخْبِرُ عَنْ

رَبِّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ،

وَ الْمُنَبِّهُ بِأَمْرِ إِيمَانِهِ.

He shall be the right-minded and unerring, to whom authority shall be vested. أَلَا إِنَّهُ الرَّشِيدُ السَّدِيدُ،

أَلَا إِنَّهُ الْمُفَوَّضُ إِلَيْهِ.

Behold! All former (prophets) have given the glad tidings of him. أَلَا إِنَّهُ قَدْ بَشَّرَ بِهِ

مَنْ سَلَفَ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ،

Know that he shall be the remaining proof (of Allah), after whom there shall be no (new) proof. أَلَا إِنَّهُ الْبَاقِي حُجَّةً

وَ لَا حُجَّةَ بَعْدَهُ،

There shall be no truth except with him, nor shall there be any light (of guidance) except at his disposal. وَ لَا حَقَّ إِلَّا مَعَهُ،

وَ لَا نُورَ إِلَّا عِنْدَهُ.

None, indeed, shall overcome him, and none shall be supported against him. أَلَا إِنَّهُ لَا غَالِبَ لَهُ،

وَ لَا مَنْصُورَ عَلَيْهِ.

He shall be the authorized representative of Allah on His earth, His judge over His creation, and His trustee in His secrets and in what He made evident. أَلَا وَ إِنَّهُ وَلِيُّ اللَّهِ فِي أَرْضِهِ،

وَ حَكَمُهُ فِي خَلْقِهِ،

وَ أَمِينُهُ فِي سِرِّهِ وَ عَلَانِيَتِهِ.


Part 8

Exhorting people

to give their pledge جزء 8

الحثّ علي الناس لأمر البيعة

O people! I have, indeed, explained for you and made you comprehend (Allah’s commandments), and it is this Ali that shall make you comprehend (every issue) after me. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ،

قَدْ بَيَّنْتُ لَكُمْ وَ أَفْهَمْتُكُمْ،

وَ هَذَا عَلِيٌّ يُفْهِمُكُمْ بَعْدِي.

Notice that at the end of my sermon, I shall call upon you to shake hands with me as the oath of allegiance to him and the recognition of his authority, and to shake hands with him afterwards. أَلَا وَ إِنِّي عِنْدَ انْقِضَاءِ خُطْبَتِي أَدْعُوكُمْ إِلَى مُصَافَقَتِي عَلَى بَيْعَتِهِ وَ الْإِقْرَارِ بِهِ، ثُمَّ مُصَافَقَتِهِ بَعْدِي.

I have, indeed, sworn allegiance to Allah, and Ali has sworn allegiance to me, أَلَا وَ إِنِّي قَدْ بَايَعْتُ اللَّهَ،

وَ عَلِيٌّ قَدْ بَايَعَنِي،

and, on behalf of Allah, the mighty and the majestic, I require you to swear the oath of allegiance to him, (for Allah says): وَ أَنَا آخِذُكُمْ بِالْبَيْعَةِ لَهُ

عَنِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ:

“Verily those who pledge allegiance to you, they indeed pledge allegiance to Allah; the hand of Allah is over their hands. إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُبايِعُونَكَ إِنَّما يُبايِعُونَ اللَّهَ يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ،

Thus, anyone who violates his oath has indeed violated his (own) soul, فَمَنْ نَكَثَ فَإِنَّما

يَنْكُثُ عَلى‏ نَفْسِهِ،

and anyone who fulfills the covenant he has made with Allah, He shall soon grant him a great reward.” وَ مَنْ أَوْفى‏ بِما عاهَدَ عَلَيْهُ اللَّهَ فَسَيُؤْتِيهِ أَجْراً عَظِيما.


Part 9

Finality of the religious laws

and the role of the Imams جزء 9

خاتميّة الآحكام الدّينيّه

و دور الأئمّة فيها

O people! The greater and the lesser pilgrimages, and (the mounts of) al-Safaa and al-Marwa are among the emblems of Allah; مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ،

إِنَّ الْحَجَّ وَ الْعُمْرَةَ و الصَّفَا

وَ الْمَرْوَةَ مِنْ شَعائِرِ اللَّهِ،

Thus, whoever goes to visit the House in the season or at other times, he is not wrong if he repeatedly walks between the two (mounts of al-Safa and al-Marwa). فَمَنْ حَجَّ الْبَيْتَ أَوِ اعْتَمَرَ

فَلا جُناحَ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يَطَّوَّفَ بِهِما.

O people! Do make pilgrimage to the House, for no members of a family went there except that they became free of need [and received glad tidings!]♦ None failed to go there except that they were impoverished. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، حُجُّوا الْبَيْتَ

فَمَا وَرَدَهُ أَهْلُ بَيْتٍ إِلَّا اسْتَغْنَوْا [وَ أُبْشِروا]♦، وَ لَا تَخَلَّفُوا عَنْهُ إِلَّا افْتَقَرُوا.

O people! No believer stands at the standing place (of the Arafat desert) except that Allah forgives all his past sins until then. Thus, once his pilgrimage is over, (recording) his actions is resumed. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، مَا وَقَفَ بِالْمَوْقِفِ مُؤْمِنٌ إِلَّا غَفَرَ اللَّهُ لَهُ مَا سَلَفَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ إِلَى وَقْتِهِ ذَلِكَ،

فَإِذَا انْقَضَتْ حَجَّتُهُ

اسْتُؤْنِفَ عَلَيْهِ عَمَلُهُ.

O people! The pilgrims

shall be assisted,

and their expenses

shall be reimbursed, مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، الْحُجَّاجُ مُعَانُونَ وَ نَفَقَاتُهُمْ مُخَلَّفَةٌ،

and Allah shall not waste the reward of those who do well. وَ اللَّهُ لا يُضِيعُ أَجْرَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ.

O people! Perform

pilgrimage to the House having perfected faith (with Walaya of Ali) and deep understanding (of religion), مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، حُجُّوا الْبَيْتَ بِكَمَالِ الدِّينِ وَ التَّفَقُّهِ،

and do not leave the sacred visiting places except after repenting and desisting (from all sins). وَ لَا تَنْصَرِفُوا عَنِ الْمَشَاهِدِ

إِلَّا بِتَوْبَةٍ وَ إِقْلَاعٍ.

O people! Establish the prayers and pay the charity as Allah, the mighty and the majestic, commanded you. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ،

أَقِيمُوا الصَّلاةَ وَ آتُوا الزَّكاةَ

كَمَا أَمَرَكُمُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ،

But, if time lapses and you fall short or forget, then Ali shall direct you and shall explain for you. فَإِنْ طَالَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْأَمَدُ

فَقَصَّرْتُمْ أَوْ نَسِيتُمْ

فَعَلِيٌّ وَلِيُّكُمْ وَ مُبَيِّنٌ لَكُمْ،

He is the one whom Allah, the mighty and the majestic, appointed for you after me [as the trustee of His creation. He is from me and I am from him.]♦ الَّذِي نَصَبَهُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ

لَكُمْ بَعْدِي [ أَمينَ خَلْقِهِ.

إِنَّهُ مِنِّى وَ أَنَا مِنْهُ،]♦

He and those who will succeed him from my progeny shall inform you of anything you ask about, and shall clarify what you do not know. هُوَ وَ مَنْ تَخْلُفُ مِنْ ذُرِّيَّتى يُخْبِرونَكُمْ بِما تَسْأَلوُنَ عَنْهُ وَ يُبَيِّنُونَ لَكُمْ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ.

Certainly, the lawful and unlawful things are more than that I could enumerate, specify their limits, and urge to or advise against them each in this place. أَلَا إِنَّ الْحَلَالَ وَ الْحَرَامَ

أَكْثَرُ مِنْ أَنْ أُحْصِيَهُمَا

وَ أُعَرِّفَهُمَا فَآمُرَ بِالْحَلَالِ وَ أَنْهَى عَنِ الْحَرَامِ فِي مَقَامٍ وَاحِدٍ،

Therefore, I was commanded to take an oath of allegiance and a covenant from you in accepting what I brought you from Allah, the mighty and the majestic, regarding Ali, the Commander of the Believers, and the executors (of my affairs) after him who are from me and from him, فَأُمِرْتُ أَنْ آخُذَ الْبَيْعَةَ مِنْكُمْ

وَ الصَّفْقَةَ لَكُمْ بِقَبُولِ مَا جِئْتُ بِهِ عَنِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فِي عَلِيٍّ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ الْأَوْصِياءِ

مِنْ بَعْدِهِ الَّذِينَ هُمْ مِنِّي وَ مِنْهُ،

O people! (By this appointment) I have directed you to every lawful deed and prohibited you from every unlawful deed. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ،

وَ كُلُّ حَلَالٍ دَلَلْتُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ

وَ كُلُّ حَرَامٍ نَهَيْتُكُمْ عَنْهُ.

And I shall never take (my word) back, nor shall I replace it. فَإِنِّي لَمْ أَرْجِعْ عَنْ ذَلِكَ وَ لَمْ أُبَدِّلْ.

Hence, remember and safeguard it, advise each other to it, and never substitute nor alter it. أَلَا فَاذْكُرُوا ذَلِكَ وَ احْفَظُوهُ

وَ تَوَاصَوْا بِهِ وَ لَا تُبَدِّلُوهُ

وَ لَا تُغَيِّرُوهُ.

I repeat the saying:

Establish the prayers,

pay the charity, enjoin

the good deeds, and forbid the evil deeds. أَلَا وَ إِنِّي أُجَدِّدُ الْقَوْلَ:

أَلَا فَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلاةَ وَ آتُوا الزَّكاةَ وَ أْمُرُوا بِالْمَعْرُوفِ

وَ انْهَوْا عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ.

Behold! The greatest case of enjoining righteous deeds is comprehending my saying, conveying it to whoever is not present, urging him to accept it, and advising him against violating it, for it is an order from Allah, the mighty and the majestic, and from me. أَلَا وَ إِنَّ رَأْسَ الْأَمْرِ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ أَنْ تَنْتَهُوا إِلَى قَوْلِي

وَ تُبَلِّغُوهُ مَنْ لَمْ يَحْضُرْ

وَ تَأْمُرُوهُ بِقَبُولِهِ

وَ تَنْهَوْهُ عَنْ مُخَالَفَتِهِ، فَإِنَّهُ

أَمْرٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ مِنِّي.

There is no (value or effect for) enjoining (other) recognized deeds and forbidding the detested deeds except with (the recognition of) an infallible leader . وَ لَا أَمْرَ بِمَعْرُوفٍ

وَ لَا نَهْيَ عَنْ مُنْكَرٍ

إِلَّا مَعَ إِمَامٍ مَعْصُومٍ.

O people! The Quran informs you that the Imams after him (i.e., Ali) are his descendants, and I have already informed you that they are of me and of him, مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، الْقُرْآنُ يُعَرِّفُكُمْ

أَنَّ الْأَئِمَّةَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ وُلْدُهُ،

وَ عَرَّفْتُكُمْ أَنَّهُمْ مِنِّي وَ مِنْهُ،

for Allah, the mighty and the majestic, says in His Book, “And He made that a Word enduring in his posterity,” حَيْثُ يَقُولُ اللَّهُ

عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فِي كِتابِهِ:

وَ جَعَلَها كَلِمَةً باقِيَةً فِي عَقِبِهِ،

and I said: “You will never go astray so long as you adhere to both (the Quran and my family).” وَ قُلْتُ لَنْ تَضِلُّوا

مَا إِنْ تَمَسَّكْتُمْ بِهِمَا.

O people! (Observe) piety! (Observe) piety! And be wary of the Hour as Allah, the mighty and the majestic, says, مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، التَّقْوَى التَّقْوَى،

وَ احْذَرُوا السَّاعَةَ

كَمَا قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ:

“Surely the convulsion of the Hour shall be a tremendous thing.” إِنَّ زَلْزَلَةَ السَّاعَةِ شَيْ‏ءٌ عَظِيمٌ.

Remember death, [resurrection,]♦ reckoning, the scales (of justice) , and the call to account within the hands of the Lord of the worlds, and the reward and punishment. اذْكُرُوا الْمَمَاتَ [وَ الْمَعادَ]♦

وَ الْحِسَابَ وَ الْمَوَازِينَ

وَ الْمُحَاسَبَةَ بَيْنَ يَدَيْ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ وَ الثَّوَابَ وَ الْعِقَابَ.

Thus, whoever comes (to the Day of Judgement) with a righteous deed, shall be rewarded for it, فَمَنْ جَاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ أُثِيبَ عَلَيْها،

and whoever comes with an (unforgiven) sin, shall not have any share in the gardens. وَ مَنْ جَاءَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ

فَلَيْسَ لَهُ فِي الْجِنَانِ نَصِيبٌ.


Part 10

Pronouncing the

covenant and taking

the oath of allegiance جزء 10

بيان العهد

و أخذ البيعة

O people! There are too many of you to shake my hand at the same time, مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ،

إِنَّكُمْ أَكْثَرُ مِنْ أَنْ تُصَافِقُونِي بِكَفٍّ وَاحِدٍ فِي وَقْتٍ وَاحِدٍ،

and Allah, the mighty and the majestic, commanded me to take verbal recognition from you regarding what I finalized (on behalf of Allah) about Ali, the Commander of the Believers, and about the Imams from me and him who shall succeed him, based on what I informed you that my offspring are from his loins. وَ قَدْ أَمَرَنِيَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ

أَنْ آخُذَ مِنْ أَلْسِنَتِكُمُ الْإِقْرَارَ

بِمَا عَقَّدْتُ لِعَلِيٍّ أَميرِ الْمُؤْمنينَ، وَ لِمَنْ جَاءَ بَعْدَهُ مِنَ الْأَئِمَّةِ مِنِّي وَ مِنْهُ، عَلَى مَا أَعْلَمْتُكُمْ

أَنَّ ذُرِّيَّتِي مِنْ صُلْبِهِ.

Therefore, pronounce this in one voice: فَقُولُوا بِأَجْمَعِكُمْ:

“We heard, obeyed, are satisfied, and are submitted to what you have conveyed to us from our Lord and your Lord with regard to the authority of Ali, the Commander of the Believers, and the authority of the Imams from his loins. إِنَّا سَامِعُونَ مُطِيعُونَ

رَاضُونَ مُنْقَادُونَ

لِمَا بَلَّغْتَ عَنْ رَبِّنَا وَ رَبِّكَ

فِي أَمْرِ عَلِيٍّ أَميرِالْمُؤْمِنينَ

وَ أَمْرِ وُلْدِهِ مِنْ صُلْبِهِ مِنَ الْأَئِمَّةِ.

We pledge allegiance to you in this regard with our hearts, our souls, our tongues, and our hands. نُبَايِعُكَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ بِقُلُوبِنَا

وَ أَنْفُسِنَا وَ أَلْسِنَتِنَا وَ أَيْدِينَا،

According to this, shall we live, shall we die, and shall we be resurrected. عَلَى ذَلِكَ نَحْيَا وَ نَمُوتُ

وَ نُبْعَثُ،

We shall not alter, nor shall we substitute, nor shall we entertain doubt, [nor shall we deny,]♦ nor shall we distrust, nor shall we withdraw from the covenant, nor shall we breach the pact. وَ لَا نُغَيِّرُ وَ لَا نُبَدِّلُ وَ لَا نَشُكُّ [وَلانَجْحَدُ]♦ وَ لَا نَرْتَابُ

وَ لَا نَرْجِعُ عَنْ العَهْدِ

وَ لَا نَنْقُضُ الْمِيثَاقَ.

[(O Messenger!) You advised us on behalf of Allah regarding Ali, the Commander of the Believers, and the Imams after him that you mentioned to be of your offspring from his descendants (who are): al-Hasan, al-Husain, and whomever Allah shall appoint after them. [وَعَظْتَنا بِوَعْظِ اللَّهِ

فِي عَلِىٍّ أَميرِ الْمؤْمِنينَ

وَ الْأَئِمَّةِ الَّذِينَ ذَكَرْتَ

مِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِكَ مِنْ وُلْدِهِ بَعْدَهُ، الْحَسَنِ وَ الْحُسَيْنِ

وَ مَنْ نَصَبَهُ اللَّهُ بَعْدَهُما.

The covenant and the pledge are taken from us, from our hearts, our souls, our tongues, our minds, and our hands. فَالْعَهْدُ وَ الْمِيثاقُ لَهُمْ مَأْخُوذٌ مِنَّا، مِنْ قُلُوبِنا وَ أَنْفُسِنَا

وَ أَلْسِنَتِنَا وَ ضَمائِرِنَا وَ أَيْدينَا.

Anyone (of us) who can reach him shall shake his hand, otherwise he shall affirm the covenant by his tongue. We shall not seek any substitute for it, nor shall Allah see in our souls any diversion from it.]♦ مَنْ أَدْرَكَها بِيَدِهِ

وَ إِلَّا فَقَدْ أَقَرَّ بِها بِلِسانِهِ،

وَ لَا نَبْتَغِي بِذالِكَ بَدَلاً وَ

لَا يَرَى اللَّهُ مِنْ أَنْفُسِنا حِوَلاً]♦.

We shall convey the same on your behalf to anyone, near or far, among our offspring and our people, نَحْنُ نُؤَدِّي ذَلِكَ عَنْكَ الدَّانِيَ

وَ الْقَاصِيَ مِنْ أَوْلَادِنَا وَ أَهَالِينَا،

We take Allah as witness to this, and surely Allah suffices as witness. وَ نُشْهِدُ اللَّهَ بِذالِكَ،

وَ كَفى‏ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيداً،

You are also witness over us; so are anyone who obeyed, visible or covered, Allah’s Angels, His forces, and His servants. And Allah is greater than every witness.” وَ أَنْتَ عَلَيْنَا بِهِ شَهِيدٌ، وَ كُلُّ

مَنْ أَطَاعَ مِمَّنْ ظَهَرَ وَ اسْتَتَرَ

وَ مَلَائِكَةُ اللَّهِ وَ جُنُودُهُ وَ عَبِيدُهُ، وَ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ مِنْ كُلِّ شَهِيدٍ.

O people! What do you say? Verily, Allah is well-aware of every voice and the secrecy of every soul; مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، مَا تَقُولُونَ؟

فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ كُلَّ صَوْتٍ

وَ خَافِيَةَ كُلِّ نَفْسٍ.

“He who accepts guidance, it is to the benefit of his own soul, and he who goes astray, does so to his own loss.” فَمَنِ اهْتَدى‏ فَلِنَفْسِهِ

وَ مَنْ ضَلَّ فَإِنَّما يَضِلُّ عَلَيْها.

Those who pledge fealty, they indeed pledge fealty to Allah; the hand of Allah is over their hands. وَ مَنْ بَايَعَ فَإِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُ اللَّهَ،

يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ.

O people! Be mindful of Allah, give your oath of allegiance to Ali, the Commander of the Believers, may Allah’s blessings be upon him, to al-Hasan and al-Husain, and to the Imams [from them]♦, مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ

وَ بَايِعُوا عَلِيّاً أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ صَلَوَاتُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ

وَ الْحَسَنَ وَ الْحُسَيْنَ

وَ الْأَئِمَّةَ ع [مِنْهُمْ]♦،

a goodly Word, that is enduring. كَلِمَةً طَيِّبَةً بَاقِيَةً،

Allah shall cause whoever acts treacherously to perish and shall have mercy on whoever remains loyal. يُهْلِكُ اللَّهُ مَنْ غَدَرَ،

وَ يَرْحَمُ مَنْ وَفَى.

“Thus, anyone who violates his oath has indeed violated his (own) soul, فَمَنْ نَكَثَ فَإِنَّما يَنْكُثُ

عَلى‏ نَفْسِهِ،

and anyone who fulfills the covenant he has made with Allah, He shall soon grant him a great reward.” وَ مَنْ أَوْفى‏ بِما عاهَدَ عَلَيْهُ اللَّهَ فَسَيُؤْتِيهِ أَجْراً عَظِيما.

O people! Say what I told you, and greet Ali with the title of “The Commander of the Believers.” مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ،

قُولُوا الَّذِي قُلْتُ لَكُمْ، وَ

سَلِّمُوا عَلَى عَلِيٍّ بِإِمْرَةِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ.

And also say: “We listened, and obeyed, Your forgiveness (do we seek), Our Lord, and towards Your (reward or punishment) is the eventual turn.” وَ قُولُوا: سَمِعْنا وَ أَطَعْنا

غُفْرانَكَ رَبَّنا

وَ إِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ.

And say: “Praise be to Allah who has guided us to this. Never could we be guided had Allah not guided us.” وَ قُولُوا: الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي

هَدانا لِهذا وَ ما كُنَّا لِنَهْتَدِيَ

لَوْ لا أَنْ هَدانَا اللَّهُ.

O people! Without doubt, the merits of Ali Ibn Abi Talib in the sight of Allah, the mighty and the majestic, which are indeed revealed in the Quran, are more numerous than I could recount in one speech; thus, whenever someone relates them to you and acquaints (you) with them, believe him. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، إِنَّ فَضَائِلَ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ – وَ قَدْ أَنْزَلَهَا فِي الْقُرْآنِ – أَكْثَرُ مِنْ أَنْ أُحْصِيَهَا فِي مَقَامٍ وَاحِدٍ، فَمَنْ أَنْبَأَكُمْ بِهَا

وَ عَرَّفَهَا فَصَدِّقُوهُ.

O people! Whoever obeys Allah, His Messenger, Ali, and the Imams that I mentioned, has indeed achieved a great prosperity. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، مَنْ يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَ رَسُولَهُ وَ عَلِيّاً وَ الْأَئِمَّةَ الَّذِينَ ذَكَرْتُهُمْ فَقَدْ فازَ فَوْزاً عَظِيماً.

O people! The foremost from among you in paying homage to him, (truly) accepting his guardianship, and greeting him as “the Commander of the Believers” are the winners of the gardens of bliss. مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، السَّابِقُونَ إِلَى مُبَايَعَتِهِ وَ مُوَالَاتِهِ وَ التَّسْلِيمِ عَلَيْهِ بِإِمْرَةِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْفَائِزُونَ فِي جَنَّاتِ النَّعِيمِ.

O people! Say what makes Allah be pleased with you, مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، قُولُوا مَا يَرْضَى اللَّهُ بِهِ عَنْكُمْ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ،

and (know that) if you and all the people on earth disbelieve, it shall not harm Allah in the least. فَإِنْ تَكْفُرُوا أَنْتُمْ وَ

مَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعاً

فَلَنْ يَضُرَّ اللَّهَ شَيْئاً.

O Allah! Forgive the believers [through what I have conveyed and commanded,]♦ اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

[بِمَا أَدَّيْتُ وَ أَمَرْتُ]♦،

and let Your Wrath descend upon those [who deny]♦ and disbelieve, وَاغْضِبْ عَلَى [الْجاحِدِينَ]♦ الْكَافِرِينَ،

and praise belongs to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. وَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعالَمِين‏.




The marks that appear in the text show the choice of phrases from the following books, which have minor differences in wording from the original text of al-Ihtijaj, narrated from Imam al-Baqir (PBUH). The marked phrases either do not appear in al-Ihtijaj, or have slightly different wordings:

♦ According to al-Yaqin, pp. 343-361, narrated from Imam al-Baqir (PBUH).

■ According to Rawdhat al-Wa’idhin, part 1, pp. 89-99, narrated from Imam al-Baqir (PBUH).

* According to Iqbal al-A’mal, p. 456, narrated from Hudhaifa Ibn Yamaan. Notice that in al-Ihtijaj, this part is divided into two sections, which are a few sentences away from each other. This part has also been narrated separately through numerous authorities from many of the Imams (PBUT). cf. al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 295, Hadith 3 (narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (PBUH)); al-Tafsir, al-Ayyashi, vol. 1, p. 332, Hadith 153 (narrated from Imam al-Baqir (PBUH)); Tafsir al-Imam al-Askari (PBUH), p.112, Hadith 58 (narrated from Imam al-Kadhim (PBUH)); Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 37, pp. 118-222, Ahadith 7-90, from numerous authorities.

§ According to Iqbal al-A’mal, p. 454, narrated from Hudhaifa Ibn Yamaan. This part has also been narrated separately through numerous Shia and Sunni authorities. For the detailed Shia and Sunni references in this regard, see Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 23, Book of Imama, section 7, pp. 104-147.

□ According to al-Tahsin, p. 584, narrated from Zaid Ibn Arqam.








Allamah Seyed Murteza Askari


English Translation:

Jalil Dorrani






Askari, Murteza عسكري، مرتضي،1293-

‌ [آخرين نماز پيامبر (ص)، انگليسي

(پرافيت، ز لست پراير)

The prophet’s last prayer/ Murteza Askari; English translation Jalil Dorrani. Tehran: Naba, 2006= 1385.

ISBN: 964-8323-39-9 48ص.

فهرستنويسي بر اساس اطلاعات فيپا.

1. محمد (ص)، پيامبر اسلام، 53 قبل از هجرت- 11ق. – رحلت. 2. علي بن ابي طالب (ع)، امام اول، 23 قبل از هجرت- 40ق. – اثبات خلافت. 3. خلافت – دفاعيه ها و رديه ها. 4. امامت – دفاعيه ها و رديه ها. الف. دراني، جليل،

، مترجم. ب. عنوان. ج. عنوان: آخرين نماز پيامبرDorrani, Jalil

(ص). انگليسي.

936/ 297BP 4952. 3آ5ع/ 3/ 24

كتابخانه ملي ايران 41724- 84م 1384








The Prophet’s last Prayer

Author: Allamah Seyed Murteza Askari

Translator: Jalil Dorrani

No. of Copies: 2000 / First Edition: 2006

Publisher: Naba Publication

Address : 3rd floor, No.62, Adibi Alley,

Shabestari St, Shariati Ave, Tehran, Iran Tehran, Iran

E-mail : info

Site :

ISBN: 964-8323-39-9


Table of contents



Preface 5

The days when the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) was sick 10

The Leading of Prayer by Abu Bakr at the time of illness of the Messenger (s.a.w.a.) 15

Severity of the illness of Prophet (s.a.w.a.) in his last days 17

Refusal of the holy Prophet from the Umar’s leading 21

Pray of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) behind Abu Bakr 25

Imamat of Abu Bakr is the proof of his Caliphate 29

The discussions of the earlier Muslims of Medina (Ansār) after the demise of the holy Prophet 33

Imamate of a young boy who had not reached the age of puberty 37

Imamate of Abu Bakr in the historical sources 41

The reality of Imamate of Abu Bakr in the School of Caliphate 48

Questions and Objections about the Traditions 533







































In the name of Allah


The Arabian Peninsula has, in its long history continuously witnessed many events. With the coming of Islam and the formation of religious issues through the heavenly personality of the great Prophet of Islam (s.a.w.a.) the page of pre-Islam Arab history saw a significant change. It turned into the Islamic history. Improper individual and collective conduct, wrong ways and styles of life, and similarly the beliefs and superstitions of the ignorant Arabs were the signs of the culture and civilization of the Arab society of those days.

People had wrongly interpreted the meaning of morality. For example, they received respect by burying their alive daughters. Those who displayed more cruelty were regarded more respectable. Loot, arson, killing, and bloodshed were considered as bravery. When they heard about the Paradise, they asked whether the Paradise had its wars or no. When the reply was negative they said what it worth was!

The story of Zaid bin Haritha is an example of the condition of the ignorant Arabs. Zaid bin Haritha, during his childhood, went with his mother, to visit their relatives in another tribe, when bandits assaulted them. He could not run away and became a captive and was brought to the market of Ukaz for sale. Agents of Hadhrat Khadijah purchased him. She gifted him to the holy Prophet. The Prophet released him and when he was not prepared to return to his tribe along with his father and uncle, the holy Prophet announced near Ka’ba and in front of people that Zaid was his adopted son (in law).

Many of those people changed after the appearance of Islam. Mecca and Medina became centers of the light. The change reached to such an extent that an Ansari youth came to the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) on the day of the battle of Badr and asked: “O Messenger of Allah! What is the reward of one who fights against this community and gets killed?”

“Paradise.” came the divine response.

The young said: “Very nice, very nice! Then the distance between me and Paradise [the only barrier in front of me] is this date which I eat!” Saying so he threw away the dates, engaged in fighting until he was martyred. Yes, their fighting was for obtaining God’s pleasure, and for prospering in the other world. But the opportunists and the wish-worshipper who saw a danger to their worldly [material] profits with the ever-increasing advance of Islam, tried, by every means, to remove this heavenly Shariat [Code] from their community. In the beginning, they tired to prevent progress. Thereafter, they resorted to threatening and intimidation. They used temptation and force to prevent the message from the masses. But the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) stood fast and firm against all those troubles and continued to fight against the devil and his servants.

But the world-seekers who saw their interests in danger, looked for an opportunity for revenge and for staging a revolt. Yet the holy Prophet took proper remedial steps. By God’s help and his sharp planning, he defeated all those mischief and uprisings. The holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.), during his last illness, thought a plan for defeating the coup de etat of the rioter companions, so that all of them could be sent out of Medina along with the army of Usamah. He selected Usamah, an 18-year-old, son of martyr Zaid bin Haritha for the command of that army and ordered that all young and old men must leave Medina with him.

In that battalion, people like Abu Bakr, Umar, Abu Ubaidah Jarrah, Abdur Rahman bin Auf, Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas, Sa’ad bin Ubaldah, and many other famous companions were put under the command of Usamah. In the beginning they began to criticize, and said: “He made us subordinate to a boy of 18 years!” They refrained from proceeding. The holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) delivered a sermon for them and said; “God’s Curse be on the one who opposes the Usamah’s army. God’s curse be on the one who does not join the army of Usamah.”

The army of Usamah moved and camped at Joraf, a few kilometers from Medina. At the same time the illness of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) increased and its news reached the camps. The elders of the community returned to Medina. The next morning Bilal came home and cried: Prayer! Prayer! O Messenger of God! Since the holy Prophet had slept with his head on the thigh of Ali (p.b.u.h.), Aysha thought it a good occasion and told Bilal: “The Holy Prophet asked you to call Abu Bakr to lead the Prayer in his place.”

Abu Bakr stood for prayer in place of the holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.). When the condition of the holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) improved and he heard the voice of Abu Bakr, He said: Raise me up. Then he made ablution. According to the narration of Sahih Bukhari, he went to the mosque, supported by two men, as his legs had became too weak to walk, his feet dragging on the ground. Then he disrupted the prayer of Abu Bakr and led it in a sitting state. After concluding the Prayer, he gave a little talk to the people and died on the same day.

Such kind of mischief and misbehavior continued till the demise of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). It increased thereafter to such an extent that they took to the slogan Hasbunā Kitabullah (The Book of God is enough for us). It became a cause of alteration and carelessness towards the Prophet’s traditions! With the passage of time, a new style was adopted, whereby false traditions were spread in condemnation of the Progeny of the Prophet, especially Amirul Mo-mineen Ali (p.b.u.h.), and in praise of the Caliphs in such a way that it became impossible to differentiate the true from the false!

Those events have created the need for a thorough research in history, so that false statements could be separated from the true ones. The said story is an example of such events, which the great scholar Syed Murtaza Askari has dealt with.


The Cultural and Scientific

Institution of Allamah Askari




















In the name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful

Praise be to Allah the Lord of the worlds and peace be upon the Seal of the Prophets and Messengers, Muhammad and his Purified Progeny.

This servant has been frequently asked about the morning Prayer of Abu Bakr, on the day of the passing away of the holy Prophet. Is it a true incident, and is it a correct narration? And if we assume that it was a fact, then how was the circumstance? In any case, what conclusions can be derived from it?

Due to this, it came to my mind that a discussion on it be presented to answer these queries.

The days when the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) was sick

We begin with what the different sources and references of tradition and history have said in this respect.

In Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim it is narrated from Aysha: When the illness of the holy Prophet increased and his pain got severe, he took permission from his other wives, so that he could be looked after in my house. He was given the permission…

Nursing of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) in Aysha’s house

In another tradition she said: “The illness of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) began in the house of Maimuna. There he got permission from other wives so that he stayed in Aysha’s house the day of his sickness. He was given the permission.

Bukhari has narrated from Aysha that the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) in his last illness, always used to ask: “Where will I stay tomorrow?” In reality he was waiting for Aysha’s turn. The Prophet was given permission so that he could stay in Aysha’s house.

Moslem has narrated from Aysha that the holy Prophet continuously asked, “Where should I stay today and where will I be tomorrow? And was waiting for Aysha’s turn.”

She says in another tradition that the Prophet used to observe the turns of his wives. But at the time of his last illness he used to ask; “Where will I stay tomorrow?”

In fact, he was very much fond of Aysha’s house. “As my turn came, he got comfort in my house.”

The holy Prophet’s order to Abu Bakr to lead the Prayer

In Sunan Ibn Majah and Musnad Ahmad it is narrated from Ibne Abbas that when the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was in Aysha’s house and was ill, he said, “Call Ali for me.”

Aysha said: O Messenger of Allah, should I call Abu Bakr for you?”

The Messenger said: “Call him also.”

Hafsa said: O Messenger of Allah, “should I call Umar for you?”

The Messenger (s.a.w.a.) replied, “Call him also.”

When all of them gathered, the Prophet raised his head, glanced at them and fell silent.

Umar turned towards the people, who had gathered, and said: “Get up from the presence of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.)!” Then Bilal came and told the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) about the time of Prayer. The Prophet said: Order Abu Bakr to lead the people in Prayer.

Aysha said: “O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.), Abu Bakr is a mild and a soft hearted person and is unable to speak, and if he does not see you, he will cry and people will also cry. It would be better if you order Umar for Prayer. Then Abu Bakr went out of the room and prayed.”


The Leading of Prayer by Abu Bakr at the time of illness of the Messenger (s.a.w.a.)

Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Moslem, Musnad Ahmad, Tabaqat Ibn Sa’ad and Ansabul Ashrâf have recorded (We quote the tradition from Sahih Bukhari) that Aysha says: “When the illness of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) became severe, Bilal reminded him of the time of Prayer.” The holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: Order Abu Bakr, so that he may lead the people in Prayer.

Aysha says: “O Messenger of Allah! Abu Bakr is a mild and softhearted person and if he stands in your place to pray, he would be unable to perform the duty of Imamat; it would be better if you order Umar for this job.” The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: “You are like those women around Joseph; order Abu Bakr so that he may pray with the people.”

In Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Moslem, Musnad of Abu Avana, Tabaqat of Ibn Sa’ad, “Sirah” of Ibn Hisham, Ansabul Ashrâf of Balazari, and in other books it is narrated (we quote the tradition from Sahih Bukhari) from Aysha, that she said: When the pain of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) got severe, the Messenger was informed that it was time for Prayer. He said; “Abu Bakr is a soft hearted person, order him so that he may lead the Prayer.”

Aysha said: “Abu Bakr is softhearted and whenever he prays, he starts crying.”

The Messenger said: “Order him so that he may lead the Prayer.” I repeated my words.

The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: “Order Abu Bakr so that he prays the Prayer and you are like those women around Joseph.”

Aysha also said: I requested the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) many times that he should not order him to lead the Prayer, and its reason was that I didn’t believe that people would like a person as his successor. The people would consider him unlucky and inauspicious. So I hoped that the holy Prophet would change his mind from Abu Bakr.




Severity of the illness of Prophet (s.a.w.a.) in his last days

In Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Moslem, Sunan Darmi, Musnad Abu Avana, Musnad Ahmad and Tabaqat Ibn Sa’ad it is mentioned (the quotation is from Sahih Bukhari narrating from Ayesha): “When the illness of the holy Prophet got severe, he asked: Have the people prayed?”

We said: “No, people are waiting for you.”

The Messenger said: “Bring some water for me in a vessel.”

Aysha poured some water in a vessel and the Prophet took ablution. Then he intended to get up, but his condition got bad. After that he felt better. He asked, “Have the people prayed?”

We replied: “No, they are waiting for you.”

The Prophet said: “Bring some water in a container for me.” Aysha said: The Messenger sat up and did ablution for Prayer. Then he intended to get up, but his condition got bad. Afterwards, when he felt better he asked: “Did the people pray?”

We replied: “Not yet, O Messenger of Allah! They are waiting for you.”

The Messenger of Allah said: “Bring some water in a container for me.”

He sat down and took ablution for Prayer, then intended to get up. His condition got worse. When he felt somewhat better, he asked: “Have the people prayed?”

We replied: “No, O Messenger of Allah, they are waiting for you.”

People were waiting for the holy Prophet, so that they could perform the night pray. The holy Prophet sent for Abu Bakr so that he could pray with the people. (Then the messenger of the holy Prophet came to Abu Bakr and said that the prophet had ordered him to lead the people in Prayer). Since Abu Bakr was a mild and softhearted person, he said: “Umar you lead for the people.”

Umar said: “You are better than me for this job.”

Then Abu Bakr led the people in Prayers in those days.

Soft-heartedness of Abu Bakr in Prayer

In Sahih Bukhari, Musnad Abu Avana, Tabaqat Ibn Sa’ad, and Ansabul Ashrâf of Balazari it is narrated (we quote the words of tradition) from Aysha that the holy Prophet in his illness said: “Give order to Abu Bakr, so that he leads the people in Prayers.”

Aysha says, “I begged when Abu Bakr stands in your place, people will not listen to anything except his weeping, so order Umar so that he can lead the people in Prayer.” Aysha then said to Hafsa: “You tell the Prophet that when Abu Bakr stands in his place, people will not hear anything except his weeping. So order Umar to lead the people in Prayer; and then Hafsa did so.”

The Messenger of Allah said: “Keep quiet! You are like the women around Joseph! Tell Abu Bakr that he should lead the people in Prayers.”

Then Hafsa said to Aysha: “I have never seen any goodness from you!”






Refusal of the holy Prophet from the Umar’s leading

In Sunan Abu Dawood – Chapter about the successorship of Abu Bakr, Musnad Ahmad, Sirah Ibn Hisham, Tabaqat Ibn Sa’ad, and Ansabul Ashrâf of Balazari it is narrated (We quote Sunan Abu Dawood from Abdullah Ibn Zamá) that when the illness of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) got severe, he was with a group of Muslims near the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.). Bilal informed the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) about the time of Prayer.

He said: “Tell someone to lead the people in Prayer.”

When he got out of the group, Umar was among the group but Abu Bakr was absent. I (Abdullah Ibn Zamá) said: Umar get up and lead the people in Prayer. “Umar got up and said the Takbiratul Ihram of the Prayer.” When the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) heard his voice, which was very loud, he said: “Then where is Abu Bakr? Allah and Muslims do not accept this!”

The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) repeated this; then sent someone to Abu Bakr. He came after the Prayer led by Umar was over and prayed again with the people!

Anxiousness of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) over the Imamat of Abu Bakr

In another tradition it has come, “When the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) heard the voice of Umar, he brought his holy head out of the room and said: No! No! No! Son of Abu Qahafa (Abu Bakr) should lead the people in Prayer. The holy Prophet said these words in anger.”

In Musnad Ahmad, it has come that Abdullah Ibn Zamá said that Umar told him: “Woe upon you, O son of Zamá, what are you doing with me, by the promise of Allah?” When you gave me orders to pray, I was thinking nothing but that the holy Prophet had ordered so, and if it was other than this, I would not have prayed with the people.

He told Umar; “By the promise of Allah, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) has not told me that you should pray with the people, but when I did not see Abu Bakr, I saw you more eligible from amongst those who were present for leading the Prayer.”

In Sunan Ibn Majah it is narrated from Sâlim Ibn Abid that, When the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was in his deathbed, his condition was acute. Then he got somewhat better and said: “Is it time for Prayer?”

We said: “Yes.”

He said: “Ask Bilal to inform the people that it is time for Prayer.”

Again the condition of the Prophet got severe. When his condition got better he said, “Is it time for Prayer?”

We replied affirmatively.

He said: “Call Bilal so that he can make people aware of the time of Prayer and call Abu Bakr, that he lead the people in Prayer.”

Aysha said: “My father is mild and soft hearted. When he stands in your place, he would weep and would not have the capability to pray. So it would be better if you order someone other than him.”

After that again the condition of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) got bad. After sometime his condition got better.

Again he said: “Ask Bilal to make people aware of the time of Prayer. You are like the woman around Joseph.”

Sâlim Ibn Abid says: “Bilal gave Adhan. Then Abu Bakr prayed with the people.”

Another tradition quoted by Anas says; “When the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) got ill and in that illness he died; Bilal came to the Prophet and told him about Prayer time.

He said: “Bilal I became aware (of Prayer time). Then whoever wants he may pray, and whoever wants he may leave.”

Bilal returned to the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and said: “O Messenger of Allah, my parents be sacrificed for you, who will lead the people in Prayer?”

He replied: Give order to Abu Bakr, that he may lead the people in Prayer. While Abu Bakr was ahead, the illness of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) went away…




Pray of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) behind Abu Bakr

In Musnad Ahmad it is narrated from Aysha that the Messenger of Allah in his deathbed said, “Give order to Abu Bakr to he lead the people in Prayer.”

Then Abu Bakr prayed and the holy Prophet sat behind Abu Bakr and prayed.

In Musnad Ahmad and Ansabul Ashrâf it is narrated (We quote the tradition from Musnad Ahmad by Aysha): “When the Messenger of Allah was on the deathbed he sat behind Abu Bakr and prayed.”


Happiness of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) by the leading of Abu Bakr

Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Moslem, and Musnad Abu Avana narrate (We relate the tradition from Sahih Bukhari from Zohari, who said): “Anas Ibn Malik Ansari, who was from the companions of the holy Prophet informed us that Abu Bakr used to pray during the illness of the Prophet. At the time of his death, people were in rows for Prayer and the holy Prophet pulled aside the curtain of the room (which was between his room and the mosque) and looked at us. After that the Prophet smiled. I could not understand the reason of his happiness at that moment. Then Abu Bakr wanted to come back so that he could take place in the rows of the congregation. He thought that the holy Prophet had come out to lead the Prayer. Then the holy Prophet gestured him to finish the prayers and put down the curtains and died on the same day.

Bukhari, Abu Avana, and Balazari have narrated from Anas Ibn Malik (we are quoting from Sahih Bukhari) that the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) did not come out of his house for leading us in prayers for three days. When it was time for Prayer he pulled aside the curtain and said…till the end of the tradition.

In another tradition Anas says: The Muslims had gathered on the morning of Monday to pray when Abu Bakr was leading the prayers.

All the traditions mentioned so far were according to Sahih Bukhari. But five were from Sunan Abu Dawood, one from Sunan Ibn Majah, two from Musnad Ahmad and they are used to prove the caliphate of Abu Bakr. (Very soon these traditions will be analyzed).

Hasan Basri says that the holy Prophet was ill; Abu Bakr was ordered to lead the people in Prayer. He (Hasan Basri) explains the reason of Abu Bakr’s Imamate in this way: People come to know, by Allah, that he is the master and leader after the holy Prophet.

Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz sent a person to Hasan Basri to ask if the holy Prophet had appointed Abu Bakr as his successor?

Hasan Basri replied: Does your Master and friend have any doubt? By Allah he chose him for his successorship. Because he ordered only him, and not others, to lead the Prayer and Abu Bakr was afraid of Allah, that he should sit on that seat.




Imamat of Abu Bakr is the proof of his Caliphate

Abu Avana (d. 316) after narrating some traditions in his Musnad which were quoted earlier, has said: “This tradition makes apparent the caliphate and successorship of Abu Bakr after the demise of the holy Prophet.” It is because the Prophet said: “The most aware about the recitation of Qur’an should lead the prayers; and from the companions of the holy Prophet were some persons, who were more learned than Abu Bakr and more aware than him. Even from the companions were some persons whose voices were louder in reciting the Qur’an. The holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had told many times, “Tell someone, other than Abu Bakr, to lead the people in Prayer. Abu Bakr is not capable for this job, and he is a mild and soft hearted person and he cries in his Prayer.”

After all these discussions the Prophet didn’t order anyone other than Abu Bakr, and was not happy in this matter with anyone except Abu Bakr. On this basis, according to the narration of Abu Masood, the holy Prophet said: “A man in his period of power and kingship should not pray behind another person.” This proves that he is the caliph and successor after the Prophet.

Ibn Kathir after bringing many sections of the traditions, and after finding solution for the contradiction of those traditions said, “the holy Prophet gave preference to Abu Bakr for leading the Prayer over all the companions. Prayer, which is one of the greatest pillars of practical Islam.”

Shaykh Abul Hasan Ashari said: “The holy Prophet preferred Abu Bakr for leading the Prayer, which in Islam is a clear and illuminated matter.”

He says: Giving preference to Abu Bakr for leading the Prayer is the proof that he was the most knowledgeable and most aware about the recitation of Qur’an amongst the companions!!

The Conditions of Imamat of Prayer in the school of Caliphate

There is a tradition that all the scholars unanimously have accepted as “correct”, in which the holy Prophet said: One who is most knowledgeable about the recitation of Quran will lead the prayer. Then if two are similar in recitation of Qur’an, the more knowledgeable about the traditions of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) will lead. If they are similar in sunnat also, then that person who brought Islam earlier will lead the Prayer. Ibn Kathir says: It would have been better if this statement of Ashari was written with gold. Anyhow, all the conditions were gathered in Abu Bakr!!!

Imamat of Abu Bakr in the traditions of the Caliphs

The Sunni scholars bring a tradition from Imam Ali (p.b.u.h.), which could not be true.

Hasan Basri has narrated from Ali that the demise of the holy Prophet was not sudden. He died due to illness. During the illness Bilal came to him and told him about the Prayer time. Then he said: “Call Abu Bakr, so that he could lead the people in Prayer.” The Prophet said it while he saw me.”

When the holy Prophet passed away, the Muslims saw that the holy Prophet gave Wilayat (mastership) to Abu Bakr in the matter of religion. They gave Wilayat to Abu Bakr in the worldly matters too.

In another tradition it is stated that Hazrat Ali (p.b.u.h.) said: At the time when the soul of the holy Prophet departed, he gave preference to Abu Bakr in Prayer. We also, in the worldly matters, gave preference to the one who was given preference by the holy Prophet in the matter of religion, we preferred him!! Then we gave preference to Abu Bakr for the Imamat of Prayer in congregation!!!

Anas has narrated from Ali, “The holy Prophet was ill; looking at us, he ordered Abu Bakr to lead the Prayers. When the Messenger passed away, the Muslims, in worldly matters chose that person, with whom the holy Prophet was happy in the matter of religion. So the Muslims accepted the leadership of Abu Bakr and by the promise of Allah, Abu Bakr was fit for leadership (Wilayat).

What factors could undermine the position given by the holy Prophet to Abu Bakr?





The discussions of the earlier Muslims of Medina (Ansār) after the demise of the holy Prophet

After this, what comes is not surprising. Zar Ibn Hobaish has narrated from Abdullah, that when the holy Prophet passed away, the Ansars said, “there should be an Amir (chief) from us, and an Amir from you.” Zar Ibn Hobaish added that Umar came to the people and said: “O people of Ansar! Are you not aware that the holy Prophet ordered Abu Bakr to lead the people in Prayer?”

They replied: “Yes.”

Umar said, “Who, amongst you all, wants to exceed the position of Abu Bakr?”

Ansar said: “We take refuge in Allah that we go ahead of Abu Bakr.”


Imamat of Sâlim and Ibn Umme Maktum in place of the holy Prophet

The elders of the school of Caliphate claim that such traditions prove the Caliphate of Abu Bakr. Now the question is: Whether praying in place of the holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) is the proof for being his successor and Caliph?

I don’t know how the scholars overlooked what Bukhari has stated in his Sahih?

Sâlim, the freed slave of Abu Huzaifa, used to lead the Prayer for Muhajireen and companions in Quba mosque, and amongst the companions were Abu Bakr and Umar.

It is worth saying that Abu Bakr was there a Mamoom (praying behind), and following someone else, who was from Mawali (a freed slave).

Abu Dawood in his Sunan, and Ahmad in his Musnad narrate that the holy Prophet chose the son of Umme Maktum as the Caliph of Medina.

In Musnad Ahmad there is a tradition, which indicates: Ibn Umme Maktum used to pray with the people although he was blind.

In Maghāzi Waqidi (died in 207 A.H), Tabaqāt Ibn Sa’ad, and Sirah Ibn Hisham it is narrated that Ibn Umme Maktum took part in the battles of Badr, Uhud, Bani Nuzayr, Ahzab, Bani Qurayza, Fat’h and other battles.

Waqidi and Ibn Masood narrate, “Ibn Maktum used to be present in Friday prayers with the people, and recite the sermon near the pulpit and the pulpit was on his left.”

I don’t know how the learned scholars forget that Bukhari has mentioned in his book in the chapter of Prayer:

(i) Chapter of Imamat of the slave and the free ones;

(ii) Chapter of the tradition, which says Zakwan (the slave of Aysha) use to lead for Aysha from the aspect of Quran.

(iii) Chapter of the Imamat of illegitimate children and Bedouins.

(iv) Chapter of Imamate of the young boy (who has not reached the age of puberty).


Imamate of a young boy who had not reached the age of puberty

It is narrated from Amr Ibn Salma, in the chapter of the Victory of Mecca, that his community used to prefer him in leading the Prayer, because he knew to recite the Quran much more than others.

Amr Ibn Salma says: “I was asked to lead the Prayer although I was six or seven years old, and there was a dress on my body while going in prostration it moved on one side.”

Then a woman said: “Wouldn’t you cover your back and buttocks from your followers?”

“Then clothes were purchased for me, and nothing like those clothes has made me happy.”

A similar version of this tradition in Sunan Abi Dawood has appeared from Ibn Salma: “I was continuously leading my tribe (in prayers). My dress was torn from behind. When I used to prostrate my buttocks were visible.” In other tradition he says; “The condition in which I was leading my tribe there was a small coat on my body and it was yellow. When I used to go into prostration my body was visible.”

A woman from the tribe said; “Cover the private parts of your body from us.”

“Then a Yemeni dress was purchased for me.”

Justice is not the condition in Imamat!

Bukhari has narrated, about a person who was misguided, from Hasan Basri that, “Read Prayer behind a person who is misguided and brings wicked ideas! His ideas harms him only, and are not related to us!”

He has also narrated from Zuhari that, “We don’t believe that a “Mukhannas” (Gay) should become Imam-e-Jamat, except in an emergency.

Companions have narrated from Abu Huraira that the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said; “Daily Prayers can be performed behind any Muslim. Whether he is of a good or bad character; even if he has committed “great sins”.

Examining and Analyzing the traditions

I don’t know how the Sunni scholars have forgotten these words and concluded Abu Bakr’s Caliphate and successorship from the leading of a congregation pray during the last illness of the Prophet? How did the clear and apparent contradictions between the traditions that have come in the “Sahih books” remain hidden from the scholars?

Did the holy Prophet take permission from his wives to pass the days of his illness in Aysha’s house?

Or he observed the turns of his wives and used to say, “Where am I tomorrow?”

Was he interested that Aysha’s turn come and when Aysha’s turn came, the Prophet got comfort in her house? Or perhaps when it was not Aysha’s turn the Prophet did not go to her house? Actually what did happen in Aysha’s house on that day? What was the holy Prophet asking for? Did he ask for Ali? So when the names of Abu Bakr, Umar and Abbas were mentioned did he agree to it?

When Abu Bakr came to the Prophet, did he tell him to lead the Prayer?

Or the Prophet’s condition was constantly deteriorating. When his condition found little improve, he used to take ablution and when he wanted to get up, his condition become bad. Then he said, “Call Abu Bakr so that he may lead the Pray or other answers that are mentioned in the traditions or other occasions?

Did Bilal come to the holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) to inform him of the time of the Pray? Did the Prophet said: “Bilal I became aware of the time of Prayer, whoever wants can pray, and whoever wants can go?” Did the holy Prophet order Bilal to make him aware about the time of Prayer?

Or rather he said, “Ask someone to lead the people in Prayer.”

Then Ibn Zamá went to Umar and told him that he should lead the people in Prayer. When the holy Prophet heard his voice he said: Allah will not accept this.

Did the holy Prophet order Abu Bakr to lead the people in Prayer, then Aysha went so many times to the holy Prophet so that he may appoint Umar to lead the Prayer, but the holy Prophet did not accept it and said “you are like the women around Joseph”?

Who, in fact, addressed these words to the Prophet? Aysha or Hafsa? Who invited Umar to lead the Prayer? Did Abu Bakr invite Umar to lead the Prayer? Then he didn’t accept it and said, “You are more eligible to lead the Prayer?” Or Ibn Zamá, invited Umar to lead the prayer? Then he accepted it and prayed and the Prophet got angry with him? When, for the last time, people saw the holy Prophet, was he praying in a sitting position behind Abu Bakr? Or it was when he turned the curtain aside, in Aysha’s house, and people were standing in rows behind Abu Bakr?






Imamate of Abu Bakr in the historical sources

All these questions are related only to the reports mentioned in the Sahih, Sunan, and Musnads books, which are considered authentic by the Sunni scholars! But when we refer to the correct historical sources we find more information than the ones mentioned earlier.

In Ansābul Ashrāf it is narrated from Aysha that the holy Prophet said: “Take me to Aysha’s house.”

Aysha says, “When I heard this, I stood up. I didn’t have a servant. I swept the house and spread a carpet for him and kept a pillow below his head; the pillow was filled with dry grass. At the time of Prayer, the Prophet asked me to send someone to call Abu Bakr so that he may lead the people in Prayer.

Aysha continues: “I sent someone to call Abu Bakr.” But he replied “I am old and aged, and do not have the capacity to take the responsibilities of the holy Prophet and stand in his place. The holy Prophet should tell Umar to do this, and for this take the help of Hafsa.”

Aysha said that she performed that work, but the Prophet said: “You are like the women around Joseph! Send someone to call Abu Bakr.”

In Tabaqāt of Ibn Sa’ad there is a tradition from the holy Prophet that in the state of illness, he said to Abu Bakr: “Lead the people in Prayer.”

Then the Prophet felt better. When Abu Bakr was leading the people in Prayer, the Prophet came out of the room, but Abu Bakr did not see him, until the holy Prophet touched the shoulder of Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr returned backwards and the holy Prophet sat on the right side of Abu Bakr. He prayed and the Prophet followed him! When the Prayer got over, the Prophet said: “Always before the demise of a Prophet a person from his nation has done Imamate for the Prophet.”

Yet we find in Tabaqāt Ibn Sa’ad and Ansābul Ashrâf of Balazari (From Fuzail Ibn Amr Faqimi) that Abu Bakr three times led the Prayer during the life of the Prophet. Ibn Sa’ad and Balazari have narrated a similar tradition from Akrama.

In other traditions it has come that Abu Bakr prayed seventeen times with the people.

Balazari has related from Minhal Ibn Umar, from Suwaid Gafla, from Hazrat Ali that the holy Prophet chose Abu Bakr for leading the Prayer of the believers, and during the life of the holy Prophet, Abu Bakr prayed for nine days, and after that the Prophet expired.

Ibn Sa’ad had quoted from Muhammad Ibn Qays that the holy Prophet was sick for 13 days. Whenever he felt better he lead the prayers, and whenever he felt heavy, Abu Bakr prayed in front of the people!!

The true history

Duty of Abu Bakr and Umar to the command of Usamah and the necessity to obey him

Many traditions in the Sahih, Sunan, and Mosnad books, life sketches and histories have come to the scholars of the Caliphate school. There are beautiful and strange anecdotes in them; but none are authentic! The reason is that at that time the holy Prophet had sent Abu Bakr, Umar and many other elder muslims for the expedition to Rome, under the command of Usamah. How then did he had repeatedly asked them to join the army of Usamah. The holy Prophet cursed these who would disobey the army of Usamah.

On the day of 26th Safar, 11 years after Hijrat, the holy Prophet ordered the people to get ready for the expedition to Rome. On the next day he called Usamah bin Zaid and said: “Go towards the place where your father was killed. Raise an army for them as I have made you the commander of this army.”

On the next day, which was Wednesday, the Prophet became ill. He had fever and headache. On Thursday the Prophet gave the flag to Usamah and told him: “By the name of Allah and in the way of Allah, fight with those who disbelieve in God.”

Usamah came out with the flag, and gave it to Burida Ibn Hasib Aslami, and arranged the army in groups, so that no earlier muslim (Mohajirs and Ansars) were left but were recalled to the war. They included Abu Bakr, Umar Ibn Khattab, Abu Ubaidah Jarrah, Sa’ad Ibn Abi Waqqas, Sa’eid Ibn Zaid, Qutada Ibn Noman, and Salma Ibn Aslam. Some persons remarked about the Usamah and said: “This young has been made the Commander over the elders! So the holy Prophet became very angry. He came out while he had wrapped a cloth on himself. Then he went on the pulpit and said:

“The talk of some people about the selection of Usamah as a commander has reached me. They are reproaching him. On the selection of his father, they had also reproached him. After that he came down from the pulpit and went home. Those Muslims, who had came out of the army of Usamah, said farewell to the holy Prophet and went away towards the army.

On the same day the illness of Prophet became severe. He constantly said; “Obey the commands of Usamah.” On Monday, Usamah returned to the holy Prophet from where the army was stationed. The holy Prophet had a better feeling that morning. Then he said to Usamah: “Move under the shade of Mercy and Grace of Allah.”

Usamah bade farewell to the holy Prophet and returned to his army. He gave them orders that they should set out for war. When he was about to mount the horse a messenger came from his mother, Umme Aiman, and said: “The holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) is in his last moments.”

Usamah returned to Medina just before sunset. Umar and Abu Ubaidah also returned at the time when the Prophet had passed away from this world. The Muslims who had gathered in groups (army) entered Medina and Buraida bin Hasib entered Medina with the flag of Usamah and fixed it in the ground near the Prophet’s house. In the tradition of Jawhari we see that Usamah requested the holy Prophet to postpone his departure, so that he could be assured about the Prophet’s health. The Prophet said to him: “Act upon whatever I have told you.”

Then the condition of the Messenger became serious. Usamah stood up and prepared to return.

When the holy Prophet’s condition got better he asked about Usamah and the army. He was told that the army was ready for departure. The holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) repeatedly said, “Obey the commands of Usamah and may Allah curse those who go against the orders of Usamah.” He repeated this many times.

Usamah came out of Medina with the standard of war in his hands and the companions were moving ahead and behind him till that they halted at Jaraf. There were Umar, Aseed bin Hazeer, Bashir bin Saad and other elders of the muslims. A messenger of Umme Aiman (mother of Usamah) arrived and told Usamah: “Keep patience and do not proceed for war. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) is on the deathbed.” Then the flag, which was with him, entered Medina…

Yaqubi says: Never in their lifetime did Abu Bakr and Umar address Usamah by his name; they always called him “commander” or “Amir”! When Abu Bakr became Caliph, he gave order to Usamah bin Zaid to move the army, and asked him to leave Umar in Medina as the Abu Bakr administration advisor. Usamah said: What do you say about yourself?

Abu Bakr replied: “O son of my brother! you see what people have done. They have selected me to rule over them; leave Umar for my help and you proceed on your task.”

Critical analysis of the traditions

The holy Prophet had sent Abu Bakr and Umar for the war against Rome. He had sent them under the command of Usamah. And whoever went against his order were cursed by him! The Messenger of Allah emphasized it many times. The subject that the holy Prophet had selected one of them for leading the prayer is not true because he (p.b.u.h.) had cursed those who went against the orders of Usamah. So they must have been with the army of Usamah. Can a cursed one by the Prophet be eligible to become the Imam? Furthermore, how can we conclude the successorship and caliphate from the Imamate of Prayer?




The reality of Imamate of Abu Bakr in the School of Caliphate

Let us study the traditions that are recorded in the books “Sahih” and “Musnads” again, in order to clarify the reality.

In Sahih Bukhari, the chapter of Prayer, about a person who follows the Imam, and people follow him, it is narrated from the Prophet that he said, “Follow me in this way. Those who are after you, can follow you.”

In Sahih Moslem, Sunan Ibn Majah, Musnad Abu Avana, Musnad Ahmad, Tabaqāt Ibn Sa’ad, and Ansabul Ashraaf of Balazari it is narrated that when the illness of the holy Prophet become severe, Bilal came and informed the Prophet about the time of Prayer. He said: “Call Abu Bakr so that he may lead the people in prayer:

Aysha said: “When Abu Bakr entered the mosque, the holy Prophet felt better. Then he stood up, and due to weakness, had taken the support of two men and his holy feet were dragged on the ground, till they entered the mosque. When Abu Bakr perceived the movement of the holy Prophet, without turning his face, he came back. The holy Prophet gestured to Abu Bakr to remain in the same position and the Messenger sat on the left of Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr prayed standing and the holy Prophet prayed sitting. Abu Bakr followed the Prayer of the holy Prophet, and people followed Abu Bakr.

Abu Bakr made the voice of Takbir of the Prophet reach the people!

In the chapter that the voice of Takbir of Imam must reach the people, from the book of Prayer (in Sahih Bukhari and Musnad Abu Avana) it is said that:

“Abu Bakr, without turning his face, returned and the holy Prophet sat next to Abu Bakr. He repeated the Takbir of the holy Prophet to the people, in a louder voice.

In the chapter (Condition when a sick person can join the congregation), there is a tradition in the book of Adhān. Aysha said: “When the holy Prophet was ill, and when it was time for Prayer, the Prophet got aware about the time of Prayer and said: “Call Abu Bakr so that he can lead people in Prayer.” Abu Bakr came out and prayed. At that time the Messenger (s.a.w.a.) felt somewhat better and came out of the house. He was so weak that he walked with the support of two persons, as if I was seeing that both the feet of the Messenger were being dragged due to pain. …then the Prophet came and sat next to Abu Bakr.

It is narrated in Musnad Abu Avana, and Musnad Ahmad from Aysha, and in Ansabul Ashrâf from Ibn Abbas and Aysha, that the holy Prophet in his deathbed ordered Abu Bakr, “To lead the people in Prayer.” Then the holy Prophet was ahead of Abu Bakr and prayed with the people while sitting, then Abu Bakr followed the Prayer of the holy Prophet, and people followed Abu Bakr.

In the books Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Moslem, Sunan Ibn Majah, Musnad Abu Avana and Muwatta Malik it is quoted that the holy Prophet sat next to Abu Bakr. Then Abu Bakr followed the Prayer of the holy Prophet and people followed Abu Bakr.

From all the available records we conclude that in the last hours of the illness of the holy Prophet, Bilal came to the house of the holy Prophet to inform him about the time for prayer. Then the Prophet came to know about the time of the prayer.

Aysha has related that the Messenger said: “Inform Abu Bakr! He should lead the people in prayer.” When Abu Bakr stood for Prayer, the holy Prophet felt better. Therefore, he came out of the room, supported by two persons from beneath his armpits, and they carryied him; and the feet of the Messenger were dragged on the ground due to pain and weakness. He was absolutely unable to lift his holy feet from the ground. They took him the near of Mehrab (Prayer niche), and the Prophet sat down in front of Abu Bakr.

Shāfei says: In the beginning Abu Bakr was the Imam (Leader of Pray). Then he became a Mamoom (follower), and caused the voice of Takbir of the holy Prophet reach to the people!



















Questions and Objections about the Traditions

Some basic and important questions may arise. One way ask:

1. How is it possible that the holy Prophet once ordered Abu Bakr to pray, and after he had started, the prophet came out of the house in a bad condition and severe illness, to stop him from continuing the Prayer? Yet he was not able to stand up, so he sat down and prayed with the people?

2. Does not the situation show that the people stopped their previous pray, and started a new pray behind the holy Prophet?

3. Similarly we ask:

a. How was the condition of the holy Prophet when he ordered Abu Bakr to pray instead of him?

b. In other traditions, Aysha and all the narrators have said that when the Messenger was taken to the mosque he was unable to stand on his feet and his holy feet were been dragged due to weakness and severe pain.

c. How much heavy and acute has been his illness?

d. If we accept this stage of inability, pain, and difficulty, as the lightness of his condition, then certainly the acute and hard condition had been like coma or unconsciousness.

e. In that condition how it has been possible that the holy Prophet in the state of coma, (after hearing the voice of Bilal to lead the Prayer) call Aysha and say: “Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in Prayer?”

4. When the holy Prophet was in the special room of Aysha, resting on the bed in a state of coma, who said to Bilal that the holy Prophet had said, “Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in Prayer?”


The true Imamate in the two Schools

[The School of Ahle-Bayt (Shia) and the School of the Caliphate (Sunnite)]

The answers to these questions can be found from the tradition of Ibne Abil Hadid, from his Shaikh (teacher). Imam Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s.)stated that: Aysha ordered Bilal to inform Abu Bakr to lead the people in Prayer. The holy Prophet said: “You are like those women around Joseph.” The Prophet said those sentences in order to reject that programme. He got angry on them because, both Aysha and Hafsa wished their fathers be appointed. The holy Prophet came out and put aside Abu Bakr from the Mehrab (Prayer niche).Then the holy Prophet cursed Aysha in seclusion and complained to Allah about the injustice of Aysha.

Ibn Abil Hadid says that he asked his Shaikh (teacher), “Do you say that Aysha appointed her father to pray and the Prophet did not appoint him?”

He replied: “I do not say that. It is Hazrat Ali who had said this, and my duty is other than him. Ali was present there and I was not. So I have no choice but to submit to these traditions and quotations, which have reached me.”

Hazrat Ali (p.b.u.h.) was present on that scene, and he himself knew what had happened and what was happening. The historical facts and traditions in the school of Ahle Bayt (Shia) match with what has been narrated by Amirul Mo-mineen Ali (p.b.u.h.).

In “Irshad” of Shaikh Mufeed and A’alāmul Wara of Tabarsi, there are traditions which says:

“The holy Prophet in the days of his illness was in the house of Umme Salma. He had stayed a day or two in the house of Umme Salma that Aysha came to Umme Salma and requested that the Prophet be shifted to her house, so that she could nurse him; and in this matter she took the permission of all the wives. The permission was given and the holy Prophet was transferred to Aysha’s house. The illness of the Prophet continued in Aysha’s house. Day by day, his condition worsened. Then at the time of Morning Prayer, although the whole body of the Prophet was feverish, Bilal came and said: “Prayer! May the Mercy of Allah be upon you.”

In Khasaisul Aimma there is a tradition: “When the illness of the Messenger increased, he called Ali. Then the Prophet put his head on the lap of Hazrat Ali and his condition got bad till he got aware about the time of prayer…”

Shaikh Mufeed has stated: …..Then Aysha said: ‘Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in Prayer’. And Hafsa said: ‘Tell Umar to lead the people in Prayer.’

When the holy Prophet heard the conversation of Ayesha and Hafsa, and saw their deep interest for the Imamate of their fathers and their delusion in that matter (while the Prophet was still alive), he said: “Stop it! You are like those women around Joseph.” Then the Messenger got up due to the fear that one of them may perform the pray. Although he had ordered both of them to go out of the city with Usamah, yet they were near the Prophet. So there was no doubt that those two persons had disobeyed. When the holy Prophet heard the conversation of Aysha and Hafsa, he understood that Abu Bakr and Umar had disobeyed his orders. To stop the mischief and remove the doubts, the Prophet tried to stand up, although due to severe weakness, he was unable to walk. Then Ali Ibn Abi Talib and Ibn Abbas took the hands of the Prophet and he took the support of them. His feet, due to weakness and inability, were dragged on the ground. When the holy Prophet came to the mosque he saw Abu Bakr, who had stepped towards the Mehrab. The Prophet showed Abu Bakr, with his hands, to go behind the Mehrab, and the holy Prophet stood in front place, and said the Takbiratul Ihram of the prayer. The Prayer, which was started by Abu Bakr, was discontinued, and the Prophet started a new prayer. When the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) finished the Prayer, he told Abu Bakr, Umar, and a group from the Muslims who were present in the mosque: “Did I not order you to join the army of Usamah?”

They said: “Yes, O Prophet of Allah.”

The Prophet said: “Then why did you disobey my orders?” Abu Bakr said: “I went out, but I returned so that I may renew my allegiance to you!”

Umar said: “O Prophet of Allah, I did not go out of Medina because I didn’t like to ask about your condition from others.”

Then the holy Prophet said: “Join the army of Usamah”, and repeated it thrice. After that, due to pain, tiredness, and sadness, which inflicted the Prophet (p.b.u.h.), his condition deteriorated.

Conclusions and Analyses of traditions

The contents of tradition about the Imamate of Abu Bakr during the illness and demise of the holy Prophet are very contradictory.

In spite of the contradictions, the scholars consider these traditions as a proof of the correctness of Abu Bakr’s successorship of the Prophet.

Indeed the scholars have forgotten what is recorded in Sahih Bukhari regarding Abu Bakr, Umar, and other elder muslims who followed and prayed behind Sâlim (the freed slave of Abu Huzaifa). And the holy Prophet put Ibn Umme Maktum (who was blind) to lead the perform of the public prayers in his absence in Medina. Ibn Umme Maktum used to lead the Friday Prayers with the people.

Scholars have forgotten that Bukhari, in his Sahih, has kept a special chapter about the Imamate of slaves, the freed ones, illegitimate children, the Arab gypsies, the Bedouins, and young boys who had not reached puberty, etc.

The scholars have forgotten what the traditionist companion, Abu Huraira, has narrated: “Prayer which has become obligatory, can be performed behind every Muslim, whether he has a good character or bad; even though he may be indulging in major sins!”

The conclusion and evaluation of the Sunni scholar from the traditions consisting of strange and astonishing stories, is not correct. Since, the holy Prophet had sent Abu Bakr, Umar, and many other muslims for the expedition to Rome, under the command of Usamah bin Zaid. He had repeated his order many times, and had cursed those who disobeyed Usamah. Then how the story of appointing Abu Bakr as Imam of Prayer could be true?

When we study the traditions mentioned in the Sahih books, we find narrations which specify when Abu Bakr stood up and started praying, the holy Prophet came in the mosque. He was very weak, and movement was not possible for him. Two people (Hazrat Ali and Fazl Ibn Abbas) supported him. The feet of the Prophet were dragged on the ground. In that condition the holy Prophet was brought to the mosque. He sat in the Mehrab and in a sitting position, led the people in Prayer. Abu Bakr who was the Imam, became a Mamoom (follower) and just repeated the takbirs of the holy Prophet loudly.

It means that he was reciting the takbir for Prayer, and suddenly the holy Prophet came out to stop him. The holy Prophet removed him from Imamate.

Now it is necessary to pose a question. How Abu Bakr was present in the mosque, whereas, he was ordered to join the army of Usamah? In that case it is not correct that the holy Prophet ordered him to lead the Prayer, when he had previously ordered him to join Usamah.

We find the answer from what Ibn Abil Hadid has narrated from Imam Ali. “Aysha was the one who asked Bilal (freed by her father) to tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in Prayer.” Then the holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) told Aysha and other women: “You are like the women around Joseph!” It was due to the way that they behaved. Also he came to the mosque, carried by two people, to halt the congregational prayer led by Abu Bakr.

Traditions in the school of Ahlul Bayt emphasize and specify that the holy Prophet came out and stopped Abu Bakr from leading the Prayer, and started the Prayer again. And when he (s.a.w.a.) finished the Prayer he returned to his house. Then Umar and Abu Bakr were called and interrogated for disobeying the command to join the army of Usamah. One of them said: “I went out of Medina, but I returned so that I could see you again!”

The other said: “I didn’t like to go out of Medina and ask about your condition from others!”

Then the holy Prophet said: Go and join the army of Usamah. He repeated it three times, till his condition became worse.

After all, one more question remains. If these were the facts, how all those traditions in the Sahih, Sunan, Musnads, books of traditions, history, and biographies are regarded correct, and how they have been spread in the School of Caliphate?

Answer: The political intrigue employed by the Caliphs to befool the people required that such traditions be fabricated and distributed. After the time of the Caliphate, the validity of the rule of the Umayyad, Abbaside and Ottoman Caliphs all depended on such traditions. The political rulers spread those traditions during the fourteen centuries and people transferred them, copied them, and gave their support. The books having such traditions were considered authentic. The people were misguided about their authenticity; and generation after generation, people accepted it and did not pay heed to scrutinize them or do research.



There is no power and strength except from Allah, the High and the Mighty




Complied by: Ayatollah Lutfollah Saafi Golpayegani

Translated by: Dr. Hasan Najafi




These comments of mine I sent to the reverend scholar Dr. Abdul Aziz Sachadina for his perusal. My intention was to solicit his clarification whatever he might deem necessary in case of my being erroneous in understanding any of the themes on the contents of his book. I even rather went too jar to request him to translate himself this comments into English. He favored me with answer:

“Your comments about my book I have read. I see befitting it is what you have explained and commented in a way of your own view of the universe should be published either along with the book or into a separate edition. As for its translation into English is concerned I consider it a labor of unbearable endeavor. Hence, I may be excused and my apology be accepted.


In the cases at the close of my lecture when your letter and comments reached we debated thereon and indeed benefited there from. I pray Allah, the Merciful,

the Just, and the Knower of the intentions hidden in the bosoms to proling the shadow of your existence and presence on our heads that is a paternal one to

me. Please don’t forget me in your prayers.”

I have given the above extract from his letter in order to appreciate the greatness of character and the eximious quality of endurance that is in his

bosom; and the generosity of Dr. Sachadina. Secondly, once again I have drawn out of it the striking- sincerity of his strong faith in Islamic principles and in the guardianship of Infallible Imams, (the Members of the Prophet’s House,)

particularly that of HAZRAT Mahdi (A. S.) (The twelfth of them)

Thirdly repeatedly I have to remind that his thesis on the bases of explaining the causes of events due to historical factors as occurrence without taking into

consideration of divine view of univerag3 to make familiar that category of people who adopted the above method for analysis, enabling them to analyze faith to mastership (Imamate) and Mahdaviat (Mahdi) with the same Idea, limited cognition which they have had from that Religions and Islamic principles.

Of course we reject the root of this assumption as such from one and it will

be cleaned from explanation that this method of study could not be generalized to all the events and occurrence nor answerable,

The misunderstanding which is comprehend from this hook is that (respected author) has not given importance to such a very basic point cleanly, And this may lead the readers of little information to conclude that the Real and Right

Islam which Shia’sm is what this analysis says.

Such misunderstanding will he removed by these explanation as well as makes it clear that this type of analysis is not reliable; (because) subjects such as birth of Faith to God, the unseen world, prophet hood, the mastership (Imamate)

and Mahdaviat (Mahdism) can not be analyzed by this method.

To look into the causes of events whether historical ones or common ones is a different thing and to impose the analysis into the facts and the cause of the

events and to trim a cause to run away from facing the real cause and the reason of the facts is quite a different thins.

So it became clear that in such explanation or index according to Dr.

Sachadina we do not have any main dispute.

By the power of Allah and His strength we both are in the line of Islam, following the book and progeny (of Holy Prophet), brother of each other.

We have only tried to clear that this type of writing and introducing Shia does not create misunderstanding for some people Thee comments shows the weakness, unreliability and unreality of such cognition about Shia the real

principles of Islam which comes out form such analysis.

We announce our readiness to answer to any type of question around our comments and explanation and welcome to receive any kind of question and objections.


May peace be upon those who follow the guidance.




Qum, Iran


Thanks to God who bestowed to us the power of thinking and that of distinguishing the right from wrong.


Salutations to the pure soul of the last of the Messengers, Mohammed Bin

Abdullah who, through his radiant mission removed the veil of ignorance and darkness from the human eye, and guided his followers to the right path and

showed them how to live in the best manner. Blessed be his progeny, the members of his house, Caliphs, and his successors, the twelve Imams, particularly the twelfth one – Imam of the present age, Mahdi, the awaited one, the Redeemer of the Universe, he who will bring the long awaited justice.

This book debates and discusses the contents of the book “Islamic Messianism” written by the respected scholar, Abdul Azeez Sachedina. Although the contents of this book have an immediate bearing on the contents

of the previously named book, yet, it stands with an independent entity of its own due to the magnitude of the discussion framed within historical, Islamic and scientific bounds, which is in itself fascinating factor. Indeed, this book at

the same time, helps completes where that one lurks short, and corrects the image, if obfuscated in the other book.

Matters are so discussed that the reader could grasp the sense without

referring to the other book. Whoever walks in the corridors of the edifice of this book will become acquainted with the building of the other one without paying a visit there. Those who adhere to their subject because of their belief, and those who look into this subject because of their curiosity, and those to whom desire of investigation has approximated to this subject would in any case, feel interested in their excursion and their fatigue would be compensated as they relax in its premises.

Indeed, it is my wish from the Almighty to guard the pen either mine or that of others forms deviation. May He determine the end, no other than to focus the light upon truth when we comment on others’ writings or express our views about their composition? Not at all is it the desire nor is it ever in design to disparage one’s literary efforts or conceal them or belittle a wit or dig into other’s research in order to point out their mistakes or personal errors. No. Never. May God ward off such a malevolence.

“There is no success to me except from Allah whom I depend upon and whom I resign to.”




The form of research varies and the outlook differs in investigations about the

religious matters and those of the faith of those who believe in God and the unseen world,

The acceptance of this truth, or in other words, such a view of the universe

that the world is created by God, in it is a subject that entails research.

With regards to Islam we hold belief in God’s existence and His being omnipotent, All Knowing, Almighty, All Wise and that He sent the Messengers for the guidance of the people.

Obviously in such a way of investigation we connect the Mission of Muhammad to God Himself. Now the validity of this connection is to be explored.

On, the issue of Imamate and Mehdism; we faithfully and unanimously make inquiry into the relation of these two (Imamate and Mehdism) with the reality so that to understand as to whether these two subjects are based on an Islamic

Pedestal or only attributed to Islam.

The forms of research differ even in that of belief in God. In order to reach the truth and the correct view of the universe, one seeks to launch an inquiry.

This occasions him to conquest the view of the universe held by those who know God and those who ignore God. Now, such an inquirer or investigator deals with both sides of the coin, negatively and positively, because he has not

yet formed a belief. He is still in a search. So, this is a way of research and study. Another way of research about the events and beliefs is, in a historical term, the material view of the universe. Although, he himself might not be materialist, but wants to know the materialistic causes. This and such a type of

study is valid only in the ambit of the material view of the world and could provide causes and effects within the limits of its range, but does not stand authentic to establish the fact or deny it because from the aspect of the Divine

view of the universe it is not a standard. Besides, it would not go beyond a concatenation of feeble guess. It would only crawl like a centipede but could not run with the impetus of the gallop of a horse. Here we are not in the situation of

making a comparison between these two aspects of viewing the universe and to prove the Divine view of the universe. Nor can we say that the material view of the universe or historical one, whatever it may be called, if it is to be considered

to be the absolute one towards negating God and the unseen world, then they are mistaken because the material view of the universe is short to constitute a consummate scope of all truth and can not pose itself as a reality to be believed. One may reject the divine view of the universe; but his path terminates at

ignorance – absence of knowledge and not the knowledge of absence.

In such a disquisition of the material view despite the severance of the connection between this visible world with the absent one, the invisible causes

that give birth to an incident or a belief or a thought, because the butt of their question. As such, they are after a material and historical cause for the birth of a

thought, a system, a school, a movement and so forth. So, this outlook in the causes that lead a belief or an opinion to appear in a circle of unbelievers is nothing but a series of presumptions which carry, even to themselves only a value not more than the worth of a guess. It is not a viewpoint believable o of its own entity in the subject matter. It is neither consummate nor compendious nor far stretching one even to those who are wandering in the wilderness of conquest and have not yet reached the oasis of any particular view of the universe. It is, indeed, void for those who hold an Islamic and Divine view of the universe.

When such a fundamental difference exists between the two methods of study and disquisition one should avoid the conjugation of these two in discussions and arguments. There are many that are quite inadvertent to this fact, and therefore, become victims of the error that is the consequence of the coition between these two different ways of disquisition. Therefore they fell prey to mistakes when they study the Divine view of the universe, without a belief in it they will classify it as a second or third grade issue.

They make their research in the issue of messengers and apostles and, the belief in its essentiality; in the same fashion, that is, from the historical aspect.

They bring forth other issues, those of economical and material ones; and conjugate them although there exist no relation with the invisible world. A Divine view of the universe or the belief in God is, in fact, a cardinal issue. But

they treat it on the same basis dwelling on the causes, which are ended by the element of time or succumb to it.

So, such they proceed and such they pay no heed to these points, and, accordingly by fall in the abyss of error which to them appears as a valley of

principles, where their imagination which had given link between the historical event takes the shape of facts. Thus they float distant from the shore of the Divine view of the universe because not being in its current they can not enter

into its flow. Great issues such as the prophet hood and Imamate to them are a true history of the events that once occurred.

So, here we can conclude that the respected scholar, Mr. Abdul Azeez

Sachedina, has endeavored greatly and toiled much but only to attain the outlook of the second category; what he saw from Shia and Mehdism has been written in this book; The knowledge about him that I have, tells me that he is an ardent Shia and a Staunch believer in “WILAYAT” and “IMAMAT of Mahdi.” That a series of historical effects caused the events, and that Imamate and Mehdism among them which precede the belief in the prophet hood, to presume such and attribute this to the writer it will be unfair. It is not so. He has chosen this method of analysis from the historical aspect because of his own foresumption to make the Shia religion and Mahdism comprehensive for those who regard the growth of the schools in line with the material view of the universe and on such a foundation rest their analysis. This he has done because of his knowledge o them to whom realities are only a historical series of events,

interlinked and interwoven, chained in the continuity of time only to become the cause for the effect of the other. In other words, whatever the history it is a fact and a reality; and, which therefore, can not be denied.

He has adopted such method of analysis although in principle wrong and erroneous to present the gist so that the thought might not be looked improbable

and not excite wonder, astonishment nor tempt them the vilification. By such an analysis we infer that the writer has made an attempt to elevate the Shiasm and the school of Mahdism in their understanding as a consummate, complete, and advanced one with participation in revolutions and changes which can not be


Yet, this should be said as we pointed out earlier that this way of study and investigation neither attains truth nor does it reflect the facts. The outlook of the

universal Divine view is at difference with it. The Divine view is not mentioned, neither openly or indirectly, in the book. Reflecting these points and the method of raising the issues and the difference between the outlooks

towards these issues are not known to many. There is every likelihood of a mistake. To divert the attention of such ignorant to the gist of the issue and to divert their sight to the original point and to acquaint them with the Imamate

and Mahdism, we will present our readers a few explanations about the issues raised in that book. We hope our readers will at least acquire some advantages and benefits that he may use latter on. What we have explained, is the need;

there is not need to depend upon the matters about which we have explained. Each chapter that occurs to us we shall explain by the help of God.


1. The Prophet – A paragon of perfection and high above an ordinary man: The Prophet is above an ordinary man.


He possesses qualities, which are not common among the ordinary people.

This thought and belief which reason attests to. The belief in his being a chosen one in itself evidences his mission as his mission is the evidence of his being a

chosen one. As we know one who is vested with the office of prophet hood should have distinct distinction from among others through either those of

moral, knowledge, conduct and behavior – each at its zenith. If he too stands at the same level in the same class with the same grade quite equal with others, then what superiority goes to him or what prominence and preference does he

have over others? In such a case why should others obey him and why should he give orders? God does not impose not one upon others if he is not better than them. Of course, the Prophet is not a super human nor is he a being other than human. But, indeed, he is a man superior to other men, a distinguished one, a

perfect one and a man in its complete sense. This factor remained open to all throughout his life – private and public. His generous behavior, exalted moral, a charitable character and the human virtue had already set him at a station higher

than that in which lurked everyone else. He was not yet a prophet. We are not going here to compare his moral with that of others.

The writer too Mr. Abdul Azeer, whom we shall refer to hereafter as the writer, holds the same opinion. The terms used by him such as ‘paragon of the desired perfection’, ‘chosen one by Divine’, ‘a real leader’; reflect the same sense. This statement: ‘The consummate perfection which the Prophet left behind gives reason to this thought that he should be above a common man’, brought forward this conjecture after his becoming a prophet and before his death. Appointment to the office of prophet hood is subject to better decency and wider ability. All it shows was that the Prophet was not a common man.


2. One Universal Government Islamic Jusbice, and the Imamate of Mahdi:


That this Divine design in forming a new nation throughout the world should be worldwide and as such, a total justice under the oneness of God should

stretch from end to end, was a salient factor in the invitation to Islam. Besides; the Quranic Verses too have given expression to this end in its several chapters. Muslims also have often and always looked forward in anticipating the

realization of the goals in line with the promise committed by God and His Prophet. Furthermore, there are hundreds of predictions foretold by the prophet that Islam will be the absolute and universal religion and that a total justice will

rule providing security over the earth; and this will be accomplished by Mehdi whose appearance is awaited as it is promised. He is from the Prophet’s progeny, son of Ali and Fatima, bearing a patronymic same as that of the


One day Mahdi will appear; this belief has been introduced, that is, the specifications too are told. This is a belief that runs in the veins of Islam and is divulged in its preliminary texts. Besides, the traditions those are constant – and

are their constancy runs no doubt – support the belief. The Prophet has given the tidings and it is he who has kept his nation in waiting for the day of the appearance of Mahdi. This belief, as other ones, is a principal and cardinal one

envigoured by its originality and enlivened by its purity. The belief in the

Prophet resigns to the belief in Mahdi.

Extract from the traditions has not constituted this belief. Prognostications that Islam will become worldwide and that the truth will obliterate the wrong,

do exist and do provide an umbrella, but this belief stands by its own supported by the text. Symptoms are foretold and the qualities specified which are to be

taken for granted when they occur as the indication of Mahdi’s appearance.

These predictions might have had been efficacious in the growth of this belief but the conditions and circumstances that came into being immediately after the death of the Prophet have not part in this belief, because this belief had already

been divulged to the people far in advance. The origin of this belief is the prophet hood and not the time. Likewise, attachment of the faithful ones with the Prophet stands apart from the count to be regarded as one of the causes for

Mahdism. Such a conjecture, if there be or to form one, is doomed to be rejected and refuted because it is bleak and barren; not an evidence nor a proof, nor a

document, nor a logic is there to irrigate it so as to keep it alive. Therefore, if this be said, which, indeed, has been, that a group of Muslims were not happy in the rule of the caliphs whom had ruled after the Prophet’s death, some of the people among them were led to a belief which persuaded them to wait, anticipating the rise of one from the Prophet’s progeny, to take up the guidance of the people; is only an absurdity neither coherent nor congruous with reality.

Resurrection of man is Islam according to the Quran does not indicate to the appearance of a redeemer in the person of Mahdi at the end of time. Therefore, those who were ardently faithful to the person of the prophet, gratified

themselves to look forward to what they had hoped to witness in their own lifetime. The dispatch and constancy with which they held the view became a belief with them to anticipate the appearance of a man from the Prophet’s

progeny, guided by God for the redemption of the people. Although such is their argument and thus their reasoning but it is not true. The appearance of Mehdi, the Redeemer, had been prognosticated long ago and the predictions in

this regard abound to the extent that no other prediction in Islam, whatever its object, does not equal in number. It is certitude. Here what astonishes is this: The writer appears to have explored the subject thoroughly, and he says that the

traditions, which predict the appearance of Mahdi exceed to more than a thousand. Further, the writer has quoted from the books written by others and he has taken sufficient store from the books of “HADITH” and interpretation.

After having had set out on such a journey, long and tedious, endangering himself of every possible hazard, and having had wandered far and wide he comes back only to tell that he has seen nothing. To believe him reasons rejects. His toil has gone futile and his fatigue without compensation is his misfortune.

This is a pity. Great Sunni scholars have written books on this subject. Twelve centuries have since passed and the books written then have withstood the ransacking by the scholars and researchers of Islamic sciences. From them they

have narrated its material, and quoted its essence in their own books availing nothing but to tell that the advent of Mahdi was had never been foretold. In the glare of light they have failed to see the object. They attributed the fact to the

personal attachment of a few with the Prophet. Even this argument that the advent of Mahdi is not mentioned in the Quran is lame because the Prophet had on many occasions informed the nation that such a day exists in the womb of

time and there is not miscarriage of it. His companions heard him; and form mouth to mouth circulated the forecast. But, doubt still swells in the cradle of hesitation! Such is the obduracy and so the stubbornness.

This is a mistake, though not deliberate. Likewise, there are several other

mistakes in the book, all because the writer has ignored authorities and references which form a foundation of the belief among all Muslims in the advent of the redeemer, Mahdi. His means of reasoning and way of argument has steered him to blunders. The issue of Mehdism has so disturbed him that he has disturbed all by his wrong discussion, in which instead of explaining has

confounded the confusion.. The religion of Islam and the belief in Shiaism confronts him either to check or challenge him. He has gained nothing in his exploration but has lost the track to return back.

Consequence? Reason alarms us. Such a way of analysis and conclusion in the subject matter of Imamate if to be tolerated, will lead us to doubt other

matters, such as the prophet hood of the prophets. And a step further, the issue of belief in God itself will be put to question. From the start it is a slaught on belief because of its wrong approach.

For instance, the prophet hood of Moses could be put to question. It could be

argued that the Israelis were oppressed by the pharaoh, Moses thought to rescue them. In fact, it was the atrocities of the pharaoh who incited Moses to campaign under the title of prophet hood. In other words, it was nationalism that caused Israelis to accept Moses’ invitation. Or, it could be said that, the Prophet too campaigned under the title of prophet hood because of the heartening condition of the poor people of Mecca and the atrocities of moneylenders and the wicked deeds of the populace.

These and such analysis and justifications are close to fiction rather than to reality, as they do not have the remotest bearing on the actuality of causes and

effects of things.

In spite of all this it should not be forgotten, as the writer has pointed out, that the atrocities of the people who held the affairs in their hands did not go without

influence on the hearts. It made the public stauncher in their belief in Mahdi and his Imamate and more enthusiastic in anticipation of a redeemer because of the need for relief that was the deservation of their hour. The grounds, historical and social, have always aided in advancing the call of the prophets, as was the case

with our Prophet. This conclusion is in agreement with the divine universal view. To link the prophet hood, and Imamate to circumstances and the divine outlook of the universe is not reasonable. The outlook of one who believes in

God shall refute it. It is feeble, flaccid, and fake.


3. Shiasm and the meaning of Imam, the Redeemer:


We will present explanations of some magnitude in order to obviate mistakes since there are several. The taking shape and the Foundation of Shiasm in the epoch of prophet hood:


A. Historical events and constant traditions indicate that during the prophet hood itself, the Shia faith started taking shape and gaining ground by its Salient feature that is the belief in Imamate fixed by the text. In the early years of his prophet hood when the Prophet commenced the call, a foundation was laid and officially announced to the people with much stress on the need for their adherence to it. This is quite obvious in the much known tradition of THAQALAIN (two heavy things). The Prophet did not suffice on that. He wanted to write it down in his will which he said was important and that they


would never go astray if they adhered to it. He demanded a pen and paper for this purpose. As he was sick in his deathbed no one obeyed his order. Those who were present around him opposed him openly and said, “The man is ulterring nonsense.” They stopped him from writing down his will by not giving him a pen and paper.

Those who accepted the Prophet’s invitation and stuck to this faith was and is a Shia. It is the contents of the Prophet’s call and the essence of his Mission. As for the leadership of the nation, on every occasion and in every opportunity this issue has been made known to the people by the Prophet (SAW).

Imamate is a comer stone in the proclamations of the Prophet (SAW). The importance of it comes to light by this saying of the Prophet (SAW), which he narrated on various occasions. “He who dies without knowing the Imam of his

time dies a death of ignorance.” What we infer from this tradition is that to ignore the Imam or not to recognize him is tantamount to death a death prior to Islam. The station of Imam is such. The Prophet (SAW) has specified the

qualities of the Imam as to who and how he should be, also as from which class and which clan he should be. Their number too which is twelve was told by the Prophet (SAW). He in his lifetime had disclosed their names individually.

Every Imam is a perfect man of his time. His conduct, moral, and knowledge are superior to all. He is the example in every aspect to be followed. The Quranic verses as well support this. Imamate is a Divine office like that of

Prophet hood. As God chooses His prophet, He chooses His successor too because the office is the same; the prophet introduced a mission and the Imam was and is the guardian of that mission. One propagates while the other preserves.

The writer says that in the early years of Islam there was no sign of either Shiasm or Sunnism. If he means by this that the Shia thought had no root in Islam in its early years; he is mistaken. He says openly quite contrary to the

fact. The leadership of Ali (AS) or his succession to the Prophet (SAW) was the most original thought expressed by the Prophet (SAW) himself. It is as old as Islam itself. In addition to the Prophet’s sayings, there are several incidents and

occasions of no less importance which occurred and which pointed to the issue of Imamate, that is the leadership after the Prophet.

During that time a division had not yet occurred. Opposition to the Shia

thought and Imamate took years to develop and identify itself by the name of Sunni. The individuals who channeled things to flow in quite the opposite direction, which caused the division, were quite resigned to the original Islam because that was the age of the Prophet, which to them was the age of ambush. The Islam of that age, that is, the time of their ambush, remained in its originality that later begot the name of Shiasm because they had invented

‘Sunnism’ – a contrary school.

The life of the Prophet (SAW) rather shielded them. The death of the Prophet

(SAW) exposed them. There they were feeble. Later they were cunning. What

the Prophet had set up they upset. The upset one took the name of Sunni. The original setup preserved its entity in Shia.

Zero hour was the death of the Prophet (SAW). The meeting place was SAQIFA. They gathered; laid bare their intentions. The clamor died down and a successor to the demised Prophet was suggested, nominated, and appointed – all

in no time. Why was Ali not there? Ali (AS) was occupied in the funeral of the Prophet (SAW). Actually the gathering at SAQIFA drew a line between Islam dividing it into two.

Now, their allegation. The Holy Quran has not located a center nor

accommodated the scholars with a choice in interpretation of the issues and of fashioning the affairs into a discipline. This is not correct. The Quran says in the chapter ‘Women’: “If they had referred it to the Messenger and to those in authority among them, those of them whose task it was investigate would have known the mailer.”(4:85) Of course, its interpretation requires a separate chapter. But at a cursory view we come to know that the term, ‘those in authority’ purports to the Imams, immune of sins.

The Prophet had often said that the Quran was with them, and they with the

Quran unseperable from earth other. In this respect readers may refer to the traditions ‘THAQALAIN’, ‘SAFEENA’, and ‘Amam’ and several other ones.

In other traditions the Prophet says: “In every generation to come out of my nation, there are just people alongside the members of my House, who cleanse

the religion from deviation of the arrogant and wrong of the wrong doers.”


B. History of Leadership and Caliphate:


This issue has always been much in attention. The prophet hood was still in

its start and the Revelations had started coming down, this issue too made its appearance as a matter of no less magnitude. There is a story of a man who approached the Prophet and told him that he would embrace his faith on one condition and that was that he becomes leader after the Prophet (SAW). The Prophet (SAW) rejected the man.

In the meantime, it is true that in the current of some great events of historical significance the religions view of Shiasm sometimes used to palpitate and

sometimes the Islamic rays have had so glared through the prism that its reflection has astonished the viewers and captured their attention.

It is a historical fact that governments came to power, which were quite incompetent and not fit for the leadership. Although bad they were imposed on the people because they facilated the ground which became easily accessible for the leadership. Leadership thus obtained they ruled over the people. People were

helpless. They could do nothing beyond disdaining and cursing them. The governments in spite of the power could not rule over the dominion of hearts.

In the lifetime of the Prophet (SAW) nobody dared to show his true identity.

As there was no opposition openly, the underground movements took root. What they could not accept was the leadership of Ali (AS), announced time and

again by the Prophet. Secret plots were concocted. The Prophet himself was to be assassinated.

After the death of the Prophet (SAW) what was underground became open. The Prophet was no more to be feared; but his house and its members were there. The opposition had a plan, and they proceeded with it. Now the front was

the very house of the Prophet (SAW). Whoever was a member, friend or sym- pathizer to the Holy Prophet’s household was to be crushed, so that their opposition should gain ground. Thus the division became wider and the opposition reached every house, if that house was a friend of the Prophet’s

house. Those who were supporters of the Prophet’s household were called Shia. In other words, those who adhered to the Prophet’s household or remained in his camp, became Shia. Wherever a Shia be, he had to confront this opposition.

The only daughter of the Prophet (SAW), Zahra, was not excluded. They came to her house and tortured her and showed the people that they could go to that extreme and beyond. Thereafter the events took their course. Some of the

followers of the Prophet went astray and a split was now the rule. This deviation from the original course became a school and whoever adhered to it became a Sunni. And a Sunni was to oppose a Shia who remained in the line of the

Prophet (SAW) which was under the protection of his household. Although such was the case however face to face confrontation was very prudent by avoided in the time of Abu Bakr and also in the regime of Omar. What did the

people do? The legality or the legitimacy of the government a mattered to some, which others remained indifferent. Some people rather enjoyed the opportunity as they affiliated themselves to the ruling junta. There were also three who considered the issue as finished and settled. But a few among them, like Omar,

never considered themselves safe and secure, because the legitimacy of their rule was under question by some. As long as doubt existed the danger too existed that the people might return to the original track. Therefore Omar

adopted very calculated policies in which to keep Ali (AS) at a distance from power. So, Omar wrote a plan, which introduced the proposal of a six men committee. Othaman carried out the plan. As a result Ali once again stayed

away from power. In the meantime, this occasioned for the people to recall the words of the Prophet (SAW) about Ali (AS) when he had introduced him as the one who would succeed him. An outpour of memory excited the passions in

such an effective way that they, the people, showed and expressed their disappointment as they saw the deviation from the track of the Prophet (SAW) was getting wider. The hatred and abhorrence towards Othaman was in such abundance that Muslims could not restrain their anger and anguish. The huge

fire, which had erupted, was fueled by the irregularities and injustice of Othaman himself. The original Islam was in need of the rightful successor of the Prophet. As there was no other than Ali, huge crowds of Muslims gathered

around to support him. After twenty-five years of straying off the right path, people were once again shown the correct path. Ali (AS) and a holy war under

his command were considered by Muslims a great honor. Allegiance to him was pledged and his succession to the Prophet’s place was celebrated. Shiasm considers nothing wrong with this, but quite the contrary; this was done in compliance with logic and reason.

This is a fact that the faith of the Shia was never forgotten. The hearts of the people have always hung to the Prophet’s household. They were victims and

deprived of their right. People gave their support as the occasion arose and the opportunity invited. Poets have narrated this faith. Farazdog is a good example of one of these poets whose famous laudation addresses Husham telling him as

to who Imam Zainulabedeen was. Mosa Bin Naseer was the governor of Africa. He had a slave by the name of Tariq. Tariq conquered Spain. Eventhough they held offices in the government of Bani Ommiya, they were Shia. Because of his

being a Shia, Tariq’s properties were confiscated and he himself was dismissed, regardless of his services. The Shia belief had penetrated even into Mawiya’s family. Mawiya’s grandson, Yazid, was a Shia. He openly accused his father

and grandfather and announced his allegiance to Ali and other members of the

Prophet’s House. Likewise was the situation in the Bani Abbas dynasty.

It is the Truth and the originality that the Shia faith has survived throughout ages in spite of the ups and downs that has disturbed it and posed as a threat to

its holder. From the political aspect, any Shia was restricted from holding any office in the government. The tyrant and cruel rulers of the Bani Abbas dynasty

like Mansoor, Haroon and Mamun had knowledge of Shiasm, however contrary to their knowledge they crushed the Shia thought in order to obtain and keep their power.

Going down the line of the Bani Abbas dynasty we see another ruler,

Muntasar, who held the Shia thought. Again, another by the name of Naser; he too was Shia. At Samerre (Iraq), the place of disappearance of Mahdi (AS), the twelfth Imam, had been entrusted to and was repaired by Naser. There are narrations from Shia sources, which say that Naser was Shia and regarded himself as a deputy of the twelfth Imam, Mahdi (AS). The Shia faith is Islam. Neither greed corrupted nor ambition has polluted it. They did not desert the Prophet. When he was no more the tradition of THADALAIN goaded them to the Prophet’s household – the Imams, twelve in succession. Nothing was added there to; nothing was reduced there from. It was the same in the Prophet’s lifetime and remained the same throughout the fourteen centuries. What had history to do with it? They attribute it to history. What we do understand is that the Shia faith has been the cause for uprisings, movements either open or underground ones, revolts, and revolutions. The Shia faith has always stood against tyrants. It is quite contrary to what some think and say. Of course, there who think such are men of no knowledge or little information. They do not know; and those who know conceal; but history knows and tells and does not conceal. There were Shia governments in Egypt, Dialama, North Africa, Iran, and Iraq. The upraising of the Safavis was an event caused by Shiasm. All these

dominions were under Shia rule. There were the events that the Shia faith caused; and not the other way around.


C. Sunnism and its sectarian term against Shiasm after the lifetime of the




The analysis of the writer in his book in this chapter is such as to indicate that Shiasm as well as Sonnism were political forms and that they gradually took the status of a religions support which was necessary to their political ends. Failure of Shiasm in political avenues, the writer attributes to the lack of a corres-

ponding ideology. In this respect, that is, the ideology we would like to correct the writer because he has made himself free to tell what is not a reality.

The Shia was opposed to accepting the successor to the Prophet who had

been wrongly appointed. This is itself a political dimension. This very policy and the reason for this policy resulted in the division; this division, in fact, stretches to the difference of belief in leadership. To make it short, a new belief came into existence against the belief of a divinely fixed or established Imamate. As a result, the real followers of Islam or the adherents to real Islam were cornered into taking the guise of a group or a party or a sect under the name of Shia to oppose the politics by listing and leaning to a particular quarter. But why is this fact deliberately overlooked? The policy the Shia as a political group introduced after that undesired division for the administration of society was itself a real Islamic ideology. It is untrue to say that Shia lacked an ideology. They had one; this was a religion, a faith, a belief before it took a political tint. It was so rich that it provided shade to politics. Politicians were against this belief. So, their effort was to create a group so as to face the belief of Shia. They gave to that adversary group a religion form. What was the most valuable treasure to them was the caliphate, which they had already snatched from its rightful owner and had diverted it in their own direction. In order to keep it they spent money, dissipated their tactics in creating terror among the people and purchasing the silence of those whose voice was a threat to them. To hold the administration of society in their hands as long as possible; this was the fundamental of their politics. It is quite simple that a group by the name of Sunni would have never been invented had the Shia not opposed the point where they had departed from. The only element of opposition with Shiasm is the politics.

On the other hand, it was they who did not have an ideology. Had they one they would have announced it or introduced it. In that confused hour of time they only captured the moment without announcing what their ideology was.

They could have at least prevented an armed conflict between the religions rivalry groups for the safety of Islam. There was no interest of any ideology at their hearts except to capture the opportunity. Later on which ideology did they

follow? The writer is mistaken. The people had already long ago accepted Ali

(AS) as the successor to the Prophet (SAW) at Ghadir, however this decision

had not been respected by the rivalry group (Sunniasm). The ideology they had was, Yes, that of terror and fear which stood as the base of their government. Why has the writer forgotten the sword of Omar? Abubakr was nominated at SAQIFA. Later, Omar started sauntering, loitering and roaming about in the streets with a naked sword in hand calling the people to yield to the authority of Abu Bakr or choose to taste the blade. People were dumb founded. Such a force and violence was their ideology. He continued his rampage through the streets until he approached the house of Zahra, the only daughter of the Prophet (SAW), demanding Ali’s surrender to Abu Bakr’s authority. Ali (AS) retrained from doing that. He was tortured and dishonored at his door; and taken away by force to the mosque in order to acknowledge Abu Bakr’s caliphate. At the end of his life on the verge of death he wrote a will. Abu Bakr was rarely in his senses, he wrote the names of Othaman and Omar leaving it a guess as to which are of the two was to succeed him. When he came to his senses he was asked as to whom he actually meant. In reply he confirmed both. He died. Omar succeeded him. No one pointed out that “the man is uttering nonsense” or “The pain has overtaken him.” A man who has lost his senses can not make a will. But when Prophet (SAW) wanted to write down his will they did not allow him by refraining to give him pen and paper. In the progress of all these events we do not see any fixed ideology. Omar came to power without any rival and any opposition. Omar too appointed a committee of six men. Till here there seems to be no ideology or any respect to the public opinion. Only after Othaman had been killed did the people rush to Ali’s house and yield to his authority and acknowledge him as caliph. This they did with their own will, as there was no force, no compulsion and no violence. From the view point of Shia Ali (AS) had been the caliph since the moment the Prophet had died.

Regardless to what they have written in their books the fact is that the people were compelled to accept whom the caliph had appointed in advance. Therefore,

the Sunni people had no ideology in their government. Even to this day of ours one of their scholars says that Islam has no specific method in appointing a ruler.


D. The Factor of Religious difference by dividing Islam (Muslims) into two sects Shia and Sunni:


Love to govern and to attain pomp and ostentation is the prime factor. They

pondered and saw nothing would avail them nor would they avail a thing if they left things go as they were in the preaching and the teachings of the Prophet. In his lifetime they should plough so as to harvest after his death: Ambition held

them together and the secrecy of intentions brought a confederation between them. They contrived a plan. What the Prophet says or orders or permits or prohibits should not constitute a binding upon them nor should it have a bearing

on what they wished. Such a line suited the trend and fitted to the taste. So a thought void of the Prophet’s teachings should be pushed ahead side by side

along the Prophet’s line, a banner, a slogan, a title that could deceive much and do nothing was a necessity to push the thought ahead. “The book of God is enough for us”, this they chose and adopted as their mission. The name of God and the name of His book served as a tool. They turned it in whatever direction the need was. The screw was tightened and loosened. Whatever direction it turned, the banner stood a justification for it. In other words, so to say, it actually served as a fortification for them where they were quite safe. They obeyed and disobeyed the Prophet; they accepted and rejected the Prophet; they believed and disbelieved in the Prophet; they were the Prophet’s friends and also his enemies. Such was the banner and such was the use they drew out of it. It was through this means that they invalidated the sayings of the Prophet. Thus they were preparing for the great event which was yet to come. They put it to test when the Prophet (SAW) in his last days demanded a pen and paper to write down his will. They said; “Pain has overtaken him. The Book of God is enough for us.” According to some narration they said; “The man is uttering nonsense.” So, by this slogan they stood up against the Prophet. We need not go into long discussion. It is quite obvious that their lust for power was the prime factor of the division in Islam. It is true; it was the Prophet (SAW) who gave the name of Shia to the followers of Ali (AS). But this did not create nor did it cause a division. The presence of close friends of Ali (AS) like Salman, Abuzar, Migdad had no part in creating a sect by the name of Shia. When the Prophet called the followers of Ali (AS) by the name of Shia he meant it for all. His desire was that all should be Shia. All should follow Ali (AS). It is not even forcibly convincing that the Prophet himself should divide his own nation. If we reflect back we see the division actually took place and came into being the moment the Prophet died. Who was to govern? Who was to succeed? This was the issue. This issue was a long awaited one; and long anticipated; and some had toiled hard for it. Although the Prophet (SAW) had introduced Ali (AS) as his successor, yet they were still hopeful to steal it. At the cost of division among Muslims they attained their goal.

If at all we ignore this division and find a justification for it, we can not overlook a factor, which did play a part. Some of the Muslims held a view

which justified their disobedience the Prophet or to discard his orders. They did not regard the sayings or the instructions of the Prophet (SAW) as Divine

revelations. As such, according to them, there was no binding. The Book of God they sufficed on and they saw no need for the Prophet’s (SAW) words. They regarded themselves in the same level of that of the Prophet (SAW) in conceiving the Quranic text. So why should they remain in the very same line

prescribed by the Prophet (SAW)? Whatever they thought necessary with reports to their personal interest or that of a group stood in preference to the Prophet’s words. With such a view, the instructions of the Prophet (SAW)

became to them amendable in accordance with the time, place, circumstance or the condition. In the administration of Society the word of the Prophet to them

was not final nor did it constitute an obligation upon them to its obedience. The lawful and the unlawful to them were not a divine legislation. Likewise, the issue of the caliphate too was in the same category. Although the Prophet had appointed his successor, they felt they were not obliged to accept his choice because they wrongfully thought it had no validity of a divine revelation. Therefore, to oppose him was lawful. Such was their reason and such was their belief; and such they have even proved. They changed the whole cause immediately after the Prophet’s death by appointing their own man as the caliph. They had said that for the administration of a society it was not prudent to have one as the caliph even though he should be the Prophet’s candidate or appointed by him. They can go against his choice… On the other hand, in several matters they insisted that the Prophet’s instructions should be carried out strictly. But, with regards to the caliphate they did quite the opposite. This shows that personal interests mattered to them much. There is another instance where they openly disobeyed the Prophet (SAW). The Prophet (SAW) had appointed Asama as the commander in chief; however they refaced to accept him as their chief. They gave themselves the right to either obey the Prophet or to disobey him. They did both. They obeyed him and also disobeyed him. When the Prophet’s orders were contrary to their interests, they did not obey him.

Now we ask; who was the opposing group? Followers of Ali? They believed in the Prophet’s words. What the Prophet said was a divine word to them. In

this respect their point was this verse of the Quran: “And he does not utter upon lust; but it is a Revelation that he is vested with.” This argument sounds reasonable. So they regarded the Prophet’s (SAW) word a binding upon them because of its being a Divine Revelation. This Quranic verse too is put forward

in support of their thought: “What is brought to you by the Prophet, take it, and what he prohibits you refrain from it.” Therefore, the orders of the Prophet, to them, were to be obeyed and followed. They believed that every instruction of

the Prophet (SAW) was and is valid and can not be ignored. This group of believers was also called ‘people of the text’. They also believed that the interpretation was beyond their understanding. To them the caliphate of Ali

(AS) and his guardianship over the Muslims was a thing desired by God. They depended upon this Quranic Verse in support to their belief: “O, Messenger! Announce what has descended to you from your such is a brief sketch of the

start of the division. It can be well noticed that the name of ‘AHL SUNNAT’ people of tradition) to those ones who actually did not adhere to it is not fair. The more deserving ones to this name are those who saw incumbent upon them to stick to the Quran and the tradition of the Prophet (SAW). They are Shia.

Some clamored “The Book of God is enough to us”; and some maintained that in addition to the Book of God the Prophet’s instructions too are necessary. For the sake of one we can not forego the other. In the absence of either, one falls

short of the other.

Anyway, these two thoughts are fundamental ones. The belief of the Shia

rests on the second one. “The Book of God is enough” is a thought that rejects the dimension of what the Prophet said and did. And this thought resulted in the division of Muslims. Well, in exploring this thought “The Book of God is enough” we come across disagreement among some of this very school. There are some that openly campaigned against the Prophet’s word and his text so far as Ali was concerned. Some insisted that in politics or in the political field there was no necessity to follow the Prophet. Some on some occasions resorted to the Prophet’s tradition because they well knew that the thought “The Book of God is enough” was bleak and barren that it could not hold long. Little by little it dawned that the thought “The Book of God is enough” was void of a sense. It was only an approval to invalidate the divine legislation. In the beginning this slogan worked well to their advantage. In deceiving the people who generally were illiterate and not well informed, this thought went a great deal of length. It was under this pretext that they prevented the Prophet (SAW) from writing down his will. And, they stood against those who used to say that the Prophet’s decree was essential for the office of caliphate by saying that only a Quranic text could determine such an issue. So, the events of GRADEER as well as that of YUM AL-DAAR were both overlooked. As time went on, experience told them that the affairs could not be ruled or administered without the backing of the Prophet’s traditions; they resorted to interpretation. This paved the way for them to deduce from the Divine Decrees and the Prophet’s words as the demand suggested or as the need stood. They justified; they interpreted; and they expounded God’s laws; and had it been possible they would have even questioned the very text of the Holy Quran.


E. Not a correct analysis:


The religious matters are viewed from both a material and political dimension. For instance, they say that the Shia did not see things to their

advantage; therefore they refused to yield to the caliphate and choose a different way.

The prime error that entails several other subsequent errors is that they do not

consider Shiasm a religious reality or an entity of a belief. They regard it as a political phenomenon. The writer says that it gathered support as people joined the movement even though at times it was given different names. The name of AFILUL BAIT (The Prophet’s household) gave them a push. As time advanced they too advanced. But this theory is wrong. The existence of the Shia belief has no relation to any historical episode. The writer considers historical events as a proud for the birth of the Shia thought, likewise the Sunni. The writer struggles his way through such blunders till he reaches the occultation (the disappearance) of the twelfth Imam, Mahdi. Amidst the conditions and circumstances he sees the gleam of reason. The mist rises and he sees the light!

There has always been this fact – that people will mingle in political events, or take no part in the governmental posts, or oppose openly, or flouting a

proposal, or scouting an idea. But, in no way could this have a link will a religion, as a religion can not be founded or established or propagated on such a ground.

According to some narration, the disappearance of Mahdi happened in order that some could avoid the obligation of yielding to his authority. However, such

a thing has happened, has taken place, has occurred. It is a fact. It is a reality. It is a tyrannical conjecture or a wounding lies, that the Shia had no other way but to switch their belief in such an event after the death of the eleventh Imam, Hasan Askari.

One, who is a stranger to religions, is totally ignorant to the realities of the invisible or unseen world, who has seen only matter or any other tangible thing; he wants to see, justify and even interpret the religious matters, no matter of its

magnitude, and then decide or pass judgment. Every thing he thinks is the effect of a cause or a policy in a political class. Similar is the argument of Marxists too. Such should be, because of no acquaintance, no awareness.

From the ancient times they have questioned, because they want to see the matter and they have rejected, because they know not of anything or something beyond. Ulterior dimensions are sealed to their sight. It would be accepted if he

shouts that he has seen; but, no, the cry of a blind has always been that he has


Of course, such type of analysis we see runs in all religions, true or otherwise. Such analysis is only workable in religions, which are not true

because there is no other way. The viewpoint of the Sunni is vague. According to them there was no text nor was there a religions basis. The appointment of Abubakr to the caliphate was the consequence of the turmoil and confusion

among Muslims that followed the death of the Prophet (SAW). A gathering took place at SAQIFA and to avoid a conflict or a civil disorder or any other danger it was important that Abubakr be appointed. Abu Bakr too in his turn

with the same intention appointed Omar. Omar created a six men committee to decide after his death. These events were influenced by outside causes and which were gestant with historical aspects too. But political ends supervised and

exercised guidance upon them.

In the light of these analysis’s it is acceptable that the governments that came into being after the Prophet (SAW) were absolutely due to the causes and

effects which were never religious. But with regards to the Shia belief, these interpretations are not true nor are they acceptable because they believed in Imamate as they believed in the prophet hood. Their belief was in that which was a reality and their religion was a fact. They did not go beyond that.


F. To support the Leadership of AHLUL BAIT (Members of the


Prophet’s house) a religious Fundamental:


In this chapter the writer has composed comments which history and traditions reject. Documentary evidences and historical events repudiate his


For instance, says he: “The support to the leadership of Alavees was at first not on the basis of any planning…” The fact is opposite. The religious basis

pushed the people to the support of the Alavees. Those who opposed the events took place at SAQIFA and consequently rejected the authority of Abu Bakr, did

so on a religion ground. Else, there was no other motive. The Prophet’s (SAW) words, his recommendations in this respect stood obligatory to them for their obedience.

People embraced the Shia faith only on a religion basis. The motive was

religion. The instigation was the obedience to the Prophet (SAW). One has to refer to the books “Reality of Shiasm and its principles” (ASL AL-SHIA WA ASOOLOHA), “The History of Shiasm” (TAREEQ AL-SHIA) and “Shiasm in History” (AL-SHIA FIL TAREEQ). To become convinced of the facts. The speeches of Ali Bin Abi Taleb compiled in NARJUL BALAGHA (the tone of eloquence) throw light on this fact that the position of ARLUL BAIT (Members of the Prophet’s House) was that of leadership morally and materially. The angle of government is subordinate to it.

The writer in this chapter gives this opinion that it was exaggeration that gave shape to Imamate and brought forward the belief in the guardianship of Ali Bin

Abi Taleb. Why in this respect and in this particular regard has he not studied or searched or collected the sayings of the Prophet (SAW). Had he too heard as

others had heard directly from the mouth of the Prophet (SAW) would have never told what is false and would have respected the truth? Since history has recorded every word uttered by the Prophet (SAW) he could have made himself acquainted with the Prophet’s trend or tendency. But the writer appears to be

prejudice; not willing to take his look beyond the angle he has chosen.

Since l0 A.D writers have collected the sayings and the conversations and the speeches of the prophet (SAW); all point to the way Shiasm and all indicate

what is an established fact Shiasm. To turn a blind eye to all these and to say that till the tenth and twelfth century there was no sign of the Shia belief, is not only injustice but a shere lie. The blood that was shed prior to this period of

those who were Shia by Ziad and his like is also neglected and ignored. Why were they martyred? They adhered to this belief. Such a type of research into the history of Shia the writer has made and with such an outlook he has

emerged that one can not but doubt his honesty and fear his intention which is full of venom.

Since the beginning, the Shia have acknowledged, the Imamate. “OULIL AMR” (Master of command) he attributed to the twelve Imams individually. It

is an irrefragable fact that ever since the beginning the Shia has had a religions fundamental. Denial of this fact is to deny the existence of historical personalities. To reject is to admit.

Sometimes the writer says that Shiasm from the very beginning was a party, which stood opposing the Sunnism. How wrong he is! The very Islam in its

pristine purity and in its virgin originality is the Shiasm – Committed to the sayings of the Prophet (SAW) and adhered to the text. On the other hand, Sunnism came into being in the periods subsequent to Islam and subject to the circumstances that were forced into existence immediately after the Prophet’s death. The text was not important to them. It was a party created to oppose a prescribed program of Islam. It was a party only to impede the progress of Islam. In order to not hurt the feelings of our Sunni brothers we will not go further. It was a deliberate creation to stop the current of a religion; up not be stopped, to divert its flow; or if not, to deviate the people and to confuse the thing for them.

Finally we should pronounce that party which balanced the text of the

Prophet’s words and that of the Quran in the scale of interests, fostered its own conclusions against the authority of the Prophet, and preferred its own

interpretation to justify its ends. This was a particular class grouped together with a deliberation; as the time elapsed, their scholars who were courtiers

worked out an ideology to it. Theirs is an invention and Shia’s is the religion.


G. Many Mistakes:


The writer has made so many mistakes that to point them out one by one is indeed a great task.

For instance, one is this. Re says that the radical Shias, as he has them

termed, who believed in the armed upraisal, were too lavish in attributing extraordinary tributes to Imam. To give him information we would like to comment here:

Those who had insisted on an armed upraisal were the Shias of the Zaidi sect.

They thought that the Imam should carry a sword and he should carry the armed upraisal. Unlike the Shia, that is common Shia, they had some particular specification and tributes for the Imam, which was special to themselves.

The revolution that took place against Bani Ommaiya can not be attribute to any group among the groups of Shia. The atrocities committed by them and the cruelties, which they showed against the people of the Prophet’s House

(AHLULBAIT) constitute the real reason, the cardinal cause and the fundamental factor of their downfall. A general tumult and a common turmoil had already emerged every where and had established a ground of uncertainty.

The situation was that of excitement either to deliver a revolution or to lead people to revolt. As is usually the case every opponent tried to gain benefit of the situation. Of course, the most zealous of all was the ZAIDAIA faction. Besides, there was also another faction by the name of BANI ABASS who

considered themselves heir to Ali Bin Abi Taleb because of the link to Abu Hashim Abdulla Bin Mohhamad Hanefi. In these groups and factions there was, indeed, one who had the right to the leadership and to whom the leadership had

been offered however he rejected the offer. He was Jafar al-Sadiq, the sixth

Imam. This policy which he adopted and practiced was what the Prophet

(SAW) had fixed for him was to the greater interest of Islam. The Islamic justice, the Islamic teaching were promoted by not accepting the political leadership. He re-opened the school for lessons long forgotten and corrected those, which were wrong.

The flurry settled down and the turmoil ended as the government of Bani

Abbas came into being. They came as one should have come. The ground itself paved the way for an armed revolt; they did not pave the way for the armed upraisal. All counted the armed revolt effective but the Zaidi faction thought that the armed revolt effective but exercised by the Imam. He who does so is the Imam, no matter whether he comes out a victor vanquished.


H. Imam Jafer al-Sadiq and Religion:


The prime factor for the disappointment of the Shia was the lack of a uniform or coherent ideology; and this continued to be so till the time of the great Imam of the Shias, Jafer al-Sadiq. This is what the writer says.

We do not know what he actually means. If he means, positively, that the uniform ideology of Shia as it was, the friends and the supporters of AHLUL BAIT (The Prophet’s Household) had not known it or were not aware of it or

had not recognized it correctly but they were made acquainted with it by the Imam Al-Sadiq. And that he, Imam Al-Sadiq, subsequently due to the awareness, which he had brought about amongst them, could establish that great

school of knowledge, which educated the people with the true Islam to follow Ali and his offspring, the AHLUL BAIT, was its reality and entity. In his time, Al-Sadiq’s, the knowledge was spread and made within the reach of all those to whom mattered the facts. Many misconceptions. Wrong conclusions, and

mistaken ideas about Islam that were propagated earlier were revised for the people reputed, rescinded, repudiated and retained only realities. This was a great achievement.

Now, if the writer means, negatively, that Imam Jafer Al-Sadiq was the inventor of the ideology; it is not true.

Who was he to invent one? The ideology of Shia is what Islam is. From the

very beginning, from the days of the Prophet (SAW) it was at a uniformity. The Prophet’s words his sayings and his addresses had already made it clear. The passage of time had no bearing on them. It was in itself complete and consummate. The Shia ideology was the element that made the propagation perfect. The events which occurred, in themselves carry the element of truth, goes a long way to establish the truth of this ideology and manifests the mistaken aspect of the opponents and adversaries. The behavior and the conduct of Bani Ommiya, who led the government in their hands, itself gave the awakening to the people. They as successors to the Prophet (SAW), adopted wicked ways and deeds which made the people hate them because their actions were not coherent with the seat of the Prophet they had occupied. The more they hated them the more they pondered the position of ARLUL BAIT (The

Prophet’s Household members). There was not the remotest resemblance with the teachings of Islam. Soon it became obvious that the leadership must go to its rightful owners, those of the ARLUL BAIT. The very difference in the mode of life of the Members of the Prophet’s household and that of the caliphs of Bani Ommiya was quite open to the observation of the people, it brought the Shia ideology closer to their hearts.


4. The Shia and the meaning of Mahdism:


As he earlier proceeded, here too he proceeds on the same basis of the

materialistic aspect. The historical causes, social trend and the political ground to him is the reason for the belief of the Shia in Mehdism. Political defeats and victories, in his view, have a part in the build up of this belief. It is quite easy to deny what is not seemed or to doubt what is not found in a material search. In religions studies a belief is a fundamental. First to avoid the belief and then to search is to first become blind and then to set out on sightseeing. In such a way even the prophethood and even the presence of God can be discussed in order to deny or can be put to question so as to obviate its credibility. To believe wrong could be the consequence of social causes or of the illiteracy. The real belief is above these things because it is in the root of human nature. There were many who claimed to be Mehdi. Their claim did not gain ground because they were after a political end. These interpretations, deviations and analysises do not touch the root but show the prejudice.

God, revelation, and prophet hood is a fact; there is a motive in man to accept this fact. Since it is so, on the other hand, persons have lied and have claimed to be God or a prophet.

Between those two can there be a parallel?

The matter of Mehdism was told by the Prophet (SAW). His associates and companions heard it. It is a fact foretold by the Prophet (SAW). Here it attains

authenticity. It has been utilized for personal gains towards a political end. But it is not true that this issue was the product of events which later took the shape of belief and immuned its object with a sin, that is, ‘MASOOM’

Events, happenings or incidents sometimes guide a man towards truth. For example, Abraham, the prophet, that great believer in the oneness of God, educated the people to believe in one god in a very odd and at the same time

very effications way. As the night fell and the stars glittered, he said it is god. When it disappeared he was disappointed and said, “I do not like that which vanishes.” He made it clear that the star is not god. Then in the next stage the moon ruled the sky with its serene and silent light. Abraham said; “This is god.”

The moon too disappeared. Abraham again became disappointed and said that he could not love what does not stay. Then in the day when the sun shone brightly, Abraham said; “This is god.” But in the evening the sun too

disappeared. Here Abraham shouted; “The sun is not god. I worship the God who never disappears.” Yes, incidents can lead to facts. But the truth of a belief

is never the effect of a cause and nor is it a second grade fact.

If we persist in our denial under some pretext or the other, the philosophy of true religions and their schools shall confront us. As time lapsed people became

more ardent towards Ali and his offspring, and the Shia ideology penetrated deeper and deeper into the hearts; this we can say as a fact. But that the very

ideology, the very religion, the Shiasm, the occultation of Mahdi, all was a consequence of events or a product of age or a built up structure, is wrong to say and not correct. It purports to say that evidence matters not. The Prophet (SAW) had more than once told about the twelve Imams. He had foretold their

names individually. He had also prognosticated (predicted) the conditions that would prevail in that time of each one of the twelve Imams. He foretold all these details when at the time only three of the future Imams existed. All heard

this and recorded it. Along the passage of time the Imams too ended at twelve as the Prophet had foretold. As such there remains no margin of doubt nor room to surmise. No one can say that it was made-up. Anyone with some information of

history and a scant knowledge of traditions and a fundamental knowledge of Islam will not believe what the writer has argued. For example, the Prophet (SAW) had predicted that Ammar would be martyred. In fact, Ammar was

killed by Mawiya. There are several such examples.

Then, what is correct to do? To lie aside such method of analysis and to search the tributes and particulars of Mehdi in traditions and the narration that

have descended to us so as to find out whom these qualities correspond and specifications apply to. Destinations are pawned in the right roads. A journey is in the mortgage of a path. If the path is wrong the journey shall ever wander.


5. Mahdi, a term and a sense, and the false claimers:


The word MAFIDI means one who is guided. Anyone guided by God is

Mahdi. The word is common and general in its sense. According to the sense that this word reflects, all the apostles, messengers, and prophets of God were –

the guided ones. If we term the Prophet (SAW) himself and Ali Bin Abi Taleb and every other Imam as ‘Mahdi’ we have not committed a mistake. Of course,

all of them were guided ones; so they were Mehdis.’ Even this word (MAHDI) can be applied to those who were taught in the schools of the Prophet or the Imams. For instance, the companions of Imam Hussain or of any other Imam or

the particular ones among the Shia or any other Shia who attained the guidance or were guided to the path if called ‘Mahdi’ it is not an exaggeration. But, all know that it is confined and limited to one. When the Prophet (SAW) disclosed the tidings he did not mean it in a general sense. His words specify a particular

one as he says to his daughter, Zehra (AS); “Mahdi is from your sons; give the tidings.” “AL-Mahdi is from my sons.” “AL Mahdi is from the sons of Fatima.” So, this is a title or a distinction for one particular person, extra ordinarily

dear to the prophet (SAW) who has kept the members of his house and the

Muslim in waiting for him.

The word ‘Mahdi’ embraces a range of sense that could be extracted from guidance. To show the way, to take to destination, or any other thing to which guidance could be applied; is among the meanings. This word also applies to other than human. The Quranic verse says: “Our Lord who bestowed to every thing its creation then guided.” In the research of this word it appears that it has been applied only to those whom God has guided and whose guidance over- flows in him. He has consumed the guidance to the extent that he can show the path to others. The guidance has so overtaken him that he becomes a prism reflecting it from every angle. His conduct, his character, his behavior, his word, and his life as a whole become a beacon for others to be followed. In such a sense this word is generally applied to the apostles of God and the Imams. As per the traditions that abound in this respect, Mahdi is the very same one whom the Prophet (SAW) has identified as having every good quality. He is the Redeemer from God and to do justice to all is his task, other synonyms too are his titles.

In case, Mukhtar or any other bestowed this title on Mohammed Hanafia is only to seek blessing out of it, and not in a trust that he was Mahdi.

There were reasons for the upraisal of Mukhtar. Important of them was that

Maitham Tammar in prison had informed him that he would escape from the prison of Ibn Ziad and that he would take the revenge of Imam Hussain’s blood and that Ibn Ziad would be killed by him. The upraisal that developed was on the ground and the pretext of revenge for the bloodshed of Imam Hussain. This pretext brought together all those who were ashamed of their participation against Imam Hussain and, therefore, they wanted to amend their mistake or purge the stain from their record. They thought it obligatory on them to join the movement against Bani Ommiya. For this very reason Bani Ommiya could not crush the movement. Mas’ab on behalf of his brother Abdullah, who regarded himself a caliph, fought with Mukhtar and defeated him. Abdullah Zubair after the martyrdom of Imam Hussain took the issue of Imam Hussain’s blood as a pretext. The martyrdom of Imam Hussain was the greatest weak point of Bani Ommiya. This shows how distant they were from Islam.

Indeed, this fact can not be denied that the title of Mehdi was misused. Under this brand personal interests have had been transacted. The writer has elaborated what we too admit, that is that the occultation of Mahdi and his reappearance again stood for some to take an undue advantage. Some claimed that Mohammed Hanafla would take reappearance. For the first time a trade was established with the capital of this belief. But the belief remains in its original entity. It is an evergreen, which never looses its leaves, but is forever green. The prophet (SAW) first talked about it. Ali Bin Abi Taleb has also spoken on it. Mawiya too, according to the book “MALAHEM WA FITAN” is reported to have discussed this issue with Abdullah Bin Abbas. He on his part regarded Mahdi to be from Bani Ommiya.

In any case, it is not new that there have been persons who claimed

themselves to be Mahdi and even a prophet. There have also been some that have claimed to be god! In our age we of different movements, human rights, justice, democracy, social equality and so forth. These are the ladders for some climb to their political ends. In the past the belief of Mahdi too has served a ladder for many who have aspired a political elevation or a social altitude, to attain a station higher than others. Anyway, these claims did not fool the people because they were fully aware that the qualities Mahdi has these claimers have not. Generally the term of Mahdi remained open. Although Shia and non-Shia know the family root of Mahdi, There are some who still believe those claiming to be Mahdi even though Imam Mahdi’s background is well known. Likewise, such allegations with regards to Mohammed Hanafia do not establish that Mehdism is a recent product. This belief is coeval with Islam. This belief held such a strong hold on the people that they became to enthusiastic, too zealous, and too staunch towards it. They were ready to welcome and embrace him who could rescue them from tyranny and deliver justice. Therefore, the claims although met the acceptance of the people. In some cases, this claim furnished an avenue for various revolts and scattered upraising.




The writer’s claim is groundless as he says that all the Imams since the victory of Abbasies were regarded as Mahdi and that their death was not taken

for granted and that their return was held in a constant expectation and a fervent anticipation. Yes, there was one incident in which the seventh Imam, Mosa Bin Jafer, died in prison where he was being held by the orders of Haroon al- Rasheed. Some refused to acknowledge him dead. They consoled themselves by

fancying Mehdism in him, which naturally entailed a waiting for his reappear- ance. In their grief they imagined that he would soon reappear. It is likely that some mischievous elements might have injected such a pang into their minds.

There were very few who went wrong; and the wrong itself was so evident that it could not deceive many more. The Shia believed in the demise of the Imam, from Ali to the eleventh one Hasan Askari. Why not take evidence from history.

Later those few who had believed in Imam Musa Bin Jafar’s reappearance realized their mistake and acknowledged his death. In the case of the sixth Imam Jafer al-Sadiq, he himself time and again declared that he was not Mahdi

the awaited one. The qualities of Mahdi he had repeatedly disclosed.


7. The Sons of Imam Hussain; the Reason for their coming to front:


The sons of Imam Hussain came to be noticed not because of Imam

Hussain’s compaign against tyranny but due to their own ability and capacity. In knowledge, in practice, in endurance and partitude they stood perfect, each in his time and age. No other one than they were more befitted to the leadership. The nine sons, one after the other, from Zainulabedeen to the twelfth one Mahdi became Imams due to their own deservation. Of course the sacrifice done by

Imam Hussain and his martyrdom at Kerbala enhanced the popularity of his sons. God too as a reward to his martyrdom settled the Imam hood in his progeny. As the Quranic Verse says: “Indeed, God purged Adam and Noah and the progeny of Abraham and the house of Omran over the worlds;” it can be deduced that the same might have been the Divine intention with regards the turn of Imam Hussain; “God knows as how and where to house His Mission.”


8. The title of MEFIDI is applied on all the Imams:


As we said earlier this title in its general sense is also applied on all the

Imams; on Imam Hussain and so forth. The traditions also indicate that all the Imams are Mahdi: However there was only one whose particular qualities and condition pointed to, and that was the twelfth Imam.


9. The Shia Doctrine and Ideology:


The writer says that the conflicts, which confronted Bani Ommiya, provided

the opportunity for the Imams to prescribe a doctrine and arrange an ideology framing, its rules and regulations. He says that under the supervision of Imam Baqer and Imam Jafer al-Sadiq an ideology for a sect of Imamia was arranged. If the writer means to say that the ideology of Imamate or Shiasm was invented by the sixth Imam, he was mistaken or he is deliberately telling what is not true. Shiasm is in the womb of Islam; and, hence, delivered only by the Prophet (SAW). The sayings and the Lectures of Imam Ali in NAHJUL BALAGHA point to this fact.

Imam Baqer and Imam Sadiq only explained its aspects and dilated its corners and expounded its angles to the people. In other words they brought to

attention what had been neglected and re-established what had been ignored. Indeed, the sense of Shiasm became complete in their times. Deviations were steered to the fight direction and the extreme ideas were nullified by their

teachings. This ideology proved to be a right one and made it clear that it was the same in which Islam proposes or points to. They also made it known to the people that only an Imam was competent enough to give interpretations, fix the

limits or expound the boundaries.

People too acknowledged that their knowledge was a Divine deposit with them; and the vast hidden meanings of the Quranic literature was made known

only to them. People also experienced that no scholar among them equaled or stood parallel to them. But, the writer has acknowledged the unique and the elevated position of Imam Zainul abedeen. This means that the similar position of the other Imams could easily be proved. In support of this we can refer to the

book “AL-BA’ETH AL-HATHEETH” written by Ahmad Shaker in which he says that the most authentic and creditable narrations are those narrated by Imam Zainulabedeen, Imam Mohammed Baqer, and Imam Jafer al-Sadiq.

With regards to the fact that the Imams were the speaking Quran the writer says that this belief was invented during the time of Imam Baqer. He should

know that it was not an invention. It was told by Imam Zainulabedeen, Imam Hasan, Imam Hussain, Imam Ali and finally the Prophet himself. The Imams were introduced as equal the Quran, parallel with the Quran. If the Quran is a book, they are its utterance. If the Quran is Divine they too are Divine figures. What they say and what they practice is within the frame of the Quran. Their deeds correspond to the Quran and do not contradict it. In other words they are as sacred as the Quran. Why should we doubt it?


10. Support to the Imams:


Either the writer has not understood the events or evil intentions are his. When a mischief is made deliberately it is with a preplanned design. He says that Imam Baqer and Imam Sadiq at various intervals were invited by the

people to revolt against the governments of the time. Both the Imams in their respective periods did not accept the invitation. They, the Imams – each in his time, knew that the support of the people could not be relied upon because their

support did not go beyond the terrestrial government. The Imams knew that the people desired the regime to change hands from the Abbasies to the Alavies. It was not possible to establish a rule or government of the Imamate. For example

the upraising of Abu Muslim and his like to take the affairs in their own hands and to establish the government of the Imam; such a thing never entered the remotest of possibilities. In order to correct his misunderstanding we should

furnish him with some explanation. Not only did Imam Baqer and Imam Sadiq refrain from undertaking the establishment of another government but all of the Imams did. Why? They knew that the support that was being offered was no more than a transaction. Bani Ommiya and then Bani Abbas had both

established an example, which attracted and tempted all to taste its sweetness. Under the pretext of the caliphate they had turned it into an empire and ruled as dictators not in accordance with the Prophet’s (SAW) teachings and the Quran

but in line with their own lust, desires, and sinful ways. The exaggerated show of dignity that had taken shape, indeed, was a good temptation for others. But the Imams could not go that way. They were to help establish the government of

God under the strict rules of the Quran and within the boundaries of the Prophet’s tradition. So, if any Imam accepted the support, he was to give favor in return to those who gave their support. Therefore, they refused the offer

because of the unworkability of the bargain. People were not ready for the rule of Imamate because they would receive that justice had to give. For this reason Imam Ali also rejected the support offered by Abu Sufyan. The support was in anticipation of worldly gains, which contradicted the Divine justice, which was

in them (the Imams). When one misses the opportunity or rejects a support he should assume something lies within and beyond one’s understanding of knowledge. The Imams have had the obligation vested to them by the Divine

and prescribed by the Prophet. Each had his duty assigned according to the conditions and circumstances surrounding him at the time. As it was a Divine

design so they prognosticated the advent of Mehdi whose responsibility is to establish the government of God.


11. Knowledge of the Imams about the unseen:


Sometimes even among Shia people have emerged to damage. Their

ignorance acquits them of their mischief but can not prevent its effects that remain. They knew nothing about the status of an Imam. Since they knew nothing, to have them comment on the status of the Imams be an absurdity. Therefore the Sixth Imam, Jafer Sadiq, distanced himself from such people. Mohammad Bin Abi Zainab known as Abul Khattab is one of them. He has written what mostly disturbed Imam Sadiq. When one quotes such people, or their writings, as the writer has, it would have been wiser for him to check things out more thoroughly. The Imam of his time has cursed such narrators lose their authority.

When they are void of any credibility then the argument that points to them holds no water. The knowledge of the unseen is Divine. The Prophet (SAW)

and the Imams were Divine figures holding the Divine office. Knowledge of

God is this quality. Knowledge to the quality, of the quality, as ancient as the entity of God is to be immediate or direct without the need of a media, to be

infinite and stintless, and to be the absolute is a subject which can not be dealt here; but the Prophet (SAW) Ali Bin Abi Taleb and his sons the Imams wore all

gifted with such knowledge which others were not acquainted with. A rotating chain of the sayings of the Prophet (SAW) support this thing.


12. Various phases of the Deeds of the Imams:


The activities of all Imams are one and the same. According to their circumstances and the demand of that particular time they acted accordingly. So we can not frame them in the terms presently known to us such as ‘radicals’,

‘liberals’, ‘exteremists’, ‘modertes’ and so on. Each one adopted a strict policy to avoid any division among the Shias. Likewise, the Prophet (SAW) and Ali Bin Abi Taleb. Of course, we notice the actions of some as being conservative

while the other’s as extremist. Their school of thought was the same although it might have posed as being different as per the circumstances of the time. They were strict followers of the instructions of the Quran such as; “Take to

forgiveness, order the good and confront the ignorants.” “The good is not at equity with evil. Do what is good.” And, “Whosoever offends you, you too offend him in the same which he has offended you.” “Pity should not overtake you in the religion of God.”

In general the situation and the environmental condition in the era of the Imams caused them to act for the safeguard and protection of Islam. The Shia did adhere to the original line of Islam, which the Imams knew and defined for

all. As they were better qualified to know the position and to rescue the religion from taking a different turn, they did not move an inch in their advises and

admonishment; and that few were called Shia. Imam Sadiq did nothing new except that he explained and taught the religious boundaries obligations, duties etc. which was, of course, for all but only Shia acted thereon and adhered thereto.


13. Division of the Dominion of Leadership:


The writer again here too speaks wrongly. He says that in the days of Imam Sadiq the leadership split into two – that of terrestrial and the other of spiritual. Each one separated from the other. Shias have never thought nor did they ever

consider that the Imams should not possess a worldly leadership and that they are fit only for a spiritual leadership. They did and do consider that they hold both offices, that is, the leadership of worldly affairs and the spiritual

leadership. Both positions are combined in their authority. Shias, therefore, regard those who seized power out of the hands of the Imams as tyrants. They could not revolt without the Imam’s permission. They took to propagate the

facts. They confronted the tyrants. They acted prudently and with caution so as not to provide the slightest pretext that could result in a general massacre of Shias. Shia conduct has always been such as to make the rulers of their time

sympathetic towards them.

It was unacceptable that the leadership be divided into sectors. It can be said that before the martyrdom of Imam Hussain both dimensions were combined in

the leadership. For example, Omar Bin Khathab and Osman Bin Offan were regarded as such. But when the martyrdom of Imam Hussain occurred the Muslims themselves regarded the leadership as forming two separate angles, which was a result of that unique Holy war. They gave the most important one,

that of religion and its issues to the Imams because they never considered the caliphs as their real spiritual leaders. They respected the caliphs as a symbol towards maintaining the unity and preserving the existing state. The advantage

of the influence which the blood of Imam Hussain exercised on the preservation of Islam can not be computed neither by the Shia nor by the Sunni.

In some cases if this be said, it will sound reasonable, that the readers were

satisfied that the Imam would not create a danger of upraising against them. For example, to some extent we see such a conviction in Mansoor with regards to Imam Jafer Sadiq. But, still he was not convinced because he adopted provisionary measures such as to keep a vigilant watch on the Imam and to have spies watch over him. Finally in order to relieve himself of this suspense of danger he poisoned him Imam Sadeg and ended his life. Likewise did Haroon to Imam Mosa Bin Jafer. He imprisoned him for years and finally got rid of him by terminating his life. This clearly indicates that the Shia regarded both the dimensions of leadership, of worldly and spiritual, in the person of the Imam.

The Imams were individuals who worked and toiled to the benefit and profit of all Muslims. A dead earth is brought to life by rains and the naked trees of

autumn are clad by spring in a new dress of a uniform and universal green. It is

befitting similitude to provide a resemblance for our easy comprehension of the task and toil of the Imams for Islam and common good to all. Therefore’ such a project could not have progressed without inspirations from the Divine or a secret plan designed and given to them by the Prophet (SAW). Why should it not be a divine decree communicated to them? We can not find any other pos- sibility. The best argument is to question the very performance itself. Ali Bin Abi Taleb sat home for twenty five years, Imam Hasan adopted the policy of peace, Imam Hussain did not take rest till his and his sons, nephews and friends’ blood was not shed, Imam Zainulabedeen adopted a language of supplication in his gospel “SAHIFA SAJJADIA,” Imam Mohammed Baqer and Imam Jafer Sadiq broke the beds of the fountain of knowledge which inundated all the dry lands – even the deserts, and the other Imams, each acted uniquely, independently and differently. Why? What for? Why was there uniformity in their policies or methods? They acted only on instructions beyond common vision and far from a general comprehension. Whatever their ways and whatever their methods their variety preserved the unity.

What else could one do if he were to have a treasure amidst robbers and thieves? Gangsters, spies, enemies, hypocrites, fake and feign friends, were like

snakes crawling under grass: and one had to make a movement! How hard an ordeal for one not to be robbed, cheated and deceived, not be fooled and not to be bitten by the renomous snakes and cobras hidden under his paces –

sometimes hissing in a friendly tone and sometimes hissing in hatred. Danger and terror waited always at the steps of the door. To call for help was to declare helplessness and encourage the enemy; and to fight was to be exposed to certain and annihilate the very signs for future generations. Still, in spite of those

hardships, and regardless of those setbacks, they kept Shiasm safe and secured so that the sweet smell of the original Islam could fill the air. When a putrid stench disturbs the senses there should be an ever-fresh flower in the shape of

an everlasting lili or an eternal rose to refresh the mind and redress the nerves. This flower shall ever remain reminding that a Mehdi is to come and what is taken will be returned.


14. The Practical Ideology of Shiaism:


The Shia ideology was always smooth and practicable. Imamate being the

base, and the fundamental of this base being that in a Muslim Society, leadership should be in the hands of one who should succeed the Prophet. The Prophet’s successor, should be form every angle and aspect a perfect man – better than and superior to others in knowledge, ability, capacity, reason and cognosence, awareness, nearness with the Prophet. These qualities in all their dimensions are not to be found in any other than Ali (AS). It is a fact. Ali (AS) was the best qualified one for the job. Besides, the Prophet himself had already installed him as his successor and on many occasions had introduced him as his successor. And beyond this he also introduced his successors’ successors the

twelve Imams. This is not to interpret that it was a bodily or physical inheritance of one another. But it was the inheritance of qualities too. What God had distinguished in the Prophet (SAW) was inherited by his AHLUL BAIT the twelve Imams. The Quran says: “Indeed, God chose Adam and Noah and Abraham’s progeny over the worlds.” Therefore, obedience to the Imams is obligatory, and equal to obedience to the Prophet. The Imams would be regarded as guardians, leaders and obeyed.

This program was proclaimed. The path was shown. The guidance was thus framed. All in line with God’s will. It was not a desire, nor an ambition, nor an

imagination. But a robbery does not justify that the robbed one had no possession over the belonging. In political dimension it was deviated and put into different turn. But the real guidance is not an impracticable one. The

guidance remains there.

What the apostles have pronounced or proclaimed is that they have told the truth, shown the way and indicated the end, which is resurrection. Whether the

people accept or reject this does not mean that it is not workable. The program is made open. If there are people too misfortunate to adopt and accept it, does not justify in alleging that it is unworkable. If one charts a plan and wants to

implement it but the conditions do not favor, then it can be justified in saying that it was a fiction and not workable. But, here a religious program, a spiritual plan, a celestial timetable is made by one who says; “We guided him the path;

whether he be grateful or ungrateful.” The workability of such a program does not depend upon one’s taste or pleasure. One rejects it under an excuse of fiction. The plan is made public; the program is made known to all. This is in the first place important. The belief in Imamate like the other pillars of religion,

oneness of God, the prophet hood of all the apostles sent by God, Judgment Day, is an independent entity which stands firm as other religious fundamentals do. To have faith in it or in them or not is not the condition of its proclamation.

If people accept it, it is for their own good. If they reject it, it is in their own misfortune. But the program is there – neither rescinded nor nullified.

Likewise same logic governs the proceeds of the Imams. Their policies were

not fiction. Whatever Ali Bin Abi Taleb did was quite in line with the circumstances of his time. He remained aloof for twenty-five years. Yes, the necessity was so. Imam Hassan and so Imam Hussain and so his sons the other Imams, were not leaders of some fictious ideology. They were quite aware of the conditions and knew very well what they had to do and what they were doing. Every deed of theirs stands a fact and every practice of theirs a paragon of their far sightedness. Therefore, they attained the good and achieved the aim. Imam Hussain was aware of the consequences if he were to reject Yazid’s authority. Yet, he did not yield. He endured the ordeal and surrendered to the sword but remained stubborn in opposing the tyranny. It was up to him to depend the Prophet’s seat. So he did. The choice of the way was to his prudence. If it was a fictious ideology then why did he give up his life? One

does not undergo such an ordeal for himself and sufferings for his family and friends for a thing, which he knew to be untrue. Only the truth attracts the men of truth. Only truth is worth the sacrifice. In ancient days nations too alleged that it was false what the prophets of those days had declared. These allegations are not new. They shall continue as long as man is ignorant.

Imam Hussain did not restrict Yazid and his followers from occupying the Prophet’s seat. But he dismissed, discarded and dethroned him from the hearts of the people. This was the reason that Mawiya at length failed in uprooting Islam. The Prophet Mohammed (SAW) proclaimed Islam but Hussain made it permanent. Every Imam had his own way towards protecting Islam. No one among them toiled for an imaginatory thing. It is far from reason to suffer for a thing which has no existence as it is quite a reason to suffer for a thing, which has an existence and the existence has no guard. The Shia ideology is false! Then the ideology of Islam too is the same. People gathered round the Imamate because of the atrocities and crimes the rulers committed. The more their cruelty the more the people banked their belief in Imamate.

There were those among the people who later understood what they had earlier misunderstood. Those who remained indifferent in the days of the

caliphs immediately after the Prophet’s death thought that the change if Imamate would not change the path of Islam. But gradually they realized that by the change of Imamate everything had changed completely. The very Islam was

obliterated; a mist was covering it making its vision vague and infuscated, about to vanish. The seat of the Prophet (SAW) had turned into a throne, over it everything undesirable was allowed and everything unlawful was legitimate. To occupy the seat under the title of caliph was the sanction to do what lust dictated

and what greed dictated. The traditions and the customs of the bygone days of Kasra, Khaisaz, and the courts of their oppressors were returning into practice. To re-adjust the things, to setup this upset, to bring back what had gone, to put

right the course, and to correct the wrong, was not possible by any means other than to put the course on its original track and to follow the line of Imamate.

Another thing, the sinful actions of life led by the tyrant rulers helped the

people to believe more in Imamate and become Shia because they, on the other hand, saw the piety, simplicity, honesty, truth, openness, frankness, of the Imams. The life of an Imam stood for them a page in which to compare the caliph. His gambling, debauchery, tricks, lies, and etc. pushed the people to think and ponder a little and enabled them to revise their understanding, this revisal was their Shiasm. Imam Sadiq spread the Shia teachings and the original Islamic knowledge. It is not an imaginary ideology. These are the facts, how long will the writer ignore them and fancy otherwise?


15. The salubrity and Islamic tendency in the behavior of Shia towards




As far as religious footings are concerned there cannot be any similarity

between a Shia and a Sunni. The religious understanding can not be a platform common to both. “Argue them with that which is good”; is the beacon that the Shia follows in their behavior with Sunnis. TAQIA that is to show a face favorable or to behave in correspondence with theirs or to act in a way not to wound the feelings, these dimensions and its like is in itself a religious and Quranic one, stands a ground for confronting a Sunni. It is a religious duty to behave well. The Shia should take care to behave pleasantly towards a Sunni and have such a matual understanding that could teach him the real fundamentals of Islam and could attract him to the real entity of Islam. He may find guidance as he transacts with a Shia. The minimum that could be expected from a Sunni is that he distances himself from tyrant rulers and their junta.

If one takes a look he can clearly see inside. Speaking without seeing is always contrary to the facts. To revolt is not prudent; to do what is in the

interest of Islam; to hold the interest of Islam high, is and has had been the motive of a Shia Imamia. To revolt is not the absolute necessity; such is the

Shia conception. We have examples and we follow them. Ali Bin Abi Taleb preferred to remain silent rather than to fight without support. Had he fought the very name of Islam would have vanished. Of course, he argued and debated; but

his endeavors availed nothing. No one heeded what was right. They had surrendered to the authority of Abu Bakr and then Omar and then Othman. Likewise, Imam Hasan made peace with Mawiya. What they did was not to

their own benefit but to the advantage of Islam. However hard they paced and however difficult the toleration, they endured with fortitude. The school of AHLUL BAIT was protected with a great many sacrifices.

The episode of Karbala is some thing exceptional. Its type is of its own

neither preceded nor can it ever be repeated. It is such a paragon that a Muslim or non-Muslim, anyone, however disappointed, distressed, depressed, disgruntled and deprived would become hopeful and would find a way out. Although that upraising was crushed and seemingly repeated but at length it turned victorious and eradicated the very dynasty of Bani Ommiya and preserved Islam in its originality. After this upraising of Imam Hussain (AS) no other episode took place that should have had been the cause for Shia distress or disappointment. Shia governed the dominion of faith, knowledge, and belief in AHLUL BAIT. To confront tyranny in any age is the only power of Shiasm among Muslims, even alone Shia is the dread of a tyrant no matter whether a ruler or a caliph or a king.


16. Extraordinary Qualities of Imams and the Knowledge of Secret:


The writer is again uneasy here. He said, that the Imams felt happy when their followers attributed them with super natural and extraordinary qualities and that they did not protest nor did they try to stop them. The arcanum

knowledge or the concealed knowledge is another thing that has discomforted the writer. In order to comfort him we shall here try to be kind to him, only

reminding him that he might have either forgotten or might not have studied enough to obtain the knowledge in which to speak and write.

There is a general law in which it is said that where there is no wrong there is no protest. Yes, the Imams have even cursed them who happened to attribute them with divine qualities or any other exaggerated particularities. They, the

Imams, were never happy of such ignorance. They corrected the mistake. What contradicts Islam has no link with Shiasm. The treasures of knowledge in every aspect was deposited with them by God, that is, knowledge to them was God’s gift. But, if they claimed any divinity on the strength of the huge funds of

knowledge, the writer’s discomfort is justifiable. They have always stressed on the need of worship to God and not one among the Shia has ever fancied in his remotest imagination that they are equal to God; they are created ones not the

creator; they need to be fed -hence, needy; they depend on God – hence, not on themselves; they are men like us – hence, no similitude with God; such is the belief of a Shia. God has vested them with the knowledge not common to all.

So, they were superior to all in knowledge. This is a fact. Where is it wrong? Does the writer mean to say that they should have protested to God for having given them (the Imams) the gift of knowledge? Ibn Khaldoon believes that the

knowledge of the unseen was with Imam Sadiq. In NAHJUL BALAGHA too we see evidences that knowledge of the invisible world was with the Imams.


17. Division of religious principle. Shia and the religion of ETEZAAL.


The writer says that the founders of Imamate have split the faith of Shia into five fundamentals; unity of God, Justice, prophet hood, Imamate, and resurrection. How long can he persist in his prejudice or demonstrate his

ignorance? What we know is that all his studies have gone with winds. In each nook he enters and comes out telling things which were never there. He sees what is not and what is he sees not. He wanders in the wilderness and avoids the

rich shadows of huge trees and the cool of fountains. He is a vagabond in the desert hit by the sinister heat of the sun, fatigued, wearied, tired, and stricken by thirst and hunger. To guide such a traveler to rest and ease is not easy.

‘Founders of Imamate’; what does he mean? ‘Founders of Islam’; if we were to say would it not sound strange and senseless? If he is in search of founders we point to God and the Prophet (SAW). The fundamentals, five in number, men-

tioned by him are the real and basic owes. Every Muslim should have faith in them. They are in line with reason. Among these fundamentals the JUSTICE of God and IMAMAT are ignored by the Sunni sect. They do not believe in that. Among the Sunni sect there is a sect or a group by the name of Ash’ari who

strictly refuse these two pillars. To make it plain and simple we should say that whatever the Shia believes in whether it be the JUSTICE of God or it be the IMAMAT, it is directly taken from the Quran and immediately based on the

Quran and at once spoken by the Imams. We can not understand as to why a link is given or a relation is established with the MOTAZELA sect. This sect of

MOTAZELA or its faith ETEZAAL goes congruous with Shiasm only to the extent and length of what they have grasped and held in their grip the very Shia faith. As such “AL-JABR WAL TASHBEEH AMAWIAN WAL ADL WAL TOWHEED ALAWIAN”, that is, the similitude of Bani Ommiya and the justice and Oneness of God of the Alawies, forms a ground common to them.

Here those writers who have not studied widely thus not gaining enough information about Shiaism and the past of Shiaism have confused themselves with the terms MOTAZELA and ASHAYERA. Although they have made research in this respect and in spite of their research they still do not know the religion of Seyed Mortaza, the most renown scholar of the Shia sect, whom they suspect of being a MOTEZAL because of his disagreement with ASH’AERI belief.




As the writer takes rest he enjoys the relief which is in his conclusion that the

fundamental of Imamate and its doctrine is at congruity with the birth of Shiasm of Imamia then its growth into a belief full of exaggeration, and from a belief to

a roll of a redeemer taking a form and shape of a leader and that leader is the Imam, qualified in divinity or divinity giving him quality. What a perfect plan it is and how nicely designed and delicately determined! This can not be but the

result of efforts abortive and vain, which Shiasm had undergone to find the ALAWI caliphate and which deservedly crushed and brought a political defeat for them. But their defeat in the political arena took their Shiasm to higher and writer plains of expansion in spite of the hindrances that impeded their way

from the Sunni side. Such is his rumination.

Firstly, he should know that the fundamental of Imamate is among the original fundamentals of Islam. It is a spring of faith and a fountain wherefrom

flows the faith. The Quranic verses and the repeated conversations of the Prophet further establish this faith. The passage of time has no part in it. The victories neither added there on nor did the defeats reduced there from. It is

solid; it is pure; it is real; it is original.

Secondly, the belief in Imamate has no relation with exaggeration. It is an evil design to administer a relation with exaggeration. The qualities of an Imam

are described by the specifications given by the Prophet (SAW). The constant traditions are there in this respect. What the Prophet (SAW) says is authentic and the authority incontrovertible and irrefragable. The tributes of the Imams are fixed, are told, indicated, shown and proved. The Imam is a creature of God

like others; He is dependent upon God like others. “He does not possess for his self any gain or any loss unless it should be from God.” The Imam is not a prophet. In other words, no religion is revealed to him nor is any Divine Decree

communicated to him nor does descend upon him any Revelation. Unlike an apostle or a prophet he is not in contact with the Angel who constantly used to

descend with God’s commandments. Since the Imam succeeds the prophet he is the guardian of the religion brought down by the Prophet (SAW). The divine communication through angels or revelations terminates at the prophet upon who descends a mission or a religion to be delivered to people. Therefore, there remains no necessity for this communication with the Imam because of his care taking office for that religion or mission introduced by his predecessor the prophet.

It is quite likely that the pens of animosity misinterpreted the office of the

Imam and his status while it is quite a plain and simple thing within the frame of reason.

It is obligatory and incumbent upon one to recognize the Imam of his time and acknowledge his authority. By the Imam we mean him who is installed by a

Divine Decree through the Prophet. Such an Imam has absolute worldly and religious authorities. He represents the qualities of those possessed by the Prophet (SAW), except the prophet hood. He is immune of sin. He is the

rightful successor of the Prophet and a legitimate occupant of his seat. The writer has obfuscated the things, which are plain and easy. Mahdism and the absence of the present time Imam too is made complicated, as he seems to have

been confused. Mahdism is a thing foretold by the Prophet Sunni scholars have acknowledged this thing. There exists an Imam in our time whether present or absent, visible or invisible. The traditions have established it. So why the

argument? Why so much confusion? To believe the Prophet but not to believe his words is a deplorable act. We can not believe in some and reject others. Partly we believe in the Prophet’ sayings and partly we deny them. What kind of Muslims are we? Religion is wholesome. Belief too should be wholesome,

total, full, consummate and complete.

The writer exaggerates. If he himself is a believer he should not tell such things. Belief is an exaggeration not to a believer but to him who sees only

matter and investigates matter alone. A believer no matter in what faith he believes, Christianity, Judism, Islam, he has taken for granted what is invisible to him, remote to him, not tangible to him. A divine and a divinity; is it an

exaggeration? For a materialist the very religion itself is an exaggeration. What to a believer is a tangible fact, although out of vision, although invisible, although remote to touch; to a materialist is an exaggeration. Well, the miracles

of Moses, Abraham, Jesus and the other apostles or Imams are only exagg- eration to one who has no belief in the other world which for the present is unseen to us. If we deny the Prophet as a partner in divinity; yet, it is contrary to faith and tantamount to pagan hood. But when we do not trespass the

boundaries and believe within the frame fixed by God and His Prophet (SAW) where is the falsehood? An Imam is not a prophet or a prophet God. Stations are known; positions are prescribed; status stated; ambit is put there to avoid the

ambition; so how can deception creep in?


19. Discrepancy in the date of birth of Mahdi:


The difference in the date of birth of the twelfth Imam is of very little

vaniance comparing to that of the other Imams. Some narrations say the date of Mehdi’s birth is at parity with the number of letters in the word NOOR that is light according to the ‘ABJAD’ calculations. The more acceptable statement is that of MR. Fazl Bin Shazan, coeval with Imam Hasan Askari, who indicates


The 12th Imam birth was surrounded by conditions not usual or normal. His absence was more than his appearance. His father, Imam Askari allowed only a

few chosen associates of his own to see his son and become blest by his appearance. His short absence commenced as soon as he became Imam. In his absence he appointed deputies who were his agents. This was immediately after

the death of his father Imam Hasan Askari.


20. The Issue of absence or occultation is a reality and not a theory or a fancy:


The writer has this to say. The atrocities of Bani Abbas towards the progeny

of Ali and the sons of Imam Jafer Sadiq had created unrest and confusion as well as the problem of succession to Imam Hasan Askari (260, 874 AD). At

Samerra there rendered elements and factors, which as a result brought on the theory of the Imam’s occultation.

However it was not a theory but a reality, a fact, a truth. It was written in books before Imam Hasan Askari had become Imam that the twelfth Imam would take shelter in absenting himself and that he would take refuge in his own disappearance and that for his safety he would resort to his own occultation

under God’s command. Some took advantage of the opportunity. Jafer claimed that he was the awaited one. People did not believe him because of his reputation. The hers’ claim further strengthened the belief of the Shia in the

Imamat of Mehdi. Their trust nullified the false claims.

What we can understand from the writers tone, is that in a sense from the time of Imam Sadiq and onward the term IMAMAT did not carry any political

meaning, that is, IMAMAT was bleak of political platform and barren of political performance. The Imams and their followers remained safe to a certain extent.

The writer should know that the Imams possessed the combined offices, that of political leadership and that of the religious one. Both the Imams and the Shias knew that the Imams held both offices. In addition, the Shia views them as the sole heirs of the Prophet. The rulers of Bani Abbas were no more than the

robbers and confiscators of their right and what belonged to them. The rulers too were alive to this fact that they were transgressers and trespassers to that which was not theirs. Time and again Mansoor, Haroon, Mamun, and other

rulers had acknowledged the fact that the religious position was not theirs to hold, nor that of the political position. They were only occupants while the right

was that of the Imams.




In the view of the writer the belief in a redeemer is merely a Shia belief which was rendered advantageous to Bani Abbas as well. As the Sunni school

of thought emerged, they held on to this belief which at times was to their interest. This belief of a redeemer was that of all Muslims. Who actually was and is this Redeemer? This stood the dispute that divided the opinion among Muslims. Bani Abbas tried to show that the Redeemer was one from them. They

could only try when there existed a general belief. It is a good proof that the Muslims commonly were holding this belief without any reservations. Mansoor tried to introduce his son Mohammad Bin Abdullah as the Redeemer. For this

purpose he gave him the title of MEHDI. The efforts in this field regardless from where it came from did not succeed, because the people did not approve of their reputation for such a post.




The writer writes that there was a dispute about who would succeed as imam.

He twists and turns the understanding of the reader and tries to make the subject as much murky as possible. Dispute is a common thing to occur when a matter happens to be of importance. The more important the matter the more deeper the dispute. The outcome is important. The Imamate of Kadum took its seat in the hearts. A general love surrounded him and a certain respect was rooted in the hearts, which received him. His succession became authentic and legitimate by his own life, which was in the eyes of the people. His straightforwardness, simplicity, truth, humbleness, worship, piety, generosity, and charity, all these qualities gave the proof of his right to succession and his deseruation to be the Imam-His death in the prison which was obtained by means of poison, left far reaching effects on the regime of Haroon. Shafeyee, the founder of the Shafeyee sect among Sunnis left Baghdad in protest for Egypt. All have praised the personality of Imam Kadum. Similarly the death of Imam Reza which too was by poison and likewise the death of Imam Jawad which too was by poison. The martyrdom of these Imams left a very bad reflection on the regime of the day.

Another blunder of the writer is that he consider Imam Hadi and Imam Hasan

Askari to have had witnessed the total downfall of the Bani Abbas dynasty. The fact is that the collapse of the Bani Abbas dynasty took place in theera of Mostasam, as he was killed by Halako in the year 656 Hijra. So, in the time of these two Imams the Bani Abbas dynasty was fast going down, and the military officers were handling the installation of a caliph and again dismissing or discarding him.


23. The appearance of the Imam and his administration of Justice worldwide.


That the Imams through their own agents or elements acquired information and knowledge current with the affairs of their time is not to be debated. However, the writer claims that they became aware of the fact the Alawi Imam by the name of Mahdi would come, and that he would not be able to stop the flow of events due to the severe corruptness in general. Therefore says the writer, they decided to postpone the reappearance of the “Awaited One” indefinitely. Yes, the events had become such, however the writer fails to understand that the reappearance of the twelfth Imam was not postponed by Imam Hadi nor Imam Askari, for they had no such power. It was a Divine secret in which only Allah himself knew and planned. According to various narrations, those of Shia and those of Sunni, nobody knew nor does know the person who is to appear and when he will appear. Even the Imams, except Mahdi himself, knew not the specified man. It is a Divine responsibility. And, it is in Divine hand. Its knowledge is with God. Its delay or its urgency is the concern of God. The writer fails to dig any deeper. For it is the insight that probes and opens the horizons of a vast sight to see. What we know is that which the Prophet (SAW) and the Holy Quran has taught us. That is a redeemer will come to rescue the world from tyranny and to spread therein justice is a promise committed by God to mankind; and it has been foretold by the Prophet. But no one is competent to set its timing. It is not a human programme. Hence, it is not for human to decide. When one can not decide he can deny. Here denial is not important, because to deny facts does not uproot them.


24. The House of ALI and MOTAWAKKIL:


Alhamdolelah, the writer, sees and accepts the cruelty, and tyranny of

Motawakkil. He says without reservation; and this is, indeed, appreciable. In the court, Motawakkil became upset, very much so that he wept under the crushing strokes of his soul. The writer attributes his inner disturbance to the recitation of Quranic Verses. He is wrong. Imam Hadi spoke to him in poetry. Because part of the verse has been translated from Arabic to English, some of the beauty has been lost;

“Over the peaks of mountains, guarded they lived; Never saved them the peaks they were deceived.”


25. ‘TAQIA’ A strong command from the Divine in the Holy Quran:


Again the writer goes astray. “Why do not you fear them a dread?” “Lo, he who hates him and his heart is satisfied with belief.” These are the Verses of the Quran. It pertains to Ammar to conceal his faith. To conceal one’s faith or to

hide one’s religion if the conditions demand so; is God’s order. To avoid danger in any respect, either to life, property, reputation, or to personal prestige one should conceal his true belief. Reason and logic says so. To do otherwise is

wrong as it is to expose one to danger. The writer says that the Shia invented

TAQIA in order to protect themselves against the Sunni who were a majority

and also from the rulers who were too Sunni. So under the pretext of TAQIA. The writer is short o of knowledge in this subject. As we pointed out earlier it is a clear commandment from God. To obey God is not wrong.




The Imam’s scholars have classified political and social grades. From Qulaini

to Tosi Nomani who are regarded as some of the first ones to write about the absence of the Imam. Prior to them there was a group of doctors who dealt with

this subjects and wrote books. Fazl Bin Shozan (died in 260) and still farther back there were Abrahim Bin Husham Abil Fazl Al-Nasheri and others constitute a class of writers.




Imam Hasan (AS) and Imam Hussain (AS) were two brothers and at the same

time Imams. In that period and age both were Imams one obeyed the other; the younger brother obeyed his elder, as he became Imam. Imam Hasan (AS) actually held the political authority as well as the religious one. He administered social affairs and held the government over them. Imam Hussain (AS) had no say as long as his brother Hasan was alive. The writer now tries to establish a link on this precedent and suggests that the Imamate was of Abdulla Ajta instead of Mosa al-Kadum or to the both of them and similarly to Jafar brother of Imam Hasan Askari. The office of Imamate is Divine. As such, the Imamate is not dependent on our pleasure. It is not our right to suggest one for the Imamate or not to approve the others. When Mosa al-Kadum became Imam, Abdullah goes out of question. Likewise Jafar is not Imam because Hasan Askari is the Imam. The Imamate of Hasan and Hussain can not be a base for any who happens to be a brother of the Imam to become Imam. To avoid such a kind of mischief or this type of interpretation the Prophet (SAW) in his life time had repeatedly disclosed the names of the Imams individually. He had even specified the characteristics of them. So, that neither doubt nor suspicion would remain.


27. Division of Groups


Regarding the Imam after the martyrdom of Imam Hasan Askari a man by the name of NOU BAKHATI had written a book under the title “HREQ AL-SHIA” (sects of Shia). This man says strange things never heard before nor will be heard anymore. A few examples of his findings: After the martyrdom of Imam

Hasan Askari the Shia divided into groups and sects. They split into fourteen sects although it is not a fact he says. His book “HREQ al-SHIA” gives a wide range of sections, groups, and divisions. As one goes farther into this book he

sees that the word GROUP can not be applied at all since there was none. A SECT can not be called a SECT since that SECT did not exist at all. A

DIVISION can not be named a DIVISION since there were not one or two persons who differed or said anything different. But all such trifles and superfluous conjectures have gone a great deal to give bulk to the book. In what times they existed; he does not say. What were the names of those DIVISIONS or SECTS or GROUPS; he himself knows not because he does not say. How long did they remain in their difference? Why didn’t their GROUP or their DIVISION gain ground so as to attract followers? Who was their leader a chief? All these and such questions remain without answer. There is nothing real in the hook. The great scholars Shaik Mofeed and Shaik Akbar Tosi have rejected the existence of divisions. They replied in “A story of NOU BAKHTI” it was “AL- FOSOOL AL-MUKHTARA” (The selected chapters). In a book by Shaik Mofeed he says in its second volume, “There is no sect, no group in existence. In our times till the year 372 there has been no sect other than the twelve Shia Imamia.” This is an introduction for our readers to form a background for themselves, for their own judgment or opinion because the writer has brought forward NOU BAKHTI’s book in his argument.

There are books written about nations, creeds, and so on. But these books were written under a prejudice of exaggeration and not on fact. Whatever one

sees in print does not mean it has authority behind it therefore be accepted. History can not show any trace of any of those sects. No date can be fixed as to when; no location can be pointed to as to where; then the very debate on it is of

no sense nor of any use discussing. Probabilities do not become facts. A man might have existed who deviated, divided, disgruntled, deprived, and depraved; but surely he was not a SECT, GROUP nor DIVISION.

There is no evidence to show that Jafar had a following. There is likelihood

that political and or animosity of some might have given a wider range to Jafar. But he neither gained nor established a following. The only sect that was there and that is still there in spite of the ups and downs of the passage of time, regardless of the vicissitudes of political events, and despite the changes that are common to man is the sect which believes in the Imamate of the 12th Imam, son of Imam Hasan Askari. The Shia Imamia which as said, did not surrender to temptation but adhered to faith and preserved the belief, although however difficult. Great scholars appeared in this sect. A great many books have been written in this field.

Whatever differences might have happened concerning the person of Mahdi, it was not so wide as is pretended and not so serious as is said. There were no fourteen sects as is now claimed. The writer can not gather a hundred men as the followers. To tell, one can also tell that Omar caused a division or created a division among Muslims as, after the Prophet’s death he shouted and clamored that the Prophet had not died. This divided the Muslims into two groups – one who believed in the eternal life of the Prophet taking his death for his absence and the other one who believed in his death. But a lunatic opinion, single and alone, uttered with a calculated mischief aimed at a particular deliberate purpose

or intention can not be a criterion on which an ideology can be rested. As soon as it is said, it is dismissed because it reflects the mind of the sayer.

The sect that acknowledges the Imamate or the Imam hood of Mahdi, son of Imam Hasan Askari has existed for centuries. From the 3rd century the sects that are mentioned in the book have had been without existence. They have

vanished. They never existed. Leaving aside the alleged sects, the truth is that the Authority of God can not be absent from the earth. This authority is vested in the person of Mahdi, the Imam of our time. The Shia can not ignore the Imam. Here ends the circuit of fictious sects.


28. Books about the Sects:


“MILEL WA NAHAL” of Shahrastani “AL-FASAL” of Iban Hagam; these

books speak of divisions and describe the sects or groups with full mistakes and deliberate errors. To rely on them is irresponsible because they have been written without study. Every prejudice is gratified in it and malice has taken a breath of relief as it speaks about Shia without knowledge. No information, no knowledge seems to have been necessary to write this book. Another book “AL- FARAKH BAIN ALFIREQ” and another book “AL-TAISEER” carries a theme which ignorance could be proud of. Where there is no literacy, there is fancy; where there is no information, there is imagination; and the books are written. These books are deal, thus should they be left.





AL-ISNAESHAR” (glisten of sight to one who yields to the twelve Imams) we have dealt over this subject. The traditions that indicate that there are thirteen

Imams are not authentic ones. The narration should be constant, that is, heard by many; hence, told by many or circulated mouth by mouth. Such narration of any tradition is gestant with credibility. If it is told by one person it does not stand credible. When the Prophet (SAW) spoke, he spoke among his associates or in a

gathering or amidst a few people. So, his conversation was heard by more than one man; and accordingly narrated by more than one. If a tradition is narrated by only one source and there is no second to it; it is void of any authenticity.

This is a standard or a law for gaining certainty about the issue pertaining to belief and other religious matters. On the other hand, the traditions that indicate the number of Imams as twelve are many and related by several and told by

various sources. In the book MASNAD of Ahmad al-Hanbali there are above thirty sources mentioned having had heard from the Prophet (SAW) the number of Imams to be twelve. Muslim in his “SAHEER” quotes eight sources who

have related the traditions indicating the number twelve. In the Shia books there are hundreds of sources who have mentioned the Prophet’s sayings the traditions, that fix the number of twelve. Besides, the sources form the man of

good reputation. There remains no doubt in the authencity of the very subject. However the traditions or tradition quoting the number of Imams to be thirteen has been invented. Since it is a lie it is dismissed.




What is attributed to Saleem does not exist in his (SALEEM’S) book. Saleem is reported to have narrated that the Prophet (SAW) had told Ah Bin Abi Taleb

that he and twelve ones from his progeny are the rightful and legitimate Imams. The very authentic copies of the book of SALEEM BIN QAIS mostly possessed by scholars do not have what it is alleged to him. What the book of Saleem Bin

Qais carries is the various narrations of several sayings of the Prophet (SAW) all to the effect that the Imams are twelve and their names starting from Ah Bin Abi Taleb down to Mahdi are indicated. This book came into being in the first

century of Hijra and remains till now well credited and well trusted. The names of the twelve Imams were mentioned at a time when they were not yet born. So what is a false accusation or an unfounded allegation merely attributed to Saleem Bin Qais is only a matter of prejudice, to obfuscate the very subject and

infuscate the understanding.

It is common practice to fabricate a fiction and then set out in conquest of a writer who may transact this counter note on his credit because of the customers

who bank in him their trust. Better than Saleem Bin Qais they could not have found. As his notes are plenty, one counter can easily be mixed therein. If at all

it is deducted, a general clamor would stout that it is Saleem’s; since Saleem’s would obtain currency and circulate from hand to hand. Such a fraud is also played with Abi SAHAL NOUBAKHTI. This silly trick has persisted deliberately. Writer should have checked them. Translators also proved negligent in this respect. Anyway, we should pronounce here that such a stratum will not be of benefit to any nor will it serve as a religious cause nor will it advance any religion forward. It would only create a mist on the understanding of readers. The root of belief in a ‘MEHDI’ is also to be found in the Tora and that of the Bible prior to Islam. Any literature that could be traced in the distant past will say something of this kind. This is the pedestal of the Divine Religion.




The writer sees everything from a material aspect. He has not yet reached a destination. Everywhere he stops and wanders again and says something in the pain of fatigue. Moslems believe generally in Mahdi; it is a political belief. The

Shia believes in Mahdi particularly; it is a political effect. What is a belief? He has several titles such as MEHDI, REDEEMER and etc.; they are invented by history. Let him at least for once tell something of sense. Any link with the

world, the other one, is out of question to the writer. He compares natural phenomenon with religion. The moon, earth, sun and animals all appear and disappear in a cycle, come and go; likewise religion too is to him. He wants to

reach a religion after having lost the religion. The world that is next, the self that is in a man, the ulterior influence of invisible on visible, the unseen on the seen, the spirit and its environment, the soul and its surroundings; all these things carry no sense to him. What holds a matter matters to him. So, he is

altogether on quite a different track, which never joins the straight path of belief. He displays a series of historical events as his discoveries. He has assorted the events, adjusted the episodes, rejected and accepted some while

misplacing others in an order prove his point. When he offers his cargo he misleads the customer. The titles such as MEHDI, GHAYEB, HUJJAT which are rooted in the Quran and transplanted in the Prophet’s sayings are regarded

by him as the names that came into being due to certain incidents or events in history.

Had he cared for traditions he would have come to know that the titles

‘AL-QAYEM’, ‘HUJJATULLAH’, ‘KHALEEFATULLAH’, ‘AL-MENDI’ belong to the twelfth Imam. But the language of tradition is strange to him nor is he familiar with the tone of the Prophet (SAW).

In some time or some era one title might have been widely spoken. Again in

certain conditions some other title might have given more consolation or satisfaction to the people. For this reason some among the titles of the twelfth Imam are more famous. We observe this in the names of God also. AL-SHAFI, AL-SALAAM, AL-HAHZ, AL-RAHMAN, AL-REZZAGH are more uttered. The personal circumstance has a bearing on this as one resorts to a particular

tribute or quality moves them to the other. But this could not mean that God was lacking those qualities in ancient times and got them as time progressed. Such results are the natural outcome of the analysis done on the basis of matter. Therefore, the very method of analysis, that is, the material one, is wrong and will lead one astray. The belief in God is the consequence of a centipede of things and a train of suppositions. Before that, there was no belief in God. Likewise, the qualities which are the names of God. This is the result of a materialistic view of the things. Finally, one has to deny all God and prophets. Such a result of such a wrong method of analysis can not convince one nor could it be justified in rejecting God. It will not succeed to shake the belief of a believer.

The moment Mahdi came into being the titles were fixed to him because of the qualities he possessed. Mehdi the rescuer, fixed one, good doer, master of

the command, master of time, master of age, and master of moment is he. Each of those titles reflects a particular dimension of his personality and of his task.

The possessor of those titles is the twelfth Imam. Mahdi is the same twelfth Imam and the 12th Imam is the same Mahdi that the scholars of Sunni have acknowledged. Abu Davood is one of them. He in his book “AL-MEHDI” says

that the twelfth Imam is the seal of the Imams.




Although the writer’s uproar, this time he quotes page 282 from the book “GHEEBAT” (absence) of Tosi that, “QAYEM means he will upraise after meeting his death.” About this sufficient explanation Tosi has provided; “but to deal this subject we first should necessarily speak of the Imamate.” As the

ramification is getting wider we shall speak about the Imamate only briefly because its short summary suffices to take in the details.

Imamate in Shiasm is based on the Holy Quran. There are numerous

traditions of the Prophet that support the establishment.

1. Imamate is a Divine obligation. Persons competent enough become the choice of God. They are vested by God with this mission. God’s choice of the

person to this office is pronounced to the people by the Prophet at God’s desire.

2. The prime and the supreme condition for an Imam that qualifies him to be the Imam is his infallibility, that is, immunity from sin or wrong doing, and his

superiority in knowledge with the others so that all could obey his instructions and follow his guidance. Khaleel Bin Ahmad narrates a description of Imam by Ali Bin Abi Taleb: “All need him while he needs no one. This is an indication that he is the Imam of all.”

3. The earth can not be without an Imam or the Authority of God. Everyone should know and recognize the Imam of his time. If he dies without knowing his Imam, he has died as though in ignorance.

4. Imams are twelve as per the sayings of the Prophet.

5. All the Imams are from the Prophet’s House. They do not exceed twelve

including Ali. According to the Prophet’s words, repeatedly said, they are at parity with the Quran and as heavy (important) as the Quran itself. They never part with the Quran. They remain always associated with it.

6. All Imams individually possess the worldly and the spiritual leadership. The only thing that they do not share nor possess is the prophet hood, which

was terminated at the Prophet himself. NAHJUL BALAGHA describes them as God’s Authority over His creatures. They are the boat of safety. They are the refuges for the nation. They are the guards to protect the people from divisions and deviations. He who does not recognize them and they do not recognize him

shall not enter heaven. He who denies them and they who denies him shall enter hell.”

7. The Imams were introduced before hand by the Prophet (SAW) who

disclosed their names and specifications individually. Each Imam has introduced the following one his successor indicating his name and his person. These are the fundamentals of principle belief. There is no likelihood, no pos- sibility for any mistake or confusion in the order and the person of the Imam, because of the precautions already taken by the Prophet (SAW) in his time in disclosing their names individually. Also each Imam pointed out to the people his successor (the next Imam). One should take these matters into consideration if he were to know something of the Imamate. For a believer who acknowledges God and the Next world the ground is reason on which the pillars of belief rest. These fundamentals are irrefragable and incontrovertible because they are supported by the Quran and the constant circuit of the Prophet’s traditions.

This subject that the IMAMAT is a Divine obligation has been established by the Quran and the tradition that took the wing of constancy. Dr. Allama Hilli in

his book “TWO THOUSANDS” (ALFAIN) has brought forward two thousand arguments and evidence to prove this subject only. Basically this subject springs from TOWHEED (oneness of God) and it is the oneness of God that gives

origin to this subject. Imamate is so basic and so fundamental that it is deep- rooted in Towheed. Towheed is the essence of Islam. And, it is this Towheed that establishes Imamate thereby making it obligatory upon all Muslims. The

importance of Imamate is reflected form this where we suffer:

“To Him is the Command and to Him is the order and He is the Sultan and

He is the Ruler and He is the Guardian and He is the cognizant of the interests of the creatures. There is no order nor is there a dismissal to any one without


The matter of immunity from sin gives strength to this subject besides the superiority of knowledge. The Quran here says: “He who guides to the truth

more deserves to be followed; he who does not guide should be guided.” The Imam should necessarily be infallible. Reason requires so. Dr. Allama Huh has established this fact through two thousand arguments. One many refer to book


There should be God’s Authority over the earth. “To each nation there is a

leader.” “And we have reached the word to them.” “A day (in which) we call every people with their Imam.” These Quarnic verses with due consideration to their interpretation and the sayings of the Prophet thereon prove that the earth can not be empty of an Imam. The books, those of Sunnis, Shias, Zaidias, and those of Imamias all say collectively the same. There is uniformity of opinion at this point. TAZ-KARAT AL-HOFFAZ of the Sunnis has acknowledged the necessity of the presence of an Imam on earth. Whether the Imam is hidden or apparent, concealed or absent or open he is there as should be.

In the book SAWAYEQ and other books of Sunni scholars a long statement of Imam Zainulabedeen is narrated. The Imam in his long statement says that

the earth can not remain without an Imam from the House of the Prophet

(SAW). If there happens to be any word coming to this fundamental it is worthless and groundless.

Imam Zainulabedeen says in his supplication in his SAHEEFA SAJJADIA: “O, God, you have supported your religion in all times by the Imam whom

you made a banner to your servants and a tower in your dominion after making his rope to reach yours and you made him a medium to your paradise. And obedience to him you made obligatory. And you warned about disobedience to

him. To carry on his orders, you ordered; and to stop at what he stops the action, you commanded. No advancer advances from him nor does a delayer lag behind him. He is the Fortress of seekers and the cave of believers and the path of

adheres and the worth of the worlds.”

In this supplication the Imam is well sketched. The states and the station of the Imams is made clear. Shiasm can be observed in this supplication.

After all these discussions it is a wonderful thing to say “The upraising of

QAYIM after death was acknowledged earlier but later on this thought was rejected by scholars.”

Any thought in a Shia atmosphere if expressed by the Prophet (SAW) and Ali

Bin Abi Taleb and all other Imams are a fixed truth. Any other thought contrary to it is of no credit and is void of truth. In an analysis some seek to find out a trifle and enlarge it magnifying it in order to avoid the truth or to reject the fact. Some non-Muslim Islamic scholars have done this to serve their venom.

It is not our point to overlook the loophole. What we say is, do not overlook the important ones. One should examine and compare both and see which one is


The Imam first dies and the upraises. This is contrary to the fundamental. The earth in that case would remain without an Imam, which is not possible. The age of the Imam is lengthy as his occultation too. If we accept his death first and

then his becoming a redeemer, we have to reject what the Prophet (SAW) and Ali (AS) and the other Imams have told us. A narrator by the name of Mosa Bin Sadan Hannat (whom is not regarded as a man of reputation) quotes another

man by the name of Abdulla Bin Qassim. Abdulla Bin Qassim was called ‘the her’. Such a man can not be trusted. This liar hero quotes his source as Abu

Saeed Qurasani. Abu Saeed Qurasani’s whereabouts are not known. Besides this, there is not other source to have had told the same thing or a similar one to it.

If we look at the word QAYIM we understand it to mean that an upraising is ahead, and this Imam is to be the doer or possessor of that ‘QIYAM’. An

upraising which is to be against the political conditions and religious perversion and social depravations of that time. He will uproot every root of tyranny and fill the world with justice. Generally the word ‘QIYAM’ (upraisal) is contem- porary with surmise. All Imams were QAYIM that is ‘responsible’. But each of

them was in accordance with the conditions of his time. The situation he was in was one concerned to him. But in a broader view and a broader sense this title QAYIM is particular to Mehdi because the QIYAM is going to be a wider,

universal one not confined to a specified time and place. His QIYAM (upraisal) will embrace the conditions of individual, social, political, and economical ones. The application of this title brings to mind that of only the 12th Imam and no

other one.

Saddookh has narrated a tradition. His source is Kamaluddin. Kamaluddin narrates that he (Kamaluddin) heard the 9th Imam, Mohammed al-Taqi (A.S.)

say: “The Imam after me is my son. His word is my word. His order is my order. To obey him is to obey me. The Imamate will run to his son, Hasan Askary. What he says is to be obeyed. His word is his father’s word. His order

is the order of his father.” Then he became quiet. Kamaluddin asked; “Oh, son of the Prophet of God! Who is the Imam after Hasan?” The Imam wept. Then he said; “Imam Hasan Askari’s son, AL-QAIYM AL MONTADER.” Then Kamaluddin asked; “Oh, son of the Prophet of God, why is he called AL-

QAYIM?” The Imam answered; “Because he will bring an upraising.” Kamaluddin asked; “Why is he called the awaited one?” The Imam replied: “Because there will be an absence that wilt be very long. Faithful ones will

await his appearance. Those who have doubt will reject him. Those who believe in him will be redeemed.”

In another source “MA’ANI AL-AKHBAR”, the same is also mentioned.

Some have indicated other reasons too for his title ‘QAYIM’. One is that he will appear and raze a war against tyranny with his sword. Now, for his other title, Mahdi, there are several interpretations. AL-MEHDI is as independent a title as is AL-QAYIM. One whom God has guided is called Mahdi.

According to predictions, the reforms and the deeds that Mahdi will perform will suit the title AL-QAYIM. It is also known that these titles, “AL-QAYIM” and “AL-MEHDI” were heard from the Prophet’s mouth. There is no sense in

arguing that one title is superior to the other. Both belong to one and both were given and pronounced by one.




The writer in this chapter has written what reflects his prejudice or ignorance.

The Imam will appear; the Imam will rescue the world from tyranny; all this imagination is the product of the last decades of Bani Ommiya’s rule. The tyranny of Bani Ommiy’s government invigorated this belief more deep. But in no way did it create this supposition or this fancy as the writer says. It is as old as Islam itself The Prophet (SAW) himself had disclosed MEHDISM and told the people what we now know. It is a promise given by the prophet (SAW) and as is known, the Prophet (SAW) did not utter out of his own desire or lust. It is God’s word and Divine Revelation from which he speaks. So, it is a promise given to us by God through the Prophet (SAW).

The writer says that the title of MEHDI was given to rescue the Shia from dullness and hopelessness. To inject them with ray of hope or a beam of

anticipation towards a better future. As we have repeatedly said it is a reality. The title has nothing to do with the disappointment of a man or a group of men.

The title does not add anything to the personality of the Imam. His responsibility is already foretold by the Prophet (SAW). The Shia did not invent anything so far as religion is concerned. The title MAHUI is also acknowledged

by Sunni scholars. It was heard on the tongue of most well known Sunni authorities. As such, it seems that it is the writer who is trying to invent something at this stage.




It is not bad to give a summary about the event of Mahdi’s birth. The birth of

Mahdi the son of Imam Hasan Askari is recorded by historians as being a simple event.

However the birth is surrounded by some strange signs. The writer is not willing to see or accept the strange signs because he says that no such events

were recorded. Which records he uses for his research, we do not know. An event of birth is not to be elaborated – generally speaking. Sources that are close to the house of Imam Hasan Askari (AS) should also be contacted to see what

they know and have to say. Historical science has gone too flaccid as its scholars have shown prejudice in recording the events or the facts. However, facts do remain unchanged although the attitude of a historian is however


The birth of messengers is gestant with unusual events, extra ordinary. Adam’s birth for example was a strange thing. The birth of Abraham, Is’haq, Moses, and Jesus were all strange, Jesus (AS) still in a cradle spoke. All these

events were super natural and extra ordinary. If these events are not historical, then the birth of Mahdi too is not one. If those events are regarded as being historical, the birth of ‘Mahdi’ too is one. The negligence of some historians do

not spoil the event. As a figure of speech, no matter how many veils are hung to hide or conceal something, if a candle is placed beyond the veils even the

slightest light will still pass through those veils. Often is the case that an unauthentic source says something ignorant and it becomes history; but an occurrence of importance and magnitude which took place and is told by persons of repute and renown, still is not considered history! What a portentous display of prejudice and partiality it is! The writer says that the biographies of the Imams of the Shia have been so written that they are like the stories of the SOHS. The stories of the SOFIS are far from sense and reason. The writer could have said that the biographies of the Imams are like the stories of the births of prophets like Abraham, Is’haq, Ismaeel, Moses, Jesus and Yehya. But, taste is needed to install a similitude. Delicacy is the demand, wit is the want and vigilance is the vitality, needed to bring a similarity of the same sanctity. The stories of the SOFIS are fabricated in order to attain the level of godly figures so as to make them credible. They are fake, false, and feigned. But the facts of the prophets or the Imams do not break apart by false statements as a shadow can not eradicate a light. It is the evil that proves a virtue. A dark night is the indication of a bright day, which dawns from within its folds.

The very sense the word history imparts should be defined here. Some events are perhaps narrated in the books of philosophy or medicine and not in the book

of history. Although irrelevant of its place it is still history or an historical event. Whether it be the prophet of God or kings what they do goes down as history. Therefore, history can not be confined to a man or a particular group or

a particular performance. As a result there is no classification or category to which certain events are regarded as historical or non historical. The writer is wrong. The birth of the twelfth Imam was history in itself as well as a historical event.




About the creation of the Imams and the Prophets, that is, how they were

created or the nature of their creation. Shias are not different with others in its conception or conviction. About the creation of the Prophet (SAW), the Sunni sect has a great deal of narration and traditions. The same Sunni sources have much to say with regards to the creation of Ali Bin Abi Taleb, Imam Hasan, Imam Hussain, and Fatima daughter of Mohammed. As to the reason of the creation of the prophet (SAW) and the Imams the Quran gives a root. “Indeed, God has chosen you and purged you and selected you over the men of the worlds.”

As for the prophet Moses the Quran says: “And, We revealed to the mother of Moses to feed him with her milk and if she happened to fear about him,

throw him into the river and not fear nor grieve. We shall return him back to her and make him among the messengers.” From this we infer that the mother of Moses was informed about the return of her child back to her and that he would

become a prophet of God.

In his book AL SIFWA Zaid Bin Ali Bin Hussain describes the issue of

AHLUL BAIT (members of the Prophet’s (SAW) House) their being chosen ones. He lists from the Quran to support his statement. From a viewpoint of Islamic principle and belief, the extra ordinary type of creation of the Imams can not be waired of taking into consideration the miracle in the birth of Jesus Bin Maryem.




The writer concludes that because Mahdi will appear on the day of ASHORA

he will, therefore, make his headquarters either in Kofa or in Kerbala. Also because Mahdi descends from the progeny of Ah his upraising too will be in Kofa and Karbala. However let us stop here and look a little closer into the matter.

First, it is an acknowledged fact that Mahdi hails from the Prophets (SAW) House because he is the twelfth Imam. But what relation is there with Kerbala

and Kofa? We can not limit his range of activity for the whole earth is in his range of activity. All predictions indicate such as we have repeatedly pointed out, the traditions of the Prophet (SAW). The writer has connected Mahdi’s

appearance to the martyrdom of Hussain. This he has done deliberately so as to limit the whole issue and to prove it has a background of revenge. The writer knows very well that the Imams were all from the House of the Prophet (SAW),

that is, his offspring. So, the twelfth Imam too, Mahdi. Nobody has limited Imamate to the Household of the Prophet (SAW), it is God’s design, His desire, His deed, and His determination because Imamate is His office and an Imam is His choice as to who to be and from where. Mahdi hails from the progeny of the

Prophet, it is a fulfillment of a condition among the conditions concomitant with the office of Imamate. As such he should be from AHLUL BAIT (from the Prophet’s house). This ensures that all his doings and deeds will all be in the

line of the Prophet (SAW) himself.




Under this title or leading the following may be said;

A. the disappearance of the Imam was an event of most importance. Shias became upset and much disappointed they were uncertain as to what would

happen politically, religiously and socially. It’s far reaching effects in every as peek at every field was alarming. Some remained dumbs founded, perplexed and confused knowing not what to do. A true Shia’s concern was as to how to confront the adversary who was a staunch appetent, a Sunni, and how to protect

his own strategy in that political hurricane; and to this added his worry as to how to guard an ordinary Shia whose belief was their hunt in which it was a moving object in the jungle that had engaged their arrows and could fell prey to

the beast of their propaganda. The safety of a common Shia, and the danger of the security of a learned Shia was the anxiety of the hour. Although they saw

themselves exposed to an ambush from behind a tree in that society, which to them had turned into a forest ruled by wild and bestial animals, yet the most learned scholars of Shia were safe in their hidings. They were armed by the Prophet’s (SAW) traditions and the verses of the Holy Quran, which had established the truth of Imamate to rescue them and to guard a common Shia against the danger.

As a result we now see that Shiasm has survived every risk of eradication. It has preserved its originality rejecting any deviation. Whose make up is her original face and whose ornaments are her natural features. Indeed, malice

incited the ugly to abnubilate her beauty by any fuliginous way or to fash its admirers. But her admirers stood a grueling test and her own numinous beauty stood a palladium. However, no matter their practice the Shiasm deranged its

entity. The learned ones gave refuge to the thought of the people. The

NAWABS took the affairs of the Shia in their hands.

While everything was in order, the belief in the twelfth Imam was never shaken; NOUBAKHTI says that in the town of Qum, there existed a sect that

believed in thirteen Imams. We have heard nothing of that kind, and know that all there believed and believe in twelve Imams. Everyone in books of narration

claim that there existed scholars during the past two and half centuries to tell people about the Imamate of the twelve Imams.

Yes, a deeper look will show that a few who had turned aside from the

original path in search of personal gains or to whom a deliberate deviation had taken far away from the track, later regret persuaded them and repentance returned them back to their right path and to which they adhered in fealty and stuck in faith.

B. Earlier to Ibn Babway and Nomani others like Fazi Bin Shazan (died 260) have written books about both the periods of the absence of the twelfth Imam. These books had appeared before the birth of Imam Hasan Askari. Mashikha

Hasan Bin Mahboob (died 224) has also written about this subject. The writer too maintains that the two periods of the absence of the Imam has brought forward changes in the views. We should point out here that both periods were

of importance and of a new kind in the history of Shiaism but not in the sense that the theme of Shiaism varied with that of the past. These two periods further cemented the faith of those who were having a pre knowledge through the

sayings of the Prophet (SAW) and the Imams.

The way of installing a proof or housing evidence was at variance among the lecturers. But at the same time they all depended on the traditions, that is, the sayings of the Prophet (SAW). Side by side they used reason as well. This

method of presenting or producing evidence of reason or logical proofs became wider and wider during the space of time. From the time of Shaikh Mofeed to the time of Allama Hilli and toward this method took an entity to itself. The

proof for divinity, the evidence for prophet hood attained a wider range. Likewise, there is still a possibility that it may still go beyond. But the evidence

of narration, that is, the narrative proofs remains what they had been because the words could be invented to install in the prophet’s (SAW) sayings.

C. The absence of the Imam is reflected in a way to give an impression that to revolt against tyrant rulers is not an obligation on the people. Therefore, the scholars, that is, the Shia clergymen and their jurisprudents in association with

the family of Boway did not oppose the caliphate of the Bani Abbas dynasty. They propagated Shiasm. If the Boway family (AALBOWAY) committed atrocities, Shias had no obligation to oppose it. It was only the right of the Imams to revolt or upraise against the tyrant rulers and their governments. If the

occultation of the twelfth Imam makes an upraising impossible then no upraising should take place and the concern should be only towards the protection of Shiasm. To bring down a government is the only right of the

twelfth Imam.

Such an impression is quite wrong and misleading. First: Shias were in no circumstances and under no conditions obliged to bring down the governments

of the Bani Abbas dynasty. Shias were and are obliged to obey the Imam. The Shia ponders, thinks and considers himself under the yoke of twelve Imams, individually and collectively. Even to this day the yoke of the Imamate of the

twelfth Imam is around the neck of the Shia. Bani Abbas knew this. They knew that to bring down their government was not the responsibility of a Shia. It depended on the stand and outlook of the Imam of that time. Obedience of the

Shia to their Imam, their love, affection, and faith in him was to Bani Abbas a dread and a matter to take into calculations and something to bestow consideration to. On the other hand, the conduct, character, behavior, abundant knowledge, truth, honesty, up righteousness, straightforwardness, endurance,

tolerance, forbearance, and forgiveness of the Imam was in itself an element and a factor that weakened the Bani Abbas politically, socially and morally. This the Bani Abbas well knew that they very presence of the Imam, whoever he be, was

their own weak point because his existence demonstrated what he possessed and what they were deprived of. Whatever qualities and abilities they had, the Bani Abbas caliphs were short of. They lacked. The people too witnessed the same

what the Bani Abbas saw. The ability of the people to judge and compare could not be taken away from them. As they compared, they hated one and liked one; they hated one and honored one; they hated one and obeyed the other. This

being out of their power, the Bani Abbas remained always uneasy, harassed, confused, and uncertain. To secure their own rescue from this harassment the easiest thing to do was to detain the very object of fear. This they did. They imprisoned the Imams. They put them under home arrest. They implied secret

agents, police to keep a watch on them. They broke the link of the people with them. Motawakkal brought the tenth Imam, Ali Al-Naqi, from Madina to Samerra so that he may keep a direct watch on him and control his every


In any circumstance there was never the question that the Shia would revolt.

In the days of the tenth and eleventh Imams, Ali Al-Naqi and Hasan Askari, there was no probability of any such thing. It was a general belief that it was up to the Imam to decide what to do. But there was a strong belief running among Shias that each Imam did what he was under commission to do. The Prophet (SAW) had a charted and the programme by the command of God for every Imam, framing his responsibility. So, every Imam in his time acted and behaved accordingly. This secret chart was transferred from one Imam to the other. The other factor to be considered is this, that in those days conditions had become so bad and the people were in such a low mentality that there was no preparedness on their half to consume a change. In such a probability of failure it was wise to avoid the upraising. Its consequences would have been more futile and reverse rather prolific and useful.

The Bowihian’s stand did not totally discard the caliphates of the Bani Abbas dynasty although they took the helm of affairs in their hands. They installed a caliph and they even dismissed a caliph. But they did not declare their disagreement with the machinery of the caliphate. Had they done so they would have had to confront a huge front of opposition of Sunnis. A total chaos would have entailed posing a general danger to Shias. Any change in their stand would have reflected a religious basis for that change. To avoid Bani Abbas and appoint an Alawi caliph was tantamount to the continuation of the same trend. Some say that the interests of AALBOWAY was in keeping the Bani Abbas dynasty in order to retain their own power. Anyway, AALBOWAY was neither to do nor think of any other way. This should not be forgotten that in the time of the absence of the twelfth Imam some of the Bani Abbas clan was not bad towards the Shia. They even pretended to be Shia. Naseruddin Allah was a scholar among the caliphs of Bani Abbas. He believed in the Imamate of the twelfth Imam and in his absence. He even considered himself as the deputy of the 12th Imam.

There runs a theory that no one has a right to revolt against tyrant governments during the absence of the 12th Imam. This is absolutely wrong. To upraise against tyranny in the event of possible conditions is in jurisprudence an obligation. This obligation becomes a general one in case the tyranny of a ruler happens to consume one’s property, life, or one’s honor so that all people should go to the victim’s help. To defend against a tyrant needs no sanction of a religious jurisprudent.

Defense is a sacred liability. To defend a Muslim, or to defend a Muslim society is obligatory no matter whether the enemy be an outsider or one from inside. For example the ex-shah of Iran wanted to change the Islamic identity of

Iran. So to defend such a danger becomes a liability. In jurisprudence these questions are discussed, the defense or the effort to oppose the tyranny of a ruler who is not a jurisprudent or a believer. These issues during the period when the

Imam is absent are decided by the Shia of jurisprudence. In the span of the absence of the twelfth Imam the tyrant governments in certain conditions

become compulsory to be brought down.

D. The motive of ALLBOWAY in their upraising obviously was political with lust for power. But it can not be waived off that originally they should have

been motivated by religious matters or the atrocities committed against the Shia might have incited them to revolt against the tyrant rulers.

On the ground that their upraising was contrary to Shia religious standards we can not condemn them. There are several considerations. When their upraising had succeeded their behavior in general and that of some of them in particular was far better than all their predecessors. They even surpassed in their compe-

tency and good conduct with others. The rulers among them showed no enmity with the Shia. They were jealous and very much enthusiastic towards propagating the Shia belief and at the same time advertent enough to not

encroach the Sunni sanctity. In other words they had brought freedom for the Shia and obliterated those conditions that necessitated the TAQIA (concealing one’s belief). In any case, their policy was not to invalidate the Sunnism or to

crush any other religion. They did quite the opposite to what their predecessors had done. They provided liberty for Shias and also opened avenues for them to enter any government service. AAL BABWAY nullified the previous policy for

restricting Shias in every aspect of social life. So, they in fact protected Shiasm and helped it. What they gave to others by way of freedom they gave to Shias as well. Because of the equity, which they maintained with the Shia, they were

accused of religious bigotry. However, we are not here to defend the AAL BABWAY>’s policies. This can not be denied that they too were a dynasty, which appeared on the political scene and became recorded in history. They differed with their previous rulers who were Sunnis and did everything against

the Shias by way of harm. One of them was Motawakkel who even tried to annihilate the Shia belief. But the BABWAY dynasty did not act to take revenge nor did they adopt any negative attitude towards the Suni. They opened

opportunities of jobs and propaganda to them. They were more human comparing to their predecessors like Motawakkel, Salahuddin Ayubi and Taqhrool Saljokhi. The Babway dynasty was in fact Shia. They believed in

IMAMAT and also the disappearance of the twelfth Imam. But they did not intervene nor did they interfere in religious matters. What they pondered they used to pronounce openly. The Shia clergymen coordinated with the

BABWAY’s harass on the basis that, in the politics people should not take part nor they should participate in revolts against the governments. This is wrong. The Shia religion does not dictate such a thing.

If we look from a political angle, the Babways were Shia. Therefore they felt

themselves secure from any Shia revolt against them. Since they were good with the Sunnis if by any case the Shia were to make any upraising it would have been crushed by the forces adversary to the Shia thought. All the political fronts of the Shias would have been lost. If Shia clergy would have revolted the result would have been the same. On the other hand, Babways had paved the

way for the Shias to enter into jobs and have well stations in society. So, the Shia thought it prudent to support the BABWAY rules. In such circumstances the Shia clergy took to serve the expansion of knowledge and the propaganda of the Shia ideology and at the same time made it obligatory upon them to support the BABWAYS.

As things took shape an understanding opened its umbrella shadowing the Shias and the BABWAYS without these being a contract or an agreement. Their understanding was the result of the security which the BABWAY rulers felt at the hands of Shia, and the contemplation of the Shia clergy that the harm of a revolt would be more than the gain. To not make a movement was a religious conviction to one party while to the other a good prudent policy to honor that conviction.

In any case let us pronounce that we can not repudiate the legitimacy of their rule, at least, some of them.


37. The absence from the view of narrators:


Difference in the date has opened avenues to the writer to tell what is his lust and to say what is his wish and to write what is his pleasure. Yes, there is a

difference; so what? Does this difference change anything? Does it bear on any dimension? The beginning of the Imam hood (IMAMAT) of the 12th Imam is in the very year 260. To penetrate deeper we see that the very pregnancy of his

mother remained unnoticed. Miraculously it was a concealed matter. Then, his birth; this too was a secret known only to very few close ones. In other words, this Imam ever since he began life either in the womb of his mother or in the vast of this universe, either as a babe or as an infant, a veil surrounded,

concealing him or any sign of his or any symptom that could indicate his whereabouts or his existence. He was destined to remain under the veils of secrets. It was for the absence to steal his presence into disappearance. He is in

reservation kept most cautiously by the Divine for the future. Several curtains should hide him under the guard of wonder and the vigilance of surprise. Several hands of doubt collectively could not lift any of the curtains nor could a

deliberation peep through it. The mystery is beyond the ken of human, and the ambit of the calculation of two and two is four, because God’s job can not be circumference by our understanding. He is that treasure which should be kept

secret till time is ripe, till sight can tolerate the fire of its diamond. His absence was a calculated affair. The Imamate of the Imams had its cycle and Imam Hasan Askari was still peddling it. So, it is wrong to suppose that the era of the Imamate had ended. When the eleventh Imam was still alive the era was alive

too. In the year 260 the martyrdom of Imam Hasan Askari put an end to an era and opened a new one. The twelfth Imam took the office. Then he went into hiding. Then he appeared. Then he went into hiding.


38. The view of Narrators about the issue of the Imam’s disappearance:


The writer says that the first time the term GHEEBAT (absence or

disappearance) was introduced; it was in the book by the name of KAMALUDDIN. He says that it is likely that Qulaini too might have explained such a thing earlier.

First fact is regularly being ignored time and again, forgotten by the writer that the sense and the meaning of GHEEBAT was already a known fact, as it was in the traditions and the narration that have hailed immediately from the Prophet (SAW) and the Imams. So, the occurrence of such an event GHEEBAT

was an event not a surprise. The awareness of the people towards this fact is older than the book KAMALLUDDIN of Sadoq and the book KAH of Qulaini. They did not invent it but mentioned the traditions about it. If anyone were to

give an explanation of the OHEEBAT it could have been the same about Sadoq and Kafi have told in their books. Besides, those who have survived both the periods of the GHEEBAT (absence or occultation) have told the same thing and

have narrated their experience. What was foretold is narrated; and what was foretold took place.


39. The GHEEBAT of the 12th Imam – Two kinds:


Earlier to Nomani in the books of the Prophet’s sayings and conversations

(TRADITIONS) both types of the Imam’s disappearance (GREEB AT) have been mentioned. There are some who have been written before the end of the

short GHEEBAT. The writer now tells us in a way to suggest that when the GHEEBAT happened these books too appeared. Since he has no belief in the invisible or unseen (GHAIB) he should say so. He can even suggest that

whatever is written is after the happenings although the Prophet might have foretold then.

He wants to accuse the great scholars who were great authorities such as

Sadoq, Nomani and others of fraud and fabricating traditions. May God guide him.

The GHEEBAT was split into two periods – one a short duration, the other

with an indefinite duration. The lengthy GHEEBAT was anticipated. Ali Bin Mohammed al-Samri and others were having a mental preparedness. Nomani and others consider the GHEEBAT as a sign attesting the Imam hood of Mahdi.

The writer says that both kinds have had a root in the recent narration. The narration can not be new or recent. All of them are old because they relate to the time of the Prophet (SAW). If the writer knows let him specify which are the new ones and which are the old narration?

We can make not such that the narration of Imam Ali Bin Abi Taleb (AS) are older than those by Imam Hasan (AS) Imam Hussain (AS) or Imam Zainulabedeen (AS). Likewise what Imam Baqer (AS) has told is older than that

which Imam Sadqq (AS) told. So this should be his sense, divided among the

Imams in accordance to their order and periods. But, actually the fifth Imam,

Baqer, is the first Imam who started a school in which he told many things explaining the legislation and other issues. The narration that hailed newly or recently relates to the period after the period of Imam Baqer (AS). This issue is useful in distinguishing the dates or locating the duration of period with regards to narration and other religious jurisprudence. This standard can not be maintained after the period of Imam Askari. Usually the narration can be considered false if they come after the duration of the period of Imam Askari. But such a supposition can not be given to the narration that pertain to the GHEEBAT of the twelfth Imam because they were told in every age right from the Prophet’s (SAW) time down to Imam Askari (AS). There was nothing to be added thereon or to be deducted there from. Whatever the new authors have written they have depended upon the old authors. The interpretations and comments made thereon are all in uniformity because of the pedestal being one. There can be a difference in synonyms, such as short absence, little absence, long absence, lengthy absence, continued absence and so on.

These terms GHEEBAT SUGHRA (short GHEEBAT) and GHEEBAT KUBRA (long absence) were not invented in the era of Safavi. They have no bearing on the reality. There had been two periods. The narration can not be changed by the marginal diameters or spaces down by suppositions. Furthermore, belief can not be shaken as well. Any other interpretation would only show one’s own mind and the extent of its listing to falsity the fact.

To invalidate a narration one should search the ground of that particular narration. If the narrators of that particular narration have any credibility reputation or a reliability that could creep in a catena of continuity up to the authority of Imam Sadiq (AS) reason would not approve its repudiation. What Noubakhti has written of the Shia sects should be something of prediction about the unseen future. To foretell what will happen in the future no one would claim, unless he should have prophecy, which no one has. So, it is quite easy to tell what this imagination might bring to his mind. In such an event he has rejected the established traditions and acknowledged the realities of history.


40. The writer regarding the 2nd Ambassador says that it was a period of chaos and tumult in the history of the Shia. People were left adrift in an ocean of uncertainty knowing not where the stand is for them and to which shore they should land. The writer has magnified the things because he is looking through a microscope of prejudice. Any little thing would appear to him big. The things were not as he is pretending to have been. A little commentary on his statements seems necessary. Chaos and tumult; they are a natural corollary of uncertainty. There were those who were faithful to their belief and ardent in their faith. They knew who their Imam were and who the present one was.


They also had pre-knowledge of the absence of the Imam as they had heard or read the Prophet’s (SAW) sayings. It is a common practice to ask. They

should have told as they should have been asked. Had there really been a chaos

where was it? In the center town of the Shias in Qum we did not hear nor did we witness such chaos.

What the winter says come out to prove that the Shia belief of twelve Imams hails from a strong origin. The scholars, the thinkers and other personalities of the day were believers in the Imamate of the son of Imam Askari (AS) and in

his occultation (GREEBAT). He refers to the ministerial families of BANI Furat and the relations of ABU SUHAIL NOUBAKHTI. This is the strength of a religion. The curiosity of the enemies should have tried to find out the fact. They could not establish otherwise. During the GHEEBAT a link of deputies

with the Imam take his orders; it seems practicable as well as reasonable.

All the traditions about the GHEEBAT narrated by Shazan, Nomani, Kamaluddin are attested by sources of authority and based on evidence passed

on from the Imams by the Prophet (SAW) himself. All these sayings were predictions, that is, years behind the events and the events far ahead the sayings.

The Shias who were in various provinces and parts would not have accepted

to revert, refer or consult to the NAWABS (deputies) of the Imam had there not been a cogent conviction for them. There had been links that establish the connection with the Imam. It was a well-organised and systematic network of communication to the Imam and from the Imam. Ali Bin Babway, a man of thought and knowledge, writes a letter to the Imam through the NAWAB (Imam’s deputy) and gets an answer through the same channel. Had there not been a truth in it a man of Ali Bin Babway’s like would not have corresponded with the Imam. This in itself is proof.

The writer says on the authority of Fathia that a group of Shia believed in the

Imamate of Jafer and many yielded to his authority. By saying so the writer wants to say what he, of course, does not say but means to say, however does

not want to go that far. Well, we say that he means that Mahdi was fake Imam because of Jafer. Why does he not ponder the other way? Why wasn’t Jafer a

false Imam? The biography of Jafer was known to one and all. His reputation, his conduct his behavior, his temperament brought him no respect from the people. Therefore, he was immediately ignored although he was supported by

the government of the day in order to create a rift and split. Those who gathered around him were the paid agents of the government.

Another mistake. The writer sees the Imam as an infant. But the consensus

shows that the Imam had attained his boyhood.

The unity among Shias is of course due to a belief common among them. In a stock all are shareholders; and all are united too. The belief in the Imamate of the twelfth Imam has brought all Shias together. But the writer says that the

Imam’s deputies (NAWABS) had brought all together. Of course they were men of reliance and respect in all the Shia places. For example, Abulafer Omravi was very much respected. They were symbols of unity and honor of the

Shia but not the reason for it. The Nawabs were only agents of the Imam. The cardinal and supreme factor was the very Imamate of Mahdi, which held the

mosaic together. Today too this belief in Imamate holds the jurisprudents in awe and reverence and the deputies of the Imam.


41. The Way the 3rd Ambassador selected:


It might be felt that the appointment of one ambassador depends upon the

recommendation of his predecessor to the Imam or with a consensus of the Shia scholars or clergy. As the previous one appoints the new one. Such an air of conception hangs around the third ambassador Hussain Bin Rooh. But, the reality is something else. It is the direct choice of the Imam himself; an im- mediate selection by himself alone. It was not a contract or agreement between the persons or parties. Since the man was appointed by the person of Imam Mahdi himself, the appointed one was highly respected and revered among the people – commons and dignitaries. It was a commonly known fact that the ambassador was the Imam’s choice and in contact with him. Had it been otherwise, such men of repute such as Abu Suhail Noubakhti, Ibn Mateel, Hasan Bin Jana Nasibi would have disputed and never obeyed the ambassador.




The long absence (GHEEBAT KUBRA) was an anticipated one during the

short one (GHEEBAT SUGHRA). In that period books too were written about this subject. No ambassador was appointed after Ali Bin Mohammed Saruri.

The reason is not known. It could be that the Imam did not find a trustworthy one. It could be this that the Nawabs of the period of short GHEEBAT were to acquaint the people with the coming GHEEBAT that was going to be

indefinitely long.




The confirmation of Mahdism of the twelfth Imam starts from this period as the last leader of the Moslems. Ever since the Shias came to know that the Imam’s appearance was not definite in the near future they took him to be their


We should correct him. He was the twelfth Imam known to all and acknowledged by all. It was not a condition that he should go into hiding in

order to become Imam. For an Imam, disappearance or hiding is not a necessary condition. But that he was the Mahdi promised by the Prophet (SAW) was a thing not certain. Of course, it is a common thing to have an existence of doubt in the minds. Every issue in accordance with its magnitude is shaded by doubt

or there are some whose business is to create doubts. Therefore, this should not be denied that the short period of the Imam’s absence and the beginning of the long period have been covered by doubts. The scholars should pay heed in this

respect to furnish the facts so as to obviate he doubts and present the subject in the minds in a clear picture.


44. Rise of a Question:


The writer raises a question as to when and how the representation of the Imam (Mahdi) is vested to the jurisprudents indirectly and with full distinctions. How has he comes to such an interpretation?

A simple thing becomes complicated because of the reasoning the writer has resorted to. The link of the defeat of the Ullama (clergy) against the governments of AAL BABWAY, SAFAVI, and KACHAR is connected here.

The issue of the jurisprudents being the oracles for the people in the times of

GHEEBAT, short or long comes into the light from two dimensions.

The vital importance goes to the establishment of a link with the Imam by any means if not direct.

One: God’s commands are to be understood so as to be acted upon. If in the time of the Prophet (SAW) or any of the Imams a man could not reach any of them he would then go to a clergy so as to ask his questions and learn what he

has sought out to learn. This is a reasonable solution. Therefore it is only reasonable that during Imam Mahdi’s occultation the same would happen. The question that has been brought up as to what period the jurisprudents actually

became oracles for the people are not a sensible one. In the days of the Prophet (SAW) or the Imams or in the days of GHEEBAT any one who had a high knowledge on religious issues stood as an authority to be referred to. It was not

limited to a certain time or place Knowledge can not be limited to a time or space. One who has a through knowledge of a subject stands as a guide whenever referred to and by whosoever.

Two; An oracle is an administrator of a society or a leader of a society,

because he meddles in disputes, solves their problems, gives opinion in their differences and judges their quarrels and attends their various difficulties. In such a dimension, the jurisprudents before the time of Imam Hasan Askari (AS) had an active part. It was obligatory for the people to contact them. For a jurisprudent the government of the Imam is valid. A jurisprudent is in his place a representative of the Imam. This is an issue purely of jurisprudence. The guardianship of a jurisprudent is a second grade authority which descends from the absolute authority of the Imam. In this regard there is no general agreement among the scholars. Some consider the guardianship of the Ullama (clergy) not fixed because they do not think that there is enough proof. Is’haq Bin Yakob says that the uncertainty could run into events, as well as certain things which could not be determined. The deputies of the Imam had a general responsibility. They had no intention to collect money. The writer is accusing a group of good people without feeling the least moral responsibility.

The guardianship of the jurisprudents is absolutely necessary. Whether some believe it or not, their being representatives of the Imam they all agree that on

some matters no one other than a jurisprudent can have guardianship. To command the people towards virtue, to restrict the people from evil is the

responsibility of a jurisprudent. But the actions of a jurisprudent are regarded as final and to be honored. The governments and their power or authority over the people is a thing religiously illegal. Therefore, the governments are regarded as tyrants. In this description all governments are alike whether BABWAYS, SAFAVIS, KACHARS.

The writer thinks that the text of the tradition as told by Is’haq Bin Yakob was deviated in later days. We tell him he is wrong.

The versions might differ in words but the text remains the same.

One thing which waives off the writer’s wrong conception is; in the text, there is a word in Arabic, “ALAIKUM” or “Upon them” which makes no sense

in the age of total occultation (GHEEBAT) of the Imam, because there is no link, no NAWAB, nor deputy, and therefore no link with the Imam. This

pronoun ‘ALAIKUM’ better suits the days of short GHEEBAT. We suggest that it should be translated as ‘UPON YOU’. The writer has not attended these little things because of his over happiness in having gained something more

important. Such examples abound. The translation of BIHAR has rendered the word ‘ROWAAT’ into jurisprudents, while such does not exist in the writings of Majusi. This is in the days of Kachar. The word “ROWAAT” is not in the

Arabic text of BIHAR because it was not necessary. The writer now takes this and uses it as a weapon in which to accuse the Shia writes in interpreting the traditions as time fits. Our readers can judge for themselves whether to come to

such a conclusion is just or unjust.


45. In spite of the congruity conditions


What is the philosophy in Imam Mahdi still remaining absent?


In view of the writer, conditions were favorable for the appearance of the Imam in the days of the AALBOWAY government and there existed also militarily possibilities. But on what ground was the Imam to make his


The answer to such a question lies in what Sadogh has said, and that is the conditions were not secure enough as to ensure his appearance. There was no

assurance as to how many people and whom he could actually trust. Was there any security in finding 313 people as associates or companions. I have said before that a number of 313 men absolutely perfect in belief, completely humble

to the orders, totally resigned to the will of God, and whole heartedly ready for any sacrifice or ordeal can not be expected among us. In words all stand but in practice who stands? To give a test all will fail. Who knows how many agents there were in their guise. So on what tested ground is it said that conditions

were favorable? It is only a pretext. It is a pretension. The time is only known to God alone. He knows and He decides the hour, because He is aware of even what is concealed hearts. We have nothing but to resign to Him who is the

Master mind of religion.




The matters written or told by IBN BABWAY shows the scale of hesitation

and the extent of surmise and the amount of doubt among the followers of the Shia school. This statement of the writer is not true. Why? He says or imagines that a majority of Shia was dubious not quite certain, that is, certitude missed them and doubt gained them. Where there is a question, there is an answer. This does not mean that the question is the consequence of doubt. If a thing is answered by way of explanation, it is not that the society is drowned in doubts or it is overpowered by uncertainty, there is question and a question is espoused with reply. What IBN BABWAY points out is a thing plain and common. He says that the enemies, opponents and adversaries were creating doubts and pushing them by way of propaganda. They aimed at misguiding people who were poorly educated or had little knowledge and less information. It was such doubts that were used to be answered. In every society, in every religion it is a common thing. Anyone either a Shia or a Sunni can ask as to why the Imam is absent or as to when he will appear. This is a good symptom in a society. It indicates a mental awareness or a religious awakening or an upraising of spirit. He wants to base his belief on the foundation of knowledge and the pedestal of cogency rather than on a track, which was paced by his forefathers. He asks, interrogates, inquires, and investigates but still does not change his course. This shows his staunch belief in the correctness of his path, which ascertains him of the destination he is heading to. To most questions the answer of the Prophet (SAW) applies: “This is God’s command and a secret among the Divine secrets”




The writer says this is a thing newly thought upon and newly introduced. If he means that this issue is being newly argued; it is something else. In every

environment a different tone is spoken. In every time a different vogue rules the taste. Therefore, we should speak what suits the language of the writer and at the same time avoid misleading our readers.

His claim that “ESMAT” (immunity from any wrongdoing or infallibility) is a newly made up thing, is completely out of tine. By so saying he has gone a great deal in repudiating or rejecting the prophet hood of the apostles and the

Imamate of the Imams. The ‘ESMAT’, the infallibility of them is supported by REASON and attested by the Book of God – The Holy QURAN. The ALLAMA Hilli, has spoken of one thousand proofs. Nomani has narrated the tributes, which were narrated earlier to him by the eleventh Imam Hasan Askari (AS). It

is well understood and well acknowledged. But what to do with ignorance? It is man’s arrogance to reject; his reason is his taste.




Under this subject he too has gone astray. By ‘ROWAAT’ (narrators) he

means jurisprudents. The motive to him appears being the difference between the jurisprudents and the kings or rulers. His evidence is the saying of SAHEB JAWAHAR about the difference of opinion in the Friday prayers. What he says or what he has gathered by way of information is exaggeration. The writer is aiming at, a new forty volume jurisprudence series of books. It is not so easy to reject others opinion.

‘Rowaat’ applies to those who know the science of HADITH (tradition) – they should be experts in them to understand or make out sense. This has no relation to recent times. He can not link this word NARRATORS or

‘ROWAAT’ to jurisprudents. Those who are the scholars in this science of tradition are called ‘ROWAAT’ (NARRATORS).

Of course, the issue of the ‘jurisprudents’ guardianship during the absence of

the Imam is mostly in dispute, or discussion, because it is a matter of public concern. Since it is a question of jurisprudence and a subordinary one, difference of opinion is common. In every certitude the dispute runs in the essentiality of there being a ruler, and a sanction from a jurisprudent. His proceeds, exercise of power and obligation of obedience to him or the government should be authorized by a jurisprudent. These are the issues totally of a different rank and category mentioned in jurisprudence.




The writer is again wrong in assuming that the twelfth Imam, according to the

primitive and primary sources, was supposed to appear in the near future. The sources, which he is titling as primary or primitive have already said that the

period of the absence (GHEEBAT) would be long and indefinite and that it would be gestant with ordeals. Jaber Ansari narrates the Prophet’s (SAW) words: “He is that who remains hidden from Shias and his friends. His

‘Imamate’ (Imam hood) would be difficult for words to confirm unless God tests the hearts against the belief.” Jaber says that the Prophet (SAW) spoke this when he first introduced the name and the pedigree of Imam Mahdi. Ali Bin

Abi Taleb in NAHJUL BALAGHA says: “There is no ordeal longer than this and so hope remoter than this.” There are several narration in this regard. But none is there to indicate a hope of his appearance in the near future. There are a

few sayings which do not have a ground and which are before the Imam hood of the eight Imam, Imam Reza (AS), that the appearance of the Imam was procrastinated due to the deeds of the Shia. The reason for the delay is a deed. This is groundless.




The writer says that the resort to reason is due to the lack of tradition or a fraud in tradition. Well, then what is the way to reach the truth if reason is

rejected? What is heard might be wrong; what is said might be commentitious;

what is told could be deceptive; well, then to what alternative should one resort

to as a dernier one? In every dispute, reason has often stood powerful and strong. But on what reason the writer is not willing to entertain a reason is astonishing enough.

In any case, supposing there is any deviation in a tradition this would not amount to say that every tradition is invalid. What is false would not be so

impetus as to nullify the fact. If in a bundle one thing happens to be short, it would not mean that the whole bundle is missing. Likewise, if an argument lames it can not be said that reason can not pace. In a human life hearing or oral evidences have a great influence? It is from this hearing that one garners

knowledge, collects acquaintance with sciences, treasures information and holds it as a rod for aid. It is an irrefragable fact that in every age the market of false and fraud has had been flourishing, very much profitable, very much prolific.

Still no one has denied the value of oral communications. A general consensus has approved oral evidences and oral proofs. This too can not be denied that every thing does not undergo the load of reason as; it is only accustomed to the

yoke of proof that should be audible.

Besides, things pertaining belief or a faith like the prophet hood of the prophets, and the Imamate of the Imams, or the Day of Judgment, or the Next

world one should create certitude in them. Else any proof, any evidence, any testimony would not help because it is not in their range to create a belief. If a narrator has narrated and the source of his story is only one it should be attested

by the standard of that only source and should be an argumentally established one. Else, such narration can not be trusted.

After this prelude we go back again to the issue of OHEEBAT (absence) of the Imam and his Imam hood. To trust we need the source of the stories or the

narration that surround this subject to be trustworthy and reliable. Who can be more so than the very person of the Prophet himself? If what we hear does not convince us we revert to reason. What is wrong in it?

If he says all the news and the hidings and the narration are fabricated ones, deprived of reality and brefet of truth, from the side of Bani Ommiya and Bani Abbas, that is, by their courts and courtiers, to obnubilate the real status of the

Imams and to solidate their own stations, that is, to propagate after than realities and spread a mist so that the mentalities could not visualize farther it could serve a fortress to them necessary for their safety. No one denies this. Yes, it

was so; and, indeed, such they worked. But to what end? All such fabricated stories, false narration, fake sayings, flame words, and feigned traditions are distinguished. Therefore, they are sifted from the real and authentic ones, as grains from dust. Besides, the narrators too who were hired for this mission are

pretty much discredited into their biographies and they are no more credible in the science of HADITH (tradition). They are discarded. When distinction is drawn between the truth and the false it is not a problem to ascertain the correct

one from the wrong. The credibility of the traditions that pertain the Imamate established. This subject is a vast one, which opens wider avenues of discussion

before us. The enemy of the Shia has in every age taken stand against them. The writer says that the narration and traditions are all false and fabricated ones. If so, why the enemy at every time and in every era of a caliph whether he be from BANI OMM’YA or he be from BANI ABBAS? Why were the people restricted from telling and hearing the traditions (that is the Prophet’s words) that mirrored the real station of the Imams and reflected their tributes? They are lies. Why care? Why be afraid of lies? A lie lives shorter than truth. A lie is always lame. A lie can not form a dread. The BANI OMM’YAS and BANI ABBAS even imprisoned those who only narrated what they had heard from the Prophet (SAW) about any of the twelve Imams. They confiscated the belongings of those persons. We just ask WHY? The writer is claiming that the traditions were a fraud. Volumes are written about the atrocities of the caliphs because of the traditions which the scholars spoken or wrote and the poets sang all in the praise of the Prophet’s Household – the Imams. Even the Sunni authorities, like BUKHARI has written in his book SAHEEH about Imam Sadiq (AS), he first curses them who had restricted the narration of such traditions. He says: “God curse them for turning down the truth.” Abu Hanifa, a student of Imam Sadiq (AS) too admits the greatness of the truth surrounding the Prophet’s Household, the AHLUL BAIT. But all this is a lie to the writer. We leave him to BUKHARI.




Reality of reason, as the writer says, is it preferable over the reality of hearing? This is a question well drawn and it can be well answered. The subject of IMAMAT is like that of prophet hood and the conditions surrounding a

prophet. To prove a general Imam hood, that is, the need for an Imam and the conditions of Imam; reason is enough to prove it. Had the issue of IMAMAT been one of those that remained out of the premises conception and reason, not

independent enough to have say in it, the hearing of the proof would suffice like that of the Prophet’s (SAW) teachings. What the Prophet (SAW) has advocated or instructed is in itself a ground for the reason to be taken in account. The

condition that an Imam should have immunity from any wrong doings, that is, ESMAT, and for his appointment people have no part; it is reasonable. On the other hand, what is heard form the Prophet (SAW) in this regard is also a proof-

a ground to establish the truth? What the Prophet (SAW) said and what we heard from him is alike with reason sufficient to establish the truth.

Reason can not accept what one accepts by hearing. For some items only hearing of the proof is essential. For example, the existence of an Imam, the

benefits, the blessings that ensue there from can not be proved by reason; they can be established only by audible evidence. This is also applied to the prophet hood.

With regards to a particular Imam, the previous one introduces the coming one that is his successor – exactly the same as the prophets did. Jesus (AS)

foretold the prophet hood of Mohammed (SAW). The predecessor informs the people as to whom his successor is. The testament of one prophet or imam to the prophet-hood or the Imam hood of the coming one is a proof to establish the truth of that prophet or the Imam. To explain here we should say that a miracle is a proof for the prophet. Almost all the prophets were blest with this power to perform miracles by the Greatness of God. The first Prophet can not establish the truth unless he should show or comply with the demands to show a miracle. God has sent His Prophet with the power to perform miracles because a miracle can not be denied, and it establishes the truth of his being a prophet. A miracle is a proof that of reason and that of hearing. The miracle can be seen by those who are there and can not be witnessed by those who are somewhere else. Here to them only the narration, the hearing is proof authentic enough to establish the truth. The Quran is the only miracle, which does not demand any hearing proof because of its eternality. It is the perfection of Islam and its rules and its morals.

The Imamat of the first Imam. A text that of Divine establishes its truth. It is the Prophet (SAW) who should establish the Imamate of the Imam he is

appointing. The Prophet’s word here is authority because h is God’s command through the Prophet’s word.

Imam too performs miracle. The proof of Imamate is his miracle or the Prophet’s appointment or word. Since the Imam is appointed by the Prophet (SAW) by the command of God is the proof of his truth.

In other words it is upon the Prophet (SAW) to establish the Imamate whom he has introduced under God’s order. Supposingly the proofs, which are forwarded by the Prophet, were not available to us or they become doubtful or various interpretations had made it dubious, then the one man to turn to would

have been Ali Bin Abi Taleb. As there being no one other than him referred to or mentioned by the Prophet. Since the man in guardian is one, the benefit of doubt can not be availed by any one else. It was one man, as told by the Prophet

(SAW), instructed and specified by him. Here the truth goes to the favor of Ali

Bin Abi Taleb because there was no one second to him.

An Imam appointed by God through His Prophet is infallible and immune from sin. He should act as a leader, guide, and guardian of the people in all their

religious, social, political and social spheres. Ali Bin Abi Taleb was a Divine

Imam immune from sin, infallible and impeccable. There was other than himself that such a claim was made.

As for the twelfth Imam, the earth should have God’s representative,

‘HUJJAT’, that is, the Authority, the witness. In no age can the earth remain without one. The claim of Imamate is made to him alone. So he stands as the

Imam whether present or absent. The others who made the claim proved themselves liars. In the denial of Imamate we deny justice to God. It is the demand of justice, as reason dictates that God should keep His Authority in the

world. If evil grows and is not checked then it could be attributed to God and that is absolutely unreasonable.




The writer has discussed in length this subject. The main theme is the dispute which has argued both Asha’ira and Motazila, what it goes to good and evil and which rejects one (Asha’ira) and confirms the other who is Motizala.

We have repeatedly said that Shiasm is an independent school; its originality is that of Islam, it is not influenced by any extraneous thoughts or any exotic ideas; it is strictly in line coherent, congruous, and concurring with the teachings of the Impeccable and Infallible Imams. In logical issues, arguments

have included the standard of LOTF (MERCY OR GRACE). The Shia has followed and benefited from the Holy Quran. The gist of belief, the theme of faith, the kernel of trust lies with the holy persons of the Imams in the Shia

school of thought. This is very close to reason that the ITEZAL sect might have extracted many things from Shiasm, and depended on Shia thought. Their leaders could have been the pupils of our Imams.

‘LOTF’, or GRACE with the GHEEBAT (absence) of the twelfth Imam is mostly rejected by the Sunnis. The writer has reiterated the reply from the Shia sources. We suffice on that.

The occultation of the twelfth Imam is a thing in itself an independent subject, already foretold by the Holy Prophet (SAW) himself. Ah Bin Abi Taleb too has referred to it. Shia and Sunni traditions have both mentioned it. Jaber

too has said that the absence of the twelfth Imam is a grace (LOTF). The Prophet (SAW) said: “By him who has sent me with the Message, they will be illuminated by his light, and they will benefit from his guardianship, as people benefit from the sun from behind the clouds.”

To deny every ‘LOTF’ (Grace or mercy) of the existence of the absent Imam, and to deny its influence, that is, the graceful or merciful one, in the era of his absence (GHEEBAT) does not fall in line with reason. The grace, mercy or the

‘LOYF’ exists, as it is contemporary with the existence of the Imam whether he be present or absent from touch or sight. If not so, then for humans what is the usefulness of him – a Divine choice – obliged by Divine will to remain in hiding.

God does not do a thing, which is vain and void of sense, or short of benefit, or lame in advantage. Whatever proceeds from the wish or will of God bears fruit to mankind. Fecundity is His intention; prolific to His design; grace and mercy

his degree; and LOTF His Imam the hidden Imam is an absolute personification of His mercy. It is through ‘LOTF’ that the Imam should be appointed by God and designated through the Prophet (SAW). Imam is in GHEEBAT, that is, he is absent; but the mercy is current – the snows of the Himalayas are far from

sight, but the Ganges flows down to the Bay of Bengal. In Bengal, the Himalaya peaks are not visible nor are they in other regions; but the Ganges flows, irrigating vast patches of land throughout the Northern Belt to the East. Since

we do not see the snows of the Himalayas should we deny the existence of the

Ganges river as well? If it is not a mercy, then Mahdi is not an Imam. It is his

Imamate that makes him graceful to man. It is the scent of a flower that gives it worth. Flowers made of paper could be more elegant; but they have no grace of odor and no LOTF of fragrance. Tosi says: “The Imam’s existence is LOTF, his action LOTF.” Ali Bin Abi Taleb says: “Else, the proofs of God will be void and vain will be His signs.” An Imam whether present or absent is a ‘grace’, a

‘mercy’, a ‘LOTF’ of God because he is His sign, guardian of His religion, holds His office and was chosen by Rim. The Imam who can carry out or execute the office of Imam hood also imparts the GRACE of God. To deny him the GRACE is to deny him the Imamate. It is not possible that, a Prophet can not guide or influence the people. The mercy of his prophet hood can not be denied, because of its essentiality with prophet hood, and its being in consistence with the office of prophet hood. To appoint an Imam is God’s mercy, and mercy from God is His obligation towards His servants and creatures.

God has appointed the son of Imam Hasan Askari as the Imam. If we deny it, it tantamount to say that God has abstained from bestowing mercy upon us in

the period of GHEEBAT. To say so is to deny God. It is by His Mercy that we have an Imam. His GHEEBAT (absence) does not reject the reality whatever

hails from God – is LOTF; the 12th Imam is LOTF and his GHEEBAT is LOTF

because it is God’s order.




The writer has claimed that due to his research, he has come to the following conclusions; that the theory of “Esmat” or immunity from sin has come about and even grown deeper as time has passed, because of the distance between the

people and the Imams. He uses IBN BABWAY and Mofeed as his witnesses.

A belief remains stable throughout the passage of time. Everything else along with time diminishes changes and even vanishes. A true religion does not

undergo this element. A true religion remains original. The present day belief of the Shia is consistent with the past. The flow of ages has not decreased nor increased it. That the Shia in the earlier ages did not believe in the ‘ESMAT’; is

a statement groundless and unfounded. As they grew distant from the Imams they believed in their ‘ESMAT’. In the words, the factor of this belief is the distance. This way of thinking is utterly ignorant. The Shias have always held

the same belief. He has preserved what the school of Imamate or in particular, the school of Imam Jafer Sadiq (AS) has given to him. His belongings are of a known origin and of a trustworthy brand. Likewise the belief of Shaikh Mofeed was not a new one. The narration, traditions, and interpretations of the Quranic

verses have been used as his base. What SADOOQ says in ‘AYUN’, is not of his invention. What a Moslem knows generally, he has collected in ‘AYUN’ we do not see a thing of non-existence changing its guise to something of existence.

What Shiasm has said is only the echo of what the Prophet (SAW) had uttered or the Imams had told. The issue of ESMAT. The immunity from sin, is no

exception to this rule. Sadooq has repudiated the idea. But from his tongue a great many lies are being born. The Prophet’s sayings of THAQALAIN (two heavy things), and his words “ALI is WITH TRUTH AND TRUTH WITH ALI”, “ALI is WITH THE QURAN AND THE QURAN WITH ALI” all these and several other ones have elucidly expound and enlarged the comprehension and the very gist of ESMAT. The writer asks as to why the Shia paid or pay heed to these words of the Prophet (SAW). Or why they draw a meaning out of the sayings of the prophet or recite the Quran and try to understand it? Why isn’t the writer prepared to conceive that without ESMAT, there can be no Imam or prophet? ESMAT is fundamental and it is the condition that qualities the imam for Imamhood. No one has this except those chosen ones. Then, no one is a prophet or imam except the chosen ones.




As for ‘IJMA’, or ‘agreement’, the writer says at the end of ESMAT. The

Shia Imamia regard this method as being void and null because of the pressure of an Imam amidst the people. The writer adds that the Shia have chosen to

disregard the consensus (IJMA) of Sunnis who did the same to give a legitimacy to the caliphate of Abubakr.

Let us explain here that it had no bearing on the caliphate of Abubakr at all.

An Imam should enter into consensus (IJMA); else, he has no validity. To give value or credit or authenticity to an ‘IJMA’ in which the Imam might not have participated is wrong and not valid.

Next, Abubakr did not carry any consensus. He became caliph on the strength

of terror, and tyranny. People were forced td acknowledge his authority. Is it a consensus? So; why wasn’t that consensus present with Ali Bin Abi Taleb? Why didn’t the men of importance among the Bani Hashem, not surrender to his authority? But the writer still calls it a consensus ‘IJMA’. If IJMA (consensus) was the way or a salutary ground that gives validity to the caliphates; why didn’t Omar go through it? No ‘IJMA’ (consensus) took place; however Omar became caliph. The criterion can not be conceived? They advocate and they act differently. Othman as well came to power through a committee of six men appointed by Omar. Where had the ‘IJMA’ gone? They act as though public opinion means something to them. However what is obvious is that they did not care at all about the ‘IJMA’ or consensus that is the public opinion. The obvious and apparent evidence points out that three men came to power in three different ways. One, with a so called ‘IJMA’ (consensus), another, no consensus at all- just by force, the third, by a pre appointed six men committee. Mawiya too openly made his resurgence to the caliph of his time, Ali. He was a dictator – he cared for neither law nor rule, no power limited him. Where was the ‘IJMA’ consensus now? The writer ignores that the ‘IJMA’ was scalped, and changed to meet their demands. The writer knows well that those rulers and caliphs had no

popular backing nor a publish support. The ‘IJMA’ then was a slogan, a protect, and no more. If a real ‘IJMA’, or in our acquainted term, a referendum were to be launched they would see who would succeed and who would lose. Caliphs such as Abu Bakr, Othman and Mawiya were put into power by a few people who were motivated by their own interests. They met and agreed; they designed, decided and acted – there always hung a veil and they named this secrecy as a referendum ‘IJMA’. Tyranny stood at hand to come to their aid.




The writer says that in order to invalidate the authority of Abu Bakr the Shia subjected the ‘IJMA’ to the participation of an infallible Imam. It was a reality that any ‘IJMA’ or referendum could lose authencity if the Imam did not

participate in it. If ‘IJMA’ is their ground why was Ah absent in that ‘IJMA’? There were many besides Ali who did not know of such an ‘IJMA’ at all. The Imam was not referred to; he was not asked at all; his opinion was never sought;

in fact, it was kept an arcanum from him. Then what referendum or “IJMA” was it!?! This is a trick, misleading the public under the name of ‘EJMA’. The result is always deceiving because the IJMA is deceiving. In truth, in reality, in fact,

can the writer tell us that Abu Bakr reached power on the strength of public opinion – EJMA? If so, why was it that in the EJMA many were not present? Ali’s opinion was not important? Was he not one among Muslims; was it not

important what he said? His opinion was never sought. So, this was not an

‘EJMA’. Let them seek for some other name. This ‘EJMA’ with a design preplanned and a malefic motive worked out into long concealed implacability. Acrimony was from its very foundation, and from the very beginning it was

invalid, vague, void, and null nothing beyond a show. But the name still stood

‘EJMA’. The Prophet’s (SAW) corpse was still fresh in the ground. It was only

Ali (AS) busy and occupied in his funeral, and they in their plan and feigned

‘EJMA’. It originated, as we said earlier, in order to save face. The Prophet (SAW) died. They left his side and hurried to SAQIFA. ABUBAKR was declared there as caliph. None knew except some who held contradicting motives adversary intentions and inimical designs. To this the writer has given the name of ‘EJMA’. The course of Islam was changed while the body of the Prophet (SAW) still on the ground was not yet buried. People were astonished. Force was used and terror was applied in order to silence them and obtain their acceptance. They conceived of plan in order to give them legitimacy. They decided to brand it with the mark of ‘EJMA’. A saying from the Prophet (SAW) too imputed; “My nation does not gather over wrong nor go astray.” If this was the ground of legitimacy, then what was the legitimacy for Omar, Othman, Mawiya and several others becoming caliphs? Why was the EJMA not practicable there or why did they not resort to it? No answer.




The writer goes so far as to say that the Shia belief or Shiasm took its form

gradually on the ladder of events. That it was product of accidents and a manufacture of episodes is completely untrue. We reiterate that the Shia belief or Shiasm is rooted in Islam. As the Book said so it is; as the Prophet demonstrated so it is. A great scholar, ABAN BIN TAQLAB, of the Sunni thought, was asked as to what a Shia and Shiasm is. He replied:

“A Shia is he who follows Ali (AS). If for instance all the companions or associates of the Prophet (SAW) happened to agree over an issue and Ali

happened to differ from it, or the whole Nation agreed over a thing and Imam Jafer Sadiq’s word differed with it, a Shia would obey the Imam’s word.” The authority is the word of the Imam, although ‘EJMA’ might have preceded it.

The Imam is immune from sin and the Shia depends on the Imam and act by his guidance. The oldest Sunni sources have confirmed the truth of Shiasm.




What was predicted did not produce a result, what was foretold was not applicable; circumstances did not come under the fang of prediction; hence, the

appearance of the 12th Imam remained uncertain. The writer says this. The time of appearance of the Imam was and still is unknown. Therefore, there was no prediction in this respect. The Shia knew this. There was no uncertainty about it

nor is there today. If the writer says the uncertainty lies in the belief he is wrong. The matter is clear. Knowledge of time is known to no one except God. That the Shias in hopes of the future, abstain from taking part in politics is wrong. The political activity of Shias is undeniable. Sometimes Shias have

remained aloof and at a distance from politics which again in itself is a policy. Religious prudency dictates at interludes for policies to vary. Many only look at the periphery of the events. The political stand that a Shia takes is on the

fundamental of a campaign. He opposes a tyrant government and supports anything having to do with belief. His position has always been strong solid in the political field.




The writer has tried with obvious efforts to minimize the value of the belief in

Mahdi. He constantly repeats his allegations. He goes on saying that the Ommiyads, as well as the Abbasids lost ground and power. The Shia became hopeful and encouraged. This did not last long. Despair and disappointment overtook him. The writer says next that a few appeared in the role of Mahdi. Shias again became hopeful. A new dimension was given to Mahdism. The writer proceeds to say that several faces were given to the belief and to the Redeemer. Also several HADITH (traditions) were told in this respect. The writer says that sometimes various signs were pronounced as to the appearance of the Imam in order to tranquilize the Shia and drown him into intoxication.

The defeat of the Bani Abbas rulers had no part in the bloom of Shiasm. They were like HALAKO dictators. The Bani Abbas rulers were more or less believers in Mahdi – the twelfth Imam. One of their caliphs, Naser, considered himself as a deputy of the twelfth Imam. The story of ISMAEEL HARQALI indicates that caliph MOSTAZEE had a belief in Mahdi.

Secondly, the Shia never despaired. There was no reason for this nor any cause. The writer’s conclusion is unfounded. As we have said before, the Shia has maintained his own belief. Since the early days of Islam all Muslims inclusive of the Shia believed in the advent of a Redeemer.

The Holy Quran says that good doers will inherit the earth.

The believers in Mahdism are charged with vigor in waiting that day. The science books of ancient times, like the ZABOOR and TORA also give similar

promises. Certain people have always tried with great effort to create chaos and discolor this belief. It was by Divine consent that this belief was revealed to the Prophets David, Moses and Mohammad (SAW). It was revealed to Prophet

Mohammad what the future would hold. These hidings has circulated from mouth to mouth and traveled on the wings of time, ages have fluttered, and centuries have flustered to carry it to us to remind us of the advent of Mahdi.

Whatever the endeavor, whatever the effort, whatever the try; this tower can not be pulled down by any distraction because REASON has stood as a foundation to its erection.




In this chapter one does not read the writer’s mind but sees his identity. With whatever weapon available to him, he assaults Shiasm with a malicious

intention. How sad it is to see one, such as him giving in to worldly advantages. However flagitious the intention we shall not despise him. An imperturbable soul gapes for understanding. We shall endure the writer, to pity him in his

attempt to plot against Shiasm.

In my good will I had considered him to be a Shia in the prelude of this treatise, however now I may censured of predilection towards him. He seems

not to have any obligation or malevolent ends toward writing the book. However he can not be vindicated in not having one, have met him briefly, and to me, he posed as an ardent believer in the Shia faith and a staunch adheres to

the Shia school. I still think good of him and still entertain goodwill towards him. I am willing to conjecture that this man should have written the book in order to echo what the adversaries have said, or make his book popular with those who are researchers in Islam or in Middle Eastern studies so as to show

himself disguised as a Muslim bigot. I have nothing better to say of him. God alone knows; He is All knowing and He knows the secrets hidden in one’s heart. Quite likely he wants to please many groups at the cost of the anguish of

Shiasm. We should regretfully admit that a strange and unearthly notion is in vogue and the vogue is effulging among new comers.

Of course, they hold themselves amenable to their conscience; and they only display their own derailment. If they wish to barrow their own faith it will be their own mistake in which they have chosen the smelly stench over the fresh, sweet fragrance of flowers.

The time too is encouraging, and books are being written which could propagate the vilification of a religion rather than a religion itself. To mock faith

is to gain a furor. To negate, nullify, and invalidate, is the most befitting style that a writer may choose to follow. Unfortunately writers without a zeal to keep the faith in whatever they are born in or to maintain one at whichever they are,

or to seek one instead of posing as nullifidians. Under a membrane of religion they enter and rob the belief leaving behind traces of doubt. In such a hurricane stands firm the mansion of Shiasm; the waves ever falling beat themselves upon

the tower and return scattered and split, feeble and flaccid having had squandered their strength and lost their prowess.

Therefore, they like the books, which interrogate the essentiality or reality of

a religion and debate it on the ground of visible and tangible matter rather than to prove its truth. They reward such a writer and regard such a book. The proof whether that of hearing or that of reason to them is not wholesome. They want DOUBT – to be said, to be read, and to be believed in. We have no dispute with the writer himself nor do we wish to quarrel him. We leave it to him to mend his mistakes. We have indicated in the proceeding discourses the way and method of analysis. We face here two angles; One- the wrong conclusions, accusations and wrong allegations are made by a particular man; Two- the way of research that amounts to science or knowledge seems to us personal. So, we can not take a seat of judgment nor do we like to pass one.

Now we draw the attention of our readers to his statements and afterwards to our answers. Partly his statement runs thus:

1. Some narrations (i.e. ‘HADITH’) like that of Abi Hamza he refers to; in

which the appearance of the Imam was considered a relief and rescue. However the Imam did not appear which imputed the change of God’s mind. At first God has made up His mind then later changed it. He says that it was ‘BADA’.

‘BADA’ means first occurrence of a thing, that is, an ‘occurrence’ without precedent or without pre-knowledge or a pre-plan.

2. He says: “In the principal beliefs of a Shia it is permissible to think that

God decides to do something but because of unforeseen circumstances which impede an becomes a hindrance, he of Shia either delays His plan or totally cancels it. The name of this theory is “BADA” means ‘OCCURRENCE’ without a precedent. He continues that the doctrine of “BADA” was introduced by the earlier leaders of Shia. They brought forward this theory in order to justify or vindicate or extenuate their own defeats or failures in establishing an Islamic just government, which they had claimed to do. Their defeat again was justified to be for their own good. So the writer says similar things.

3. According to the writer BADA goes a long way to establish that the

knowledge of the Imams was parochial and limited. He argues and in his words he seems quite certain that Ismaeel was appointed Imam by his father, Imam Sadiq (AS), but died in his father’s lifetime. Hence, the Imamate was switched to another son of Imam Sadiq (SA) by the name of Kadum. This was, says the writer a “BADA” which the Imam could not have been known earlier. He appointed his son Ismaeel as Imam but he was not aware that the Imam hood was to go to Kadum his other son. The Divine decisions too change as the conditions do. The writer even questions the divine knowledge. God is not omniscient, because at some times His calculations too go wrong.

4. In the writer’s opinion the Shia deans and speakers were having in Divinity the same belief as that held by MOTAZELIS which included the theory of

‘ABAD’ (occurrence). But the ‘Occurrence’ (the BADA) was regarded by the

Motazalees as being true, because God does the best for his creatures. But Ash’aries have repelled and exorcised this theory on the ground that it shows the inability of God to foresee what is to happen. So, God is short of foresight and short of full knowledge. This contradicts the quality of God. But that the Shias adopts this theory with a great mastery, so as to obviate the contrast of words and adjust this thing without contradicting their own advocacies. The writer here dwells on the theory of Sadooq in the interpretation of creation. The writer has also quoted a narration (HADITH) from Imam Jafer Sadiq (SA): “Whoever says that God does a new thing without pre knowledge; I seek distance from him. And he who says that God sometimes does not like His own performance; he has denied God.” The writer has mentioned several other HADITHS, and narration quoted in the Quranic verses, which all prove that God’s knowledge is absolute and circles everything and circumferences all. The Shias have always held this belief. It is a false accusation that the Shias regard God as not being firm in His determinations. We exorcise this allegation. The writer claims that the change of Imamhood from Ismaeel to Kadum still remains an unsettled issue. IBN BABWAY has narrated the uneasiness of Imam Sadiq (SA) with regards to the death of his son Ismaed. He reports the Imam having had said: “Nothing has indicated God’s will more evidently than what has happened by the death of my son.” He adds: “perhaps he would have been the Imam after me had he lived.” This appears as a mistake in translation. His actual words mean this: “Let people know that he is not the Imam after me. Actually there is no any such word that confirms the Imam hood of Ismaeel. The thing that is confirmed is his death and the Imamate of Mosa al-Kadum.”

5. Then the writer narrates the interpretation of ‘BADA’ from Shaik Mofeed, which is most accurate and conspicuous. Then he writes the statements of Shaik

Tosi. But the pity is, instead of reaching to a conclusion he remarks this; “All these things puts one into hesitation with regards to all the traditions pertaining to the appearance of the Imam.” He paces the paths that of Mofeed, and that of

Tosi, but did not reach the destination because his fate was to wander. He combines and says: “It seems that to appoint a day of the appearance of the

Imam for Shia scholars was less than to appoint a year for this issue of dispute.” He perhaps wants to say that they abstain from fixing a month and a day in order to guard themselves against the results. But he goes on further to which we draw our reader’s careful attention.

1. Abi Hamza has narrated from Imam Baqer (AS) that, Ali Bin Abi Taleb has said that after seventy there will be relief. Here the writer comments:

Because of the martyrdom of Imam Hussain it was delayed until the year 140. Then when the Shias did not keep it a secret, it was once more delayed. God did not keep the knowledge of its time with any of the Imams.

This narration is discrepant. In the books of ‘RIJAAL’, that is the biography of the narrators, Abi Hamza died in the year 150. Hasan Bin Mahboob who has narrated on the authority of Abi Hamza died in the year 224 at the age of

seventy-five. This shows that when Abi Hamza died Hasan Bin Mahboob was only a child of one year. So, this narration is invalid because a child of one can not possibly tell what the writer wants to be told. There should be someone else

between him and Abi Hamza. Since it is unknown as to who he was we can not credit this narration. As we said before, the source of news must be accepted and supported by authority. This news is quite vague because there is no support

to it.

What appears to us is this; in spite of the innumerous sayings of the prophet

(SAW) and the Imams (HADITH) all of them from reliable sources, and quite clear to us say that the appearance of the twelfth Imam will be unknown and an

indefinite length of time will have to elapse. In the horizon near and close there would be no sign to see of his appearance. There are lectures and speeches by Ali Bin Abi Taleb, in which he has elucidly said that the Imam would appear at

a time when time will be at the threshold of the end. He has also foretold the ordeals that the believers would have to undergo, and the sufferings they would have to endure. The writer pays no regard to these sayings but sticks to the

utterance of one man!

2. The determination of God varies, differs and changes. If the translation be correct; we take refuge in God alone from this nonsense. Destiny is changeable

but not the will of God. Does God make a decision in ignorance, and then turn it down at the time of cognosance and knowledge? Is God unknowing at some- times and knowing at others? May God forbid? The writer believes such and

such a belief suits the writer himself. Shias never believe in such a ‘Kufr’ pagan hood. This conjecture is totally refuted, and rejected by the Shia. Shiasm is clear, cogent, and candid; and a Shia is clean. God is almighty and far from being what His enemies attribute Him to be. The Shia knows Him that His

qualities are perfect and they worship Him accordingly. Qualities of perfection and those, which complete the beauty, are His. What happened is in the cronical of His cognizance. What occurs is in His knowledge and what will be is in His

attention. Time has no province on His Being. He governs time. Everything is circumvented and circumfrenced by His Absolute awareness. He knows what

each womb hides. To say that He is partly ignorant and partly wise is wrong. Ignorance is for humans.

Whatever we know; was known before by Him. Knowledge is His tribute while to us it is an achievement; knowledge rests with Him whereas it is sought by us. What is sought can amount to more or less, because it depends upon the

length of seeking. However God’s knowledge is boundless and unlimited. We need knowledge; we crawl from IGNORANCE towards knowledge; so we leave one to gain another. We are in constant migration from want to need, from less to more, from short to perfection. But perfection is a tribute of God. He

never stands needy to seek that which supplies and caters this is the outlook of the Shia towards his God.

3. Doctrine of “Occurrence without precedent” (BADA) is not a Shia

invention nor is it his fancy. This has long ago been waired off and reputed by Shia scholars. If it is to be discussed; it is a factor that of Quranic and Islamic values as well as that of the Unity of God. First of all the Shia neither handled this element justify any defeat, or to accommodates political end. This theory of “BADA” is a column in the science of divinity. It is not a tool so as to be tightened or loosened as needed. The Holy Quran says; “If the people of the villages had believed and feared we would have opened over them blessings from heaven and the earth. But they lied and we punished them for what they were doing.” Also: “Corruption has appeared in the land and the sea by what the hands of the people have earned.”, “And told your Lord; ‘Call me I answer to you.”, “Repent to your Lord. He is the Forgiver. He sends rains for you through the sky.”, “And, We promised thirty nights to Moses and completed them by ten.”, “Its Faith was its advantage had believed a village. But the nation of Yunus when they believed we waived off the punishment from that of shame in the world and left them for while.”, “If you are thankful, I, indeed, will increase it for you.”, “And he who fears God, He makes a way out to him and provides him that he calculates not.”, “That God never changes His boundaries which He favored upon a nation unless they change what in themselves.” And several other such verses.

The Shia believes in the absolute power and all comprising knowledge of God. “Nothing is hidden from Him in the earth nor in the sky. He is the knower of the conditions of this servants and His creatures – their past, their present and their future are at parity to Him. Nothing hides from Him and never poses a thing to Him from ignorance to knowledge.” These are what Shias believe of God. From the foregoing verses of the Quran this secure is known. Gratitude becomes reason for the increase of the bounties from God. Piety paves a way to come out of the difficulties, and God sends to him Provision from the quarters, which he can think of. He sends His rains. He attends the needs at supplication. Faith, repentance, and compunction. He wards off the punishment. His advantage of His bounties causes one to miss His bounties. To support this there are traditions from both Sunni and Shia sources which abound much. Events

too, there are in this respect. Religious programs, instructions, supplication, and dependents on Him. Compunction, alms, establishing link among family relations, gratitude, good hidings, warrant, negative and positive teachings, relieving ones soft and getting rid of self purity and purgency all can not be justified on the ground of BADA as the writer has interpreted it. “BADA” means the influence of the things on man’s life and his good ending and likewise his bad ending; and not in the sense of ignorance of God.

Sometimes there are causes that result in a thing or reasons that cause a thing. Likewise the causes result in something not to happen, or impede an occurrence.

Or its effects further go ahead in advancing negative influence or positive ones. So, the outcome of it comes out strange neither a calculation could anticipate nor could anticipation calculate. It is an odd cycle of currency of events or the

sudden anicut of impediments, obstacles, hindrances – a flux and reflux, a wave and a bed of sea, a vacuum and a tower of equrgitation, a total obviation and an apparent surprise; all this is a well organized decree of Divine projected,

planned, and programmed for man and man has no say in it. All these things, effects, reflections, action of the causes and their stagnancy are recorded in the gist of the Book. These things have bearing on the choice of man but occur by

the will of God in accordance with the destiny He has dictated. So there is no coersian nor is it a delegated one, but it is in between the two. “Neither a compulsion nor an assignment but something between the two things.” God has

decreed that the fire burns; every creature thrives in its own line. But the causes of annihilation and establishment, that is, the essentialities of ‘being’ for many incidents or many obstacles, which in some cases are materialistic humans, are adhibited to them; these are not called ‘BADA’. The term of BADA implies to

the occurrences unusual and uncommon, like charity, supplication, links amidst relatives that influence or happenings or hinder the happenings, and man regards them by judging the visible material causes as a certainty, but occurs the

opposite. Both the cases are the same. In one a man notices the flow of affairs and calculates thereon as to where they would end, and makes out the consequences in anticipation. In the second, the flow of affairs gives a man an

impression on which he makes up the result in advance; but occurs quite the opposite of what was once a certainty. Human is not acquainted because it is from an invisible atmosphere. Since man knows not, he tries to establish

arguments whereas from Him is everything. The synopsis of BADA in the sense gives this verse of the Holy Quran; “And the Jews said that both hands of God are tied. Tied are their hands; they are cursed for what they said; for God’s both hands are open.”

Like the belief of the Jews that Gods hands are tied, can not do a thing; this is to negate ‘BADA’, while its correct meaning is that, God’s hands are open; His Power is Absolute without stint and with Absolute knowledge.

In order to make it clear we would like to repeat our explanation: Supposingly, the correct meaning of ‘BADA’ is the sense in which God is taken

for granted as being ignorant; and whit does not contradict the idea that God’s power is limited, runs opposite to reason.” He is powerful over everything and aware of everything”, seems the best synopsis of ‘BADA’. God has so designed things that they possess particular reasons for the being, which is, the How of events, likewise their effects. The hidden causes, which in thousands is the work of God either immediately or otherwise have a bearing on God’s decree. Fire burns – cause and effect is deposited in it; but the efficacy of it that is, the eventuality of it depends upon the will of God. In this respect the invisible causes and absence of matter, also play a part, their influence is effective and for stretching, such a dependency upon God and supplication and so forth. Now the factors among those of material and moral ones superceded the stranger. For example a general corollary of maintaining family thinks among relatives is longevity. ‘BADA’ does not depend on material causes. Moral causes as for God’s design are effective. Above all, what God intends – overruns all. Where effect work, it gets ground; where obviation eradicates the track of a thing, it is also due to reasons of its own. The rule of cause and effect is superceded by God’s decree. Therefore, the unseen causes become a ground to be believed in. “Every day He is in business”; proves this. “To Him is the Command, order and creation. To God is the rule that of present and that the past”; and the continuity of His government and all the qualities of action which should be believed in. Without His consent, intention, sanction and without His order nothing moves and nothing happens. Our inability to understand Divine affairs and the links therein and there from does not change anything. Human beings are unable to understand Divinity. Many have belief in God but they do not have knowledge about Him. God is a reality that remains remote from human. Understanding which gives sanctuary and sanctity to the entity of God. Minds can not avail the conception although reason provides the proof. It is very knowledge that we are absolutes unable to conceive God. A delicate datum of mysticism it is.

‘BADA’ could mean obliteration of effect. The interlinks are corollary to God’s plan. We see an incident that is saved from happening, a danger that is warned off; is due to causes invisible from us and from the unseen origin.

We can say briefly that it should mean that everything is under God’s command. Certainties fail if not concomitant with His Will. This conception is supported by “And with Him is the gist of the Book.”

Such interpretations are made by many scholars, which go to prove that “BADA”s logic and reason does not attribute to God’s inability to conceive the haughtier. Shiasm deals with the fact that man should never forget God, and should not depend on outer elements or visible causes. Man should believe in

this verse: “Say o, God you are the Possessor of things, give the things to whomever you like and take back the things from whomever you want and give respect and vility, in your Hand is the food; You are powerful over everything.”

Without such a belief, which is the true reflection of ‘BADA’, man can not cultivate wisdom nor can he pace the path of knowledge. To him the ladder of

ascendancy to higher altitudes would not be available in which to attain the exalted anagogic that could bring to his sight the divine regions to enjoy. This belief is natal to him and innate with him. His conscience can not deny that which his ignorance rejects. In times of dread one remembers God and calls Him by His exalted nouns – PROVIDER (REZZAKH), CURER (SHAFI), SUFFICER (KAFI), and PROTECTOR (HAFIZ) all these have a bearing on “DADA” “Nothing worships God like AL-BADA”; shows the importance of BADA. The compendium of BADA comes out that it does not limit the power of God, and does not contradict the absolute knowledge of God. The sense of BADA is misrepresented. It is imputed to the limit of God’s knowledge. It is not so. It has been confused with the saying of the Jews. There appear to be two confusions:

First: The compulsion; whatever occurs is with and in the knowledge of God, however the knowledge comes to Him later. Of course, this is not permissible for God’s tributes. “Everyday occurrences happen that are in His knowledge; He creates, provides, and create obstacles. All are His performances. Nothing would nor will happen beyond the province of His knowledge and nothing He could do is beyond the limit of His knowledge. This shows where He has no knowledge, He is ignorant, and where He is ignorant He can do nor create anything. But the qualities of God do not accept such specifications. God is above all these things. His knowledge can not be limited or His Power. This is quite a worthy logic that negates the omnipotence of God, and as a result invalidates the very Divinity. We are judging God on our own capacities, which are, of course, limited in knowledge and in practice – this is a repelled conjecture. The conscience of man knows whether he is bound or free. It is just like when one doubts the heat even though he sees the fire.

Second is; God creates and God annihilates. There is no complesion on the part of God. To obviate the effect or to create a cause is God’s will. Whether we

agree or not will not be of any difference. Divine’s performance is not of His Mercy. God’s knowledge is not an obstruction to the flow of events. God knows, and His knowing has no negative effect on the occurrences. Similarly

God knows His creation. His knowledge does not stop man from taking choice, or deprive him of the power to choose. This sense is reflected in the following couplet, which is said in reply to Khyam:

“Because Divine knowledge is disobedience; Reason rejects this pordentors ignorance.” 1

This question comes to mind even while the philosophy of ‘DADA’ exists and that is; how was it that news and events of the future were related to the

prophets and our Prophet (SAW) as well?

‘Dada’ has no bearing. The unseen, foretold by the prophets or the Imams is due to the knowledge vested in them by the Divine. It is an accusation on the

honesty of the prophets or Imams because what they have foretold came true. Their knowledge of the unseen is the knowledge of God given to them. They

saw what they forecast to happen.

What God has informed or taught the prophets, and authorized them to tell,

‘DADA’ has no province in it. The prophet (SAW) had informed Ammar that he would be a killed at the hands of tyrants. The Prophet (SAW) had also foretold of Ali Din Abi Taleb’s assasination, the martyrdom of Imam Hussain and the events that would ensue. The Prophet (SAW) had said in advance that Fatima; his daughter would be the first one to meet him after his death. The Prophet (SAW) had given predictions of Mahdi and his appearance. Ali Bin Abi Taleb also predicted some future happenings. Sunni authorities have all accepted these predictions given by the Prophet (SAW) himself, as well as those given by Ali Bin Taleb. We can not say that they said some thing and something else happened. There are reports and all of them untrue just like one narrated by Abi Hamza. Such fake and false reports abound in History. They can not be trusted because they are told by one person only. Had it been true others too would have reported it as they could not have remained blind to an event or deaf to a word? For instance, there was another claim reported by Omar Bin Homaq to this effect, that he had visited Ali Bin Abi Taleb and that Ali (AS) had been wounded by Ibn Muljim. He told him that he would soon leave him and that in the year seventy there would be havoc and calamity. The narrator proceeds and says that he asked Ali (AS) as to whether after the havoc there would be ease and comfort, but Ali (AS) condition worsened and he did not reply. OmKulsoom cried. The Imam asked OmKulsom not to cry which was torture to him, and that she did not see what he had been seeing then – Angels that were in the skies and behind them the prophets and apostles who had come to receive him. And that, the Prophet had held his hands and told him to come, for it was a better place. The narrator adds that hence once more repeated his question which Ali (AS) replied that every clamity is followed by comfort and that there is ease after every havoc. He said: “God eradicates what He desires and establishes what He wants and with Him is the gist of the Book.”

As can be observed in this narration the information is watery. Nothing is said directly. The Holy Quran says; “Indeed, after every hardship there is ease.”

This report has nothing to do with the appearance of Mahdi. To take this narration for something else is an exaggeration. Here ‘DADA’ has no part. There are many such narrations.

I would like to apologize from all dear reader in having dwelt over this subject too long. If any one would like to learn more about ‘DADA’ he can refer to my book ‘SIR AL-BADA’ (Secret of DADA), in which I have gone into much detail – there are other books too useful in this field. What my

intention was from this discourse; was to bring to the attention of the writer and the readers that the subject of DADA is not a simple one. Such a complicated matter can not so easily be understood, and when a thing is not fully understood

it is not wise to give or pass a judgment. Likewise, without proper knowledge information and proofs it would be far from justice to accuse and attack Shiasm,

and it’s school of Imamate. My point was just to make the writer understand that he has gone astray. The material advantage or political end has tempted one to say what he himself knows is untrue, to write what he himself well knows is false, to reject where acknowledgement is due and to acknowledge where it should be repelled, to create doubts if not he himself doubts in the Divinity, in the unseen causes and the invisible universe, in the purity of Imams and the prefect ness of their office, in the Absolute tributes of the Almighty shows the shallowness which is in itself a proof that there is no fish because there is no depth. The mysticism, Islamic issues and the Mahdism all should be wairell off because there is delay in the appearance of Mahdi. The writer should ponder a little and think as to where he stands in relation to his own conscience.

A researcher can not believe the faith of a sect, or a religion of a multitude or trifles and superfluous ‘hear-says’. He should turn that heavy rock which is kept

as a door to hide the truth, instead of sweeping the ground only to be blinded by the dust, and to say he sees only dust. This is his own failure not the religion’s


In the end the writer has dwelt on the ‘RAJ’YAT’ or ‘the return’ based very much on the narration of Mufazzal Bin Omar. Here we only suffice on three

points and will not ad to the length of this article.

1. The belief in the Imamate of the twelfth Imam, Mahdi, and in his reappearance is not concomitant with the belief in the return (RAJ’AT) of all

dead ones. May be one has belief in Mahdism and not in the ‘RAJ’AT’ (the return of the dead ones). On the other hand both these beliefs have a Quranic ground and the Prophet’s (SAW) words. The Imamate of the twelve Imams and the salutary of Mahdism is a thing particular and especial that constitutes a

fundamental, and forms a pillar in the principles of the religion. The two matters

– Mahdism, Imamate and the ‘RAJ’AT’ have no interwoven course, nor does one depend on the other for support.

2. ‘RAJ’AT’ that is the return of the dead back to this world is not a Shia belief or a Shia fundamental; but it is purely an Islamic issue – common to Shias and Sunnis as well. The Quranic verses predict it and in this, both sects, Shia

and Sunni, equally share. “And the day we resurrect from every nation groups from those who belied our signs while they despise.” “And we will resurrect them not letting one go.” That the details of ‘THE RETURN’ was not based on

authentic narration are void.

3. The narration of Muffazzal, the base for the writer, is not trusted by many scholars and researchers in the science of traditions ‘HADITH’, that is, traditionists. Whatever the narrator has said by way of details is unfounded. The

book, which the writer is depending on is a book scarcely known among Muslims. It is rarely read by any and seldom could be of use except to only a few, and those few belong to a category, which have no acquaintance with the

Shia belief, ideology or Shia logic.

If the writer had read the bottom of page 53 in the first volume of ‘DIHAR’,

where this narration is mentioned, he would never have trusted that narration and would never have made it the base now mentioned in his book.

I pray to God the Almighty to bless the researchers and the writers in the toil of their task, and to provide them with a correct outlook, so that deliberation may not blind them nor bigotry persuades them. Indeed, to err is human. But to

avoid is also in human power. We should not allow ourselves to impute others’ mistakes, deliberations or to attribute to any intention. We must follow and trust reason and not go astray, we should believe in the decency of reason and truth. too see myself very much in want in this field, I take refuge in God, seeking His

help and His guidance. I should here like to offer my apologies, in case; I have been short of politeness. I bank on the funds of their understanding and their forgiveness.


Saafi Golpayegani








By: Naba Organization

Translator: Jalil Dorrani




Perhaps their destination had been tied together every time and at every place they were together. Others too knew them to be together as if the word of ‘duality’ had been composed for those two.

We are talking about Hasnain, Hasan and Hussein. ‘Sebtain’ (سبطین) means two sons of Prophet; ‘Sheblain’(ﲔﹶﻠﺒِﺷ) two (lion) cubs; ‘Sayyedain’ (ﻦﻳﺪﻴﺳ) two masters and two chiefs; ‘Raihanatain’ (ﻦﻴﺘﻧﹶﺎﳛﺭ) two fragrant flowers and ‘Imamatain’(ﻦﻴﺘﻣﹶﺎﻣِﺍ) two leaders.

Most of the time Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) would enfold them together in his warm and affectionate arms. He would make both of them sit together on his knees. When the verse of purity (Ayat-e-Tatheer) was revealed, Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) covered them along with their father Ali (A.S.) and mother Fatemah (A.S.) with a Yemeni mantle and said:


!ﱵﻴﺑ ﻞﻫﺍ ﺀﻻﺆﻫ ﻢﻬﱠﻠﻟﹶﺍ


During the event of ‘Mubahala’ too when it was decided to come with his most beloved ones, he came with those two, along with their father and mother.

* * *

…And now, Both had fallen sick together.

When the news of their sickness reached Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A), his heart began to beat and becoming impatient, he rushed to visit them. Two other people accompanied the Holy Prophet.

Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) patted his two sweetheart sons with his kind hands and prayed for their recovery from the depth of his heart.

One of the companions of Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) gave a suggestion to Hazrat Ah (A.S.) that “It is good that you make a vow for their recovery that whenever they regain their health you will fulfill your vow.”

But, what vow (ﺭﺬﻧ) could Ali (A.S.) make? For example, should he give ‘Sadaqa’ (charity)? Free a slave? Feed a hungry person? Clothe a naked person? Or take care of an orphan?

He wished that he could fulfill all of them. But….

In those times the Muslims were living in severe poverty and destitute. Most of the close companions of Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) were not having even the

daily food to eat. Holy PROPHET (S.A.W.A.) as well as majority of the people was passing their lives in indigence and hardship. Like the other people, Ali (A.S.) too was having nothing. Nothing at all. For this reason, he decided to spend from his life. He said: – “I make a vow that whenever my children recover

from their illness, I shall keep fast for three days.”

His wife Fatemah (A.S.), daughter of Holy Prophet too said: – “I will also do the same.” When the two ill children saw that their father and mother had made such a vow, they too followed them. Fizzah the loyal maidservant of the house too made the same decision.

When the two children recovered from their illness, all of them fasted on the next day. All five of them. However, there was neither any food in the house for breaking the fast nor money with Ali (A.S.) for procuring even one loaf of bread.

Really, what could Ali (A.S.) do? His household members who were the most beloved creation of God (and basically, God has created the whole existence for their sake) were hungry. From where could he make available the nourishment and the provision? From whom could he take a loan? From Holy Prophet? No, because shame and pudency did not allow him to approach the Holy Prophet. From others? No, because they too were like him.

* * *

Sham’oon Yahudi a neighbor of Ali (AS.) was having a workshop for spinning wool. Hazrat Ali (A.S.) went to him and said: “I want you to give me some wool so that Fatemah (A.S.) the daughter of Muhammad (S.A.W.A.)

could spin for you in return for three measure of barley.”

Sham’oon accepted and gave Ali (A.S.) some wool and three measure of barley. Hazrat Ali (A.S.) took them to his house and related the story to his wife

Fatemah (A.S.). She accepted to do so and obeyed her husband.

Fatemah (A.S.) spun one third of the wool and in return, she took away one measure of barley. Though Sham’oon had given all the barley at one time yet, as per the agreement, the entire barley would become her property after spinning the entire wool.

Anyhow, Fatemah (A.S.) grinded the one measure of barley by her own hands, made dough out of that flour and finally baked five loaves of bread out of the dough. For each of them – i.e. Ali (A.S.), herself, Hassan, Hussein and Fizza, one loaf of bread.

On the other side, Ali (AS.) having recited his night (Maghrib) prayers in the mosque under the leadership of Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) went towards his

house. They spread the tablecloth for breaking the fast. Bread and water was all that was present on the tablecloth. When all sat around the table-cloth, Ali (A.S.) took the first morsel of bread to eat when suddenly the sorrowful cry of one poor beggar who was standing outside the door could be heard:” Peace and saluation be upon you (all) O household of Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah!

I am a helpless needy Muslim. Give me also from whatever you eat, so that God may give you in exchange, a table of food from Paradise.”

This helpless needy man was not knowing as to how Ali (A.S.) had procured this meager food? He was only knowing that whomsoever would go to their

house, he would not return back empty-handed. It did not matter even if that person was a helpless non-Muslim. He was aware that here was the house of hope for the helpless and how many a time he had heard that Fatemah (A.S.)

had once even donated her necklace i.e. all her wealth to one needy person.

By hearing the cry of that disappointed poor man, Ali (A-S.) desisted from eating that morsel of food and addressed his wife Fatemah (A.S.) as such:

Fatemah! I know very well that how kind and affectionate you are. I know that you have faith in Qiyamat and the life hereafter.

O the daughter of the best of the men, do you see how that helpless and poverty-stricken poor man is crying out with sorrow outside the house and calling out to God in his state of helplessness? Do you see how sadly and sorrowfully he has brought his complaint of hunger to us?

Yes, my kind wife! Anyone who believes in his deeds and anyone who performs any good deed in this world will surely see his reward on the Day of Judgment and his place will be in Paradise with everlasting freshness – the same Paradise which God has forbidden for the mean and the miser. On the Day of Judgment, a miser will stand near Hell with sorrow and shame and he will be made to fall in the vicious flames of the fire. He will remain there for many long years and except for dirty and boiling water, he will not be given anything else.

When Hazrat Zahra (A.S.) heard her own inner feelings from the tongue of her husband, with great enthusiasm she said: I accept your command by heart since meanness, stinginess and abjectness does not exist in me. Is it not that wisdom and generosity is mixed with my life? So what objection is there if I feed the other while I myself am hungry? Yes, with such an act, I hope to be from the pious and besides going to Paradise I will be doing intercession for others by the Grace of God.

Fatemah (A-S.) said this and picked up all that was on the tablecloth and gave it to that poor man.

That night, they broke their fast with water and slept with hunger. The next day, they once again fasted.

This time too Fatemah (A-S.) took the other one-third of the wool to spin but unlike yesterday; her hands were lacking strength and agility. Hunger was tormenting her. Anyhow, with great pain, she finished spinning the wool. She grinded another measure of barley and made dough out of that flour and this time too she made five loaves of bread.

Ali (A.S.) recited his Namaz with Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) in the mosque and then came home. They spread out the tablecloth and all five of them sat besides the tablecloth. When Ali (A.S.) picked up the first morsel-to eat, suddenly the voice of an orphan who was standing besides the door of the house could be heard saying:

“Peace be upon you (all), O household members of Prophet hood. ‘O the household members of Muhammad, I am an orphan from among the Muslim orphans. I swear by Allah that you give me from what you eat, as Allah will give you sustenance in Paradise.”

This time, the test was more difficult as they were hungrier than the previous day. However this man too is an orphan – an orphan without any guardian, without any shelter and without any companion. Perhaps he may be more disabled than the helpless poor man. He has come to the door of this house with a thousand hopes. Is it possible that he returns back hopelessly!?

Does not Quran say:-


ﺮﻬﹾﻘﺗ ﹶﻼﹶﻓ ﻢﻴﺘﻴﻟﺍ ﺎﻣﺎﹶﻓ


(Never drive away an orphan)

Ali (A.S.) immediately desisted from eating and this time too with the same tenderness, sincerity and verity told his wife Fatemah (A.S.) as such:

‘O dear Fatemah, ‘O the daughter of the honorable and great Master. ‘O the daughter of a Prophet which ignobility cannot find its way in his holy presence. Do you see that God has this time sent an orphan for us. Now is the time of mercy and compassion and if under these circumstances anyone shows mercy to another then he is worthy to be called a compassionate person and surely his place will be in Paradise full of bounties which God has forbidden for the mean and ignoble. Yes, those who are stingy will stand rebuked and condemned besides Hell. Thereafter he will be cast into it and over there he will have nothing but hot and dirty water.

Fatemah (A.S.) had seen how her father used to behave with the orphans. She had heard to what extent her father had recommended the matter of attending to the orphans. For this reason, she too thought that hesitation was not a proper thing and said: “I grant him whatever is there on the table-cloth and I am not sad too from this action. In this way, I prefer the happiness and satisfaction of God to the love of my household members.”

Here, Fatemah (A.S.) cast her glance at her children. She saw Hassan (A.S.) pale and hungry. She saw Hussein (A.S.) paler than Hassan (A.S.). Her eyes remained fixed on Hussein (A.S.) and recollected what her father had told her about him. She then said: “My household members and these two cubs have passed their last night in hunger till morning and especially Hussein who will be killed in one battle. Yes, they will dastardly kill him in Karbala. Woe be upon his killers who will be severely chastised in Hell. They will roll in the bottom of Hell and will be dragged by chains made of fire.”

Tears gathered in her eyes and picking up all that was on the tablecloth she went and gave it to the helpless orphan.

That night too, they broke their fast with water and all went to sleep more hungry than the previous night. The next day, they again fasted. The third day there was no longer any strength and endurance left for the household members of Holy Prophet. With great pain and difficulty, Fatemah (A.S.) spun the remaining wool too and with the last measure of barley, she made five loaves of bread.

Like always, Ali (A.S.) performed his night (Maghrib) prayers under the leadership of Holy Prophet and then returned home. They spread the tablecloth. It was two days that they had not eaten food. Hunger was severely tormenting them. They sat besides the tablecloth with utmost appetite. Ali (A-S.) picked up the first morsel of food but… .

God wished to make eternal the splendor of sacrifice of this family. This time a captive stood besides the door of the house. A polytheist captive – not a Muslim helpless person and not a Muslim orphan. One captive. One polytheist captive. But he too knew very well the place where he should go. He greeted and said: “Peace be upon you (all) O household members of Muhammad.”

Thereafter with grudge and complaint he said: – You (Muslims) take us as captives and drag us. Will you also not give us food to eat?

By hearing the voice of that man, Ali (A.S.) desisted from eating and told Fatemah (A-S.) as such:

“My dear wife Fatemah, ‘O the daughter of Prophet, O the daughter of Ahmad, O the daughter of Master and Leader of all the great people of the world. Do you see that a captive has taken shelter in us, having no other place to go? See how they have pulled him by the rope. Do you see that only a thin layer of skin has remained over his bones out of intensity of hunger? Do you see how painfully he is complaining of hunger?

Yes my wife, if today someone feeds such a helpless person then tomorrow he shall surely see his reward on the Day of Judgment and the Almighty and Unique God will give his reward. This world is a farm for the Hereafter and anyone who sows goodness over here shall reap his reward in the Hereafter. My wife, fulfill his wish and do not return him back in despair. Do not allow him to plead anymore.

When Fatemah (A.S.) finished hearing her husband’s talk, she said:

These bread are from the last measure of barley and there is now nothing left for us. My hands too have become injured and sore due to the effect of spinning wool and moreover I cannot spin wool any longer. On the other hand, I swear by Allah that my two children Hassan and Hussein are also suffering from severe hunger.

When the talks of Fatemah (A.S.) reached till this stage, her eyes were filled with tears and raising her hands in ‘dua’ (invocation) she said:

‘O my Lord! Do not leave alone my children for they will die of hunger. ‘O God Thou are aware that their father is always a pioneer in goodness and generosity and with his two sturdy arms he is very generous, bountiful and open-handed. But, except for these loaves of bread, we are having no other thing left with us. I do not even have a covering on my head except for this very veil which I have woven in return for some measure of barley.’

Yes, this time too, they gave all the bread to that hungry polytheist captive and this time too, they broke their fast with water and slept in the state of hunger.

The next night Ali (A.S.) with his two sons Hassan and Hussein approached the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.). Hassan (A.S.) and Hussein (A.S.) was trembling out of severe starvation. When Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) saw them he asked with surprise: “what is the matter with you? What is this condition which I am observing in you?” Ali (A.S.) did not say anything. Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) said: “Come and let us go to Fatemah’s house.” He said this and hastened towards the house of Fatimah (A.S.). When he reached there he saw her standing and praying but in a critical condition.

When Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) saw her daughter too in such a state, he started to cry and embraced her. When he realized that they had not eaten for three days, he said: “I take refuge in Allah. It is three days that you all are in such a state and I am unaware of your condition.”

Yes, Holy Prophet was not aware what his most beloved ones had to suffer in this period of time. However the God of Prophet was knowing what incident had befallen and what splendor and magnificence these chosen ones of creation have initiated by their sacrifice.

For this reason, Gibra’eel the angel of revelation descended down and addressed the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) as such:

“O Muhammad, take away what God has prepared for your household members.”

The Messenger of God asked: “What should I take?”

Thereafter, Gibraeel recited sura ﹶﰐﹶﺍ ﹾﻞﻫ (Sura No.76) for the Prophet which was revealed on the occasion of this incident and as such, the story of sacrifice of this household became eternal.


. ﹰﺍﺭﻮﻓﹶﺎﻛ ﹶﺎﻬﺟﺍﹶﺰِﻣ ﹶﻥﹶﺎﻛ ٍﺱ ﹾﺄﻛﹶ




ﻥﻮﺑﺮﺸﻳ ﺭﺍﺮﺑﹶﺎﻟﹾﺍ ﱠﻥﺇِ


Surely the righteous shall drink of a cup the admixture of which is comphor.


. ﹰﺍﲑﺠﻔﹾ ﺗ ﹶﺎﻬﻧﻭﺮﺠﹶﻔﻳ ِﻪﻠﹼﻟﺍ ﺩﹶﺎﺒﻋِ


ﹶﺎﻬﺑِ ﺏﺮﺸﻳ ﺎﹰﻨﻴﻋ


A fountain from which the servants of Allah shall drink; they make it to flow a (goodly) following forth.


. ﹰﺍﺮﻴِﻄﺘﺴﻣ ﻩﺮﺷ ﹶﻥﹶﺎﻛ ﹰﺎﻣﻮﻳ ﻥﻮﹸﻓﹶﺎﺨﻳ ﻭ ﺭِ ﺬﹾ ﻨﻟﺎِﺑ ﻥﻮﹸﻓﻮﻳ


They fulfill vows and fear a day the evil of which shall be spreading far and wide.


.ﹰﺍﲑﺳﹶﺍ ﻭ ﺎﹰﻤﻴﺘﻳ ﻭ ﺎﹰﻨﻴِﻜﺴِﻣ ِﻪﺒﺣ ﻲﻠﻋ ﻡﹶﺎﻌﻄﱠ ﻟﺍ ﻥﹶ ﻮﻤِﻌﹾﻄﻳ ﻭ


And they give food out of love for Him to the poor and the orphan and the captive.


.ﹰﺍﺭﻮﻜﹸ ﺷ ﻭ ًﺀﹶﺍﺰﺟ ﻢﻜﹸ ﻨﻣِ


ﺪﻳِﺮﻧ ﹶﻻ ِﻪﻠﱠﻟﺍ ِﻪﺟﻮِﻟ ﻢﹸﻜﻤِﻌﻄﹾ ﻧ ﹶﺎﻤﻧﺇِ


We only feed you for Allah’s sake; we desire from you neither reward nor thanks.



Lohoof – Full text


بسمه الله الرحمن الرحيم



(Sighs of Sorrow)


One of the most Important books on the

Tragedy of Karbala




Seyed Ibn Tâwûs (r.a.)


Translated by: Seyed At’har Husain Rizvi



Edited by: Hamid Farnagh







Ebn Tavus, Ali ebn Musa ابن طاوس، علي بن موسي، 589- 664

[اللهوف علي قتلي الظفوف، انگليسي]


Lohoof/author: Ibn Tawoos; translator: Athar Hussain Rizvi- Tehran: Naba, 2003: 1382.

219 ص

ISBN: 964- 8323- 11-9

انگليسي- عربي لاتيني شده.

فهرستنويسي بر اساس اطلاعات فيپا.

“اين كتاب در سالهاي مختلف با عناوين، مترجمين و ناشرين مختلف منتشر شده است.”

كتابنامه: ص. 203- 204؛ همچنين به صورت زيرنويس.

1. حسين بن علي (ع)، امام سوم، 4- 61 ق. 2. واقعه كربلا، 61 ق. الف. رضوي، اطهر حسين

Lohoof ، مترجم. ب. عنوان: اللهوف علي قتلي الظفوف. انگليسي. ج. عنوان: Rizvi, Athar Hussain

9534/ 297BP 4952. 9 ل الف / 5/ 1 41


كتابخانه ملي ايران 10616- 82 م
















Lohoof (Sighs of sorrow)

Author: Seyed Ibn Tawus

Translator: Seyed At’har Hussain Rizvi

No. of Copies: 2000 / First Edition: 2006

Publisher: Naba Cultural Organization

Address: P. O. Box: 15655-377/ Tehran. Iran

E-mail: Info@NabaCultural.oRg

ISBN: 964-8323- 11- 9

Table of Contents




Foreward 5

Preface 11

Introduction 15































































In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful


All praise belongs to God, and his greetings and salutations be upon His Prophet Muhammad and his Household, the best and the purest creatures (p.b.u.h.).




The tragedy of Ashura has been a shock to the souls and consciences of human beings, and raised the emotions of the Muslims to expand their social activities. In that event the emotions and reasons of people were injured. The tears and mourning run through their faces; the hearts were drowning towards the place of martyrdom of the sons and househoulds of the holy Prophet and divine messenger. The love and affection of the Muslims, all those who trusted in the message of their grandfather, the holy Muhammad, were directed toward them; and caused the people to come nearer to each other.

This terrible tragedy has always injured the souls of the pure human beings during the history, which will never recover. By the passage of time, more dimensions of the calamity become apparent. And, at the same time, the divine virtues and characteristics of the martyred innocent persons becomes more apparent to the generations and communities more and more.

The Muslims reminded of the meaningful word of their holy Prophet who said, “Hussain is from me, and I am from Hussain!” This valuable tradition was a witness about the beginning and continuation of the pure religion of Islam. It began with the divine message brought by the holy Prophet, and continued by the terrible martyrdom of Imam Hussain (p.b.u.h.). By that great sacrifice of the holy Imam, his household, and his prominent companions, he guaranteed the future survival of Islam.

The holy Imam Hussain had in minded the considerations, problems, and difficulties of the Islamic nation. He was also looking for the establishment of a just and successful Islamic state. He expressed his intention at the time of movement to Kufa:

My movement is not a revolt, nor for seizing just the power. It is rather an evolutionary conduct in the nation of my grandfather, Muhammad (p.b.u.h.).




The progressive experience of “Ashura” reveals the honest crusade and clarity of his view. It had a tremendous and successive reaction in the long history of the Islamic world. On the opposite side, the enemies of the Ahlul Bayt (the infallible household of the holy Prophet) have always tried to change the true meaning of the message of Karbala, and take it away from the minds of the Muslims. “But the Almighty God will survive His light, even though the disbelievers do not like it.”

From the time of occurrence of the event of “Karbala” till now, many books have been written about it by different persons, of different views or schools of thoughts, and in different languages. They are generally named as “Maq’tal”. There are just some names remained from those books of Maqtal. The oppressors and cruel governments robbed, burnt, or destroyed those books, in order to cause the communities to forget his name (and teachings). Although they could not achieve their target.

Altogether, there are very few ancient Maq’tal available, with their original texts. Only traces or some parts of them have been narrated and transmitted through the historical texts and literatures.




It seems that the first writer, who compiled a text about the events of Karbala and Ashura, was Asbaq Ibn Nobata. He was one of the close friends, and sincere companions of Amirul Momenin Ali (p.b.u.h.). His death has been in the early years of the second century after hejrat.

The second writer was Abu Mekh’naf Lut Ibn Yahya Azdi, who was contemporary to Imam Sadiq (p.b.u.h.), and wrote the book, “Maq’tal al-Hussain (p.b.u.h.)”.

During the 2nd and 3rd centuries of hejrat, some other traditions and historians wrote and compiled books about the tragic event of Karabala, and martyrdom of Imam Hussain and his beloved disciples. Some of those writers are:

• Abdul Aziz Ibn Yahya Jalloudi.

• Jaber Ibn Yazid Jo’afi.

• Muhammad Ibn Umar Waqedi.

• Muammar Ibn Mosanna Taimi.

• Nasr Ibn Mozahem Menqari.

• Abdullah Ibn Ahmad Bin Abi Donya.

• Ibn Wazeh Yaqoubi.

• Muhammad bin Zakaria bin Dinar Ghalaei.


In the next stage, some of the Shia and Sunni scholars wrote books about the martyrdom of Imam Hussain (p.b.u.h.). They are:

• Shaikh Muhammad bin Hasan Tousi (died in 460 A.H.)

• Mowaffaq Ibn Ahmad Kharazmi (died in 568 A.H.)

• Ibn Shahr Ashoub (died in 588 A.H.)

• Mah’moud bin Mobarak (died in 592 A.H.)

• Jafar bin Najib bin Nama Helli (died in 645 A.H.)

• Ezzuddin Abdul Razzaq Jazari (died in 661 A.H.), and

• Ali bin Mousa bin Jafar, Ibn Tavoos, (died in 664 A.H.) who is the author of this book.




Seyed Ibn Tavoos has reminded of this book, in his two other books. In his books Iqbal and Kashful Mahajja has said, “My book “al-Malhoof ala Qat’lalTofouf” is about the martyrdom of Imam Hussain (p.b.u.h.), which is organized in a wonderful order, which has been a kindness of God, Who guided me to write it.”


The late Allamah Majlesi, in Beharul Anwar (vol 107, P. 42) has stated that Seyed Ibn Tavoos has mentioned in his book, “al-Ejazat”, “I have written the book “al-Malhoof ala Qatlal Tofouf” in an order which is new. Anyone who reads it will know about its preferences over similar books”.

From the writings of the writer, Seyed, it becomes clear that the original title of the book has been “Malhoof…” but in the old manuscripts it is called as “Lohoof”.




Lohoof, in its Arabic language, has been published more than 20 times in Iraq, Iran, and Lebanon. Some of the clergy translators have translated it in to Persian, such as Mirza Reza Qoli Khan, Ahmad Najafi, M.E. Nawab, and Seyed Ahmad Fehri.

Recently, Naba cultural organization has translated Lohoof in to English, and decided it to be published as one of the works of the library and publishing house of the holy Shrine of Imam Hussain (p.b.u.h.). It is the third published work of that library.

I pray God to bless all those who work and cooperate with Naba cultural organization, and may He support and protect the translator and all those who participated in preparation of this book. And, at last, may the blessings and greetings of God be upon all you kind readers!


Muhammad al-Hassoun

































A. About the Author

Seyed Razi – Uddin Ali bin Musa, knows as Ibn – e- Tavoos (589-664 A.H., equal to 1150- 1225 A.D.) is one of the greatest Shia scholars in the 13th A.D. century. He was born in Hella city in South of Iraq. He learnt different Islamic science from his father Sādussin Musa, his grand father Varram bin Abi Foras, and some Shia and non- Shia scholars.

The grand family of Ibn- e- Tavoos was interested at scholarship and knowledge fields. Some of them have written books, and have their names in the history. For more information about them, you may refer to “Encyclopedia of Tashayyo”, P. 339, and Vol: 1, title Ibn- e- Tavoos.

During his 75 years old life, Ibn- e – Tavoos traveled to different cities. He wrote more than 50 books in many fields of Islamic studies, such as commentary of Quran, history, hadith, prays, astronomy, ethics, bibliology, biography, Shia thoughts. Half of them are preserved and available. Even after the long time of about 800 years, most of them are reliable and unique.

In addition to his scientific position, he had the social leadership of Shia community at his chaotic period. And it is interesting that with such occupations, he grew very polite, well educated, and learned children, so that all his sons and daughters were among the scholars of their age.


B. The book

Seyed Ibne Tavoos had prepared the book “Mesbah -u- Zaer” with the subject of visiting (Ziyarat) the holy shrines of the prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.), and the infallible Imams (p.b.u.h.). Then he thought and found it wise to write a small book about the biography of Imam Hussain (p.b.u.h.), the Ashura calamity, and the tragic events thereafter; so that those who go on pilgrimage of that innocent martyred Imam may get the necessary knowledge about the subject, the holy respected Imam, and his brutal enemies.

Seyed Ibn Tavoos has divined the book of Lohoof in to 3 parts.

1- The events and happenings before the day of Ashura (10th of Moharram of 61 A.H.);

2- The events occurred in the evening before Ashura, and during the day of Ashura;

3- The events after the day of Ashura, with regards to Imam Hussain (p.b.u.h.), his family, and his enemies;

What we can see in these parts, are very exact and accurate narrations which from one side, show the clear, humanistic, and infallible view from Imam Hussain, and on the other hand, reveals the tyranny, cruelty, and crimes of the enemies of the family of the prophet of Islam (p.b.u.h.).

C. The importance of the Book

There are thousands of books written about Imam Hussain, and the Ashura calamity. However, those words, which have been narrated and transmitted by the wise and learned scholars, through a correct and clear way, are credited and reliable.

At the same time, we should know that the life and history of Imam Hussain (a.s.), just like other infallible Imams (p.b.u.t.) is like an open book of guidance that should be studied and considered. It is obvious that when we are going to introduce our noble Imams (that the holy prophet has called them as the “Lights of Guidance”, and the “Ships of Rescue”), if we refer to uncredited and unknown references, we will not get a fair result from our efforts.

The importance of the books such as Lohoof lies in its right, just and authentic references and accurate narrations, which reveal the aspects of the 14 centuries old history.

Now, let us read the book of Lohoof, which is the book of life, and guidance, and is like a light that would enlighten the roads of lives of the people.

This book should be read more than once! And we should keep it not only in our memory, but also in our mind, and spirit.

We should read the words and teachings of Imam Hussain and his beloved friends at the pages of this book, and hear them from the stars of the sky of Karbala, that witnessed the nights of Muharram of the year 61 A.H.

We should take in to the “Ship of Rescue” in order to reach the safe shore. And we should walk through the light of this “Light of Guidance” in order to depart from the darkness of the world.

Lohoof is a favorite partner in a spiritual journey for the respected reader, and we invite you to pay due attention to every word of this noble book.


Muhammad Husain Shahri



























In the Name of Allâh, the Beneficent, the Merciful

All praise belongs to Allâh Who shows His Magnificence through the horizon of wisdom; Who removes the veils from His Intentions, through the logic of the Holy Quran and Sunnah; Who has lifted His friends from the filths of the house of deception (this world), and raised them to the heights of shining happiness.

This bliss to His friends is not by the way of granting them a higher status among His creation, nor is it to shelter them through nice paths; but He considered them worthy of Graceful Rewards and good morals. Therefore, He did not like that they should treed the absurd path. Rather, He granted them the good sense of adopting perfect deeds and actions.

This was until all souls became dejected from everyone except Allâh, and their hearts got adorned by the ornaments of His Pleasure. So their hearts turned towards His light, and their ambitions got tied up with His Mercy and Grace. You can observe their happiness in reaching the eternal life, and their sympathetic desire of meeting their Lord.

Invariably, they have an increasing urge toward the goals put by their God; their faces shine up by traversing towards their Lord, and their ears are attentive for listening to His secrets, and their souls enjoy the sweetness of His remembrance. Allâh bestows on them His Greetings proportionate to their acknowledgement, and rewards them with His gifts and mercy.

Hence everything, which prevents them from the area of His Majesty, is worthless in their eyes. How easy is it for them to give up everything that takes them away from

His path until they taste and enjoy the pleasure and happiness due to this Bounty and Perfection? Then Allâh adorns them with a dress of dignity, grandeur and reverence.

As they realize that their (worldly) lives act as an obstacle in attaining their noble ambition, and that their stay in this world keeps them away from His Grace, they discard their dress of worldly life and put on the apparel worthy of meeting Him. On this way, they found pleasure by giving away their life, and receiving wounds of swords and arrows.

This is the lofty grandeur which raises the souls of the martyrs of Taff (Karbala) to such an extent that they compete with each other in sacrificing their lives, and their holy bodies turn into targets of arrows and swords.

How beautiful has Seyyed Murtaza Alamul Huda (r.a.) praised of such noble men:

Their bodies lie in the sands of desert

Whereas their souls are enjoying the hospitality in the vicinity of Allâh

It is, as if those who wanted to harm them have benefited them

And those who had killed them with swords were those who made them alive (immortal)

Had it not been incumbent upon us to put on the dress of mourning, as ordered by the Book and the Islamic Tradition, over the vanishing of the “standards of guidance” and establishment of the rule of misguidance and deviation of Umayyides, and to grieve over such losses of bounties, and the martyrdom of such great personalities, it was good to rejoice over such great bliss.

And since in this mourning is concealed the consent of Allâh and the goal of His good servants, we invariably and regularly put on the dress of mourning and bring tears in our eyes. We ask our eyes to go on weeping continuously and also ask our hearts to cry like a mother who has lost her son.

The precious trusts of the compassionate Prophet were destroyed on the day of Āshurā, and many of his wills regarding his household and sons were thrown away by his Ummah and by his enemies.

For Allâh’s sake, how difficult were the calamities which made hearts sick, brought so much hardship and destruction, those troubles which were so terrible that rendered all other troubles insignificant; the events wherein the fear of Allâh was driven away and those arrows which made the blood of the holy Prophet flow on earth and those hands which arrested and imprisoned the noble Ahle Bayt (a.s.); those tragedies which rolled the heads of devotees; those catastrophes which took the lives of the best families; the trouble whereof reached even to Jibrael; those atrocities that raised the wrath of Almighty Allah.

Why should it not be so when, on that day, the flesh of the holy Prophet of Allâh (i.e. the body of Imam Husain a.s.) fell on sandy land, and his holy blood flowed on the soil by the swords of the deviated people, and when the holy faces of his daughters were exposed to the eyes of people who were condemnable, and rejoiced at the misfortune of others, and those who (the holy women) were disrobed before both the talking and the dumb, when the holy bodies were stripped and when those holy bodies were strewn on ground!

These calamities dispersed the holy family of the Holy Prophet, and arrows were pierced in the hearts of the guided ones. There were the troubled ladies the plight of whom makes the flames of sorrow and grief rise high.

I wish Fâtima and her father had dared to see the plight of their daughters and sons, who were seized, wounded, chained, decapitated; the daughters of the holy Prophet with their collars rent, had none to care them, were grieved for having lost their relatives and dear ones. Their hairs strewn and veils torn, they were slapped on their faces. They were crying and complaining with a painful feeling, and there was none to help and protect them.

And you, O men of wisdom and reason, O intelligent people, narrate to yourselves these calamities which fell on the holy household, and recite elegies for them in solitude and in public for the sake of Allâh. Accompany them by shedding tears on the plight of these dear ones, and sit in mourning for having lost the opportunity of helping them.

It is so because these precious lives are the valuable trusts of the holy Prophet, and the fruits of his holy heart, and the light of the eyes of Zahra-e-Batool. They are the ones who were kissed by the holy Prophet, and their parents were granted superiority over the Ummah (Islamic nation).

If you have any doubt about their superiority in grace

Then ask the holy Quran regarding their distinction

The holy Book which is the most just witness to their gracefulness for the men of reason

Therein is also the will, which Jibrael brought regarding them

How did they compensate all the favors of their grandfather? How did they devastate the fruits of his heart and the repository of his soul by shedding the blood of his precious son so disgracefully?

How is the place and location of fulfilling the will of the holy Prophet regarding his family? What will be the answer of the Ummah in this regard? The Ummah destroyed all that the holy Prophet had established, and the wailing of the oppressed Islâm is raised high;

O Allâh! What a heart which does not melt by the remembrance of these events? How strange is the negligence of an Ummah and what is the excuse of the people of Islâm regarding this tragedy?

Do not they know that the holy Prophet is injured and he is claiming revenge? That his beloved has been slain, and his blood is boiling? Those angels are giving him condolence over this calamity and prophets have shared these tragedies?

Then, O loyal followers of the Prophet Mohammed! Do not you join him in this weeping? O, follower of the son of Zahra; mourn and recite the poems of grief, and weep over the princes of Islâm for the sake of Allah. Maybe by participating in the sorrow of this great tragedy you may proceed on the Day of Judgment.

Verily, it has been narrated from Imâm Bâqir (a.s.) that Imâm Zainul Âbedin (a.s.) said, “whenever a tear drops from the eyes of a believer, While mourning for Husain (a.s.), and rolls down his cheek, Allâh will grant him a permanent home in Paradise. And for every believer, who sheds a tear because of the oppression and injustice to us by the enemy, when that tears rolls down his cheek, Allâh grants him a high position in Paradise. And when a faithful person suffers harm in our way, by our enemy, Allâh turns away the trouble from him and saves him from Hell on the Day of Judgment.”

Imâm Sâdiq (a.s.) is reported to have said that anyone who remembers us, and tears, even as little as a fly’s wing rolls from his eyes, Allâh will forgive his sins, even if they are equal to the bulbs of the seas. And it is reported that he said; “One who weeps over us and causes one hundred people weep, is entitled to Paradise; one who weeps over us and causes fifty people weep over us, heaven will be his abode; one who weeps and causes twenty persons weep for us will go to Paradise; and one who weeps for us and also causes ten men weep for us will be entitled to Paradise; one who weeps for us and causes one person weep for us will also go to heaven; and the one who weeps for us and makes his face sorrowful will also get Paradise.”

The author, Ali Ibn Musa Ibn Ja’far Ibn Muhammad Ibn Tâwûs Husain says; “The noble impulses which inspired me to adopt the manner and method of this book, was that after the compilation of the book Misbâhuz Zaer wa Jannatul Musâfir , I felt that various appealing aspects of Ziyarats have been collected therein and hence one who carries it does not need to take with him heavy books to the holy tombs during the Ziyarat time.”

I also wished that a person visiting the holy shrine should not be required to carry Kitâb-e-Maqtal during the Ziyarat of Âshura in Karbala.

Therefore, I wrote this book so that a visitor needs not to carry any other book along with Misbâhuz Zaer; Moreover I have tried to save his time by avoiding details and repetitions. Yet various chapters about Karbalā have been included for the faithful people, as we have infused the words with an appropriate spirit, given the title Al-Malhoof ala Qatlat Tafoof to it, and have arranged it in three parts; we seek help from the Merciful Lord.

Seyed Ibn Tāwus



































The holy birth of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) took place on the 3rd or 5th of Shabân, 4 A.H. It is also said that he was born at the end of Rabiul Awwal in 3 A.H. some other dates are given too. Ummul Fazl, the wife of Abbâs (r.a.) said, “Before the birth of Hussain I saw in a dream that a piece of flesh of the holy Prophet was cut off, which fell in my lap.”

I narrated the dream to the holy Prophet. He said, “It is a true vision and a good dream. Very soon, Fâtima will give birth to a son and she will give him to you for nursing.” It happened as the holy Prophet had said.

Narrators of traditions have narrated that when Hussain (a.s.) was 1 year old, twelve angels came down to the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). They had sorrowful faces and tearful eyes. They opened their wings, and said,

“O Muhammad! Very soon, your son Hussain Ibn Fâtima will get what Habeel had got from Qabeel, and his killer will get the reward just as Qabeel had got as punishment. All the angels in the heavens came to the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and after salutation gave him condolence about Hussain. They also told him about his reward, and gave him Hussain’s holy dust (dust of his grave).”

The holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said, “O Allâh! Degrade the one who would degrade Hussain; kill his killer, and do not give him (the killer) success.”

When Hussain was two years old, the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) went on a journey. He halted on the way and recited with tearful eyes, “Inna lillaahe inna ilaihe raajeoon (Verily we belong to Allâh and to Him we return)”. When asked for the reason, he said, “Now Jibrael informed me of a land called Karbalā, on the bank, of river Euphrates, that my son Hussain Ibn Fâtima will be martyred there.”

One of them asked, “O’ Prophet of Allâh! Who will kill him?” He replied, “A man named Yazeed. As if I am looking at the place of Husain’s martyrdom and burial.”

Then he returned from the journey in a very sorrowful mood, climbed the pulpit and gave a speech while Hasanain (a.s.) were with him.

After concluding his speech he put his right hand on the head of Hasan (a.s.) and his left hand on the head of Hussain (a.s.). He raised his head towards the sky and exclaimed; “O Lord! Muhammad is Your worshipper and messenger, and these two youth are from my pious kinsfolk and good progeny, and the founders of my family whom I am leaving in my place. Jibrael informed me that this son of mine will be killed and forsaken. O Allâh! Make his martyrdom sanctified for him, make him the leader of the martyrs, and do not bless his killers and his forsakers.” Then the people cried.

The holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: “Would you just weep and not help him?”

Then he returned and gave another (short) sermon, with tearful eyes, and said: “O people! I am leaving among you, two valuable things, i.e. the Book of Allâh, and my progeny; who are my origin, my essence, and the fruits of my life. These two things will not separate, until they meet me at the Hauz (in paradise) in the Last Day. I will be waiting for them, and I do not expect from you anything except what Allâh has ordained, that is kindness and (love for my near and dear family). So beware, do not be of those who will not see me at the Hauz, tomorrow, as a result of enmity against my household, harassing and killing them.”

Be aware that on the Day of Judgment, three banners will be offered to me from this Ummah: A dark black flag, which will frighten the angels. Its bearers will halt near me. I will ask them: Who are you?

They would have forgotten my name.

They will say: “We are believers in God and we are Arabs.”

I will say: “I am Ahmad, the Prophet for both the Arabs and non-Arabs”.

They will say: “O Ahmad: We are from your Ummah.”

I will ask them: “What did you do, after my death, to the Book of God and to my progeny?”

They will reply: “We left and wasted the Book and we totally destroyed your progeny with enmity.”

I will turn away from them. And they would be driven to Hell extremely thirsty and black-faced.

Then the second flag bearers with a darker flag will come.

I will ask them: “What did you do with the two valuables I left (i.e. the Holy Quran, and the holy progeny)?” (In response) they will say: “We opposed the Book, and humiliated and destroyed the holy family.”

I will say, “Go away from me.” And they would be driven to Hell with dark faces and thirsty too.

Then the third group will arrive with bright and shining flags and faces.

I will ask: “Who are you?”

They will reply: “We are believers in Oneness of God and righteous. We are the followers of Muhammad (s.a.w.s.). We are the survivors of the rightful nation. We respected the holy Book of God and obeyed whatever was mentioned as permissible or forbidden in it. We befriended the progeny of the holy Prophet. We willfully helped them and fought against their enemies.”

I would tell them: “Congratulations! I am Muhammad, your Prophet. You lived in the world as you described.” Then I will give them water from the Hauz of Kauthar, and then they will happily enter Paradise and enjoy there forever.

* * * *

In the year 60 A.H., when Muawiya Ibn Abi Sofyân died, his son Yazeed Ibn Muawiya, wrote a letter to the governor of Medina, Walid Ibn Utbah, and ordered him to get allegiance from the people of Medina, especially from Hussain ibn Ali (a.s.) and if Hussain refused, he should cut off his head and send it to Yazeed.

Walid called Marwân Ibn Hakam for consultation regarding Hussain (a.s.). Marwân said, “Hussain will not give allegiance, and if I were you, I would have cut off his head.”

Walid said, “I wish my mother had not given birth to me and I had not existed!”

Then he summoned Husain (a.s.). Hussain approached him with thirty members of his family. Walid informed him about the death of Muawiya, and asked him to give allegiance to Yazeed.

He said, “O’ Sir! Since allegiance is not a secret affair whenever you invite the people, you may call me too.”

Marwân said, “O Amir! Do not accept his excuse and if he refuses, cut off his neck.”

Hussain (a.s.) became angry and said: “Woe unto you, O son of bustard! You order my beheading! You are a liar and you have, by Allâh, shown meanness.” Then he turned towards Walid, and said: “O Amir! We are the members of the Holy family of the prophetic mission. We are the mines of prophethood, and our house is the thoroughfare of angels. Allâh initiated and concluded with us (the divine knowledge) Yazeed is a debauchee, a drunkard; a murderer, and has shed much holy blood. All these factors have made him unworthy of caliphate. A man like me cannot give allegiance to him; however, tomorrow morning I will study about this matter, and will see who is worthy of being caliph.”

Then the Imâm (p.b.u.h.) left there. Marwân said to Walid: “You didn’t act as I advised you?”

Walid said: “Woe unto you. Through your advice, you wished to destroy my world and the Hereafter? By Allâh! I do not like to get the worldly kingdom by shedding the blood of Hussain. By Allâh! I don’t think that one meets Allâh with the sin of murdering Hussain (a.s.) except that his balance (of deeds) is light, and Allâh will not be kind to him, and will punish him in Hell.”

Next morning Hussain (a.s.) came out of his house to get news, and he came across Marwân.

Marwân said: “O Aba Abdillâh! I want to give you an advice. Rather hear me and accept it.”

He said: Tell me, so that I may hear it.

Marwan said: “I tell you to give allegiance to Yazeed, Amirul Momineen. It is better for your world and your Hereafter.”

Hussain (a.s.) said: “(Inna lillâh wa inna ilaiheh Râjeoon) Indeed we belong to Allâh, and to Him is our return.” When the Ummah (society) falls into the leadership of men like Yazeed, it would mean an end to Islâm. Verily, I have heard from my grandfather the holy Prophet who said, “Caliphate is forbidden for the household of Abi Sofyân.”

The conversation between Hussain (a.s.) and Marwân went on until the latter became furious and went away.

The next morning, 3rd of the month of Shabân, 60 A.H. Imâm (a.s) departed for Mecca. He stayed the rest of Shabân, Ramadân, and Zilqada in Mecca.

Abdullâh Ibn Abbâs and Abdullâh IBn Zubair came to him and proposed him to reside in Mecca.

He said: “Indeed the holy Prophet has ordered me to fulfill a task, which I am carrying out.”

Ibn Abbâs went out exclaiming: “Wa Hussaina!”

Thereafter Abdullâh Ibn Umar came and invited Imâm Hussain (p.b.u.h.) to ally with the deviated government to keep away from war and bloodshed.

Imâm (a.s.) said: “O Aba Abdul Rahmân! Don’t you know that it is a dirty world which caused people so lowthat the holy head of Yahya Ibn Zakariya is sent to one of the bastards of the children of Israel? Don’t you know that the Jewish people killed seventy prophets, from dawn to sunrise, during a day? Yet they went to their work in market, as if nothing had happened at all. Allâh did not make haste in punishing them, but gave them respite. Thereafter, He chastised them severely, which was a very hard chastisement from the Almighty God. O Aba Abdul Rahmân! Fear Allâh and do not refrain from assisting me.”

* * * *

The narrator says, “The people of Kufa heard the news of the dignified arrival of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) in Mecca and his denial to give allegiance to Yazeed. Many people gathered in the house of Sulaimân Ibn Surad Khozâei.”

Sulaimân stood up, gave a sermon and at the end of his speech said: “Oh Shias! You know that Muawiyah has died and is getting the recompense of his deeds. He has nominated his son, Yazeed, on the throne of kingdom.” Here is Hussain (a.s.) who has refused to confirm him, and he has migrated to Mecca, due to the rebellious Ommayides. You are the followers of him and his father. Today he needs your help. So think over. If you can fight with him against his enemy, then inform him. Otherwise if you are lazy, disunited, and fearful then do not capture him in deception and complacency.

Then they wrote the following letter to Imâm Hussain (p.b.u.h.) and dispatched it:

In the name of Allâh, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Submitted respectfully to Imâm Husain Ibn Ali Amirul Momineen (a.s.), from Sulaimân Ibn Surad Khozâei, Musayyab Ibn Najbah , Rafah Ibn Shaddâd , Habib Ibn Mozâhir, and Abdullâh Ibn Vail and his other Shias (followers):

Peace of Allâh be upon you. Praise is for Allâh Who defeated the enemy of you and your father, i.e. one who was selfish, arrogant and jealous oppressor, who forcibly snatched the right of this Ummah, and deprived them from their rights; one who became sovereign without the consent of the community, who killed the good people and kept the evil ones and mischief-mongers alive and handed over the public treasury to the rebels and dictators, and thus we wish that he would have been driven away from the mercy of Allâh, like the people of Thamūd. Now we do not have any leader except you. So please come to us, so that Allâh may gather us for truth through you. Here, Nomân Ibn Bashir (the governor) has remained alone in the government palace, and we are not on his side in Friday pray and other ceremonies.

If we come to know that you are coming toward us, we shall drive him out to Syria (Shâm) . Blessings and greetings to you inadvance, O son of the holy Prophet, and may Allâh have mercy on you and on your father, and there is no strength and might except that of Allâh, the High and the Great.

They sent this letter. After two days, the people dispatched through another group 150 letters, which were signed by one, two, three, or four persons… all of them requested the arrival of the Imâm to Kufa. The Imâm delayed response and did not reply to those letters. Then once he got 600 letters. Letters came constantly, and exceeded to 12000 letters. The latest Kufian couriers were Hâni Ibn Hâni as Sabiee, and Saeed Ibn Abdullâh al-Hanafi, who brought the following letter and it, was the last letter from the people of Kufa:

In the name of Allâh, the Beneficent, the Merciful


To Hussain son of Amir- ul- Momineen Ali (p.b.u.h.) from his Shias, and the Shias of Amir -ul- Momineen (a.s.)

Now, all people are waiting for you, and they have none other than you, in their mind, for leadership. So please hurry. Make haste, O’ son of the holy Prophet. The gardens and field are green and full of fruits. The ground is full of grass and trees with sprouting branches and leaves. When your intention accrues, do come here so that you may lead the army which is ready. Salutation on you and your father in advance.

Hussain (a.s.) asked Hâni and Saeed, “Whose letter is this?”

They replied: Shabas Ibn Rabaee, Hajar Ibn Abjar, Yazeed Ibn Harith, Yazeed Ibn Raveem, Urwah Ibn Qais, Umar Ibn Hajjâj, and Muhammad Ibn Amir Ibn Atarad.

It is narrated that, at that time, Imâm got up and prayed between Rukn and Maqâm, and wished good affairs from Allâh. Then he called Moslem Ibn Aquil and acquainted him with the situation. He sent the reply to Kufa through him, wherein he had mentioned his intention to go to Kufa.

The text of the letter was: “I am dispatching my cousin Moslem Ibn Aquil to you, so that he may convey to me your opinion and views.”

Moslem went with the Imâm’s letter and reached Kufa. As the people knew about the Imâm’s letter and his program, they were pleased with the arrival of Moslem.They invited Moslem to stay in the house of Mukhtâr Ibn Abi Ubaidah Thaqafi, and the Shias began to come to that place.

When the people gathered around Moslem, he read the Imâm’s letter. 18000 persons paid allegiance to him.

Abdullâh Ibn Moslem al-Bahili, Ammârah Ibn Walid, and Umar Ibn Sa’ad wrote a letter to Yazeed, informing him about Moslem Ibn Aquil and the situation in Kufa. They advised him to dismiss Nomân Ibn Bashir and replace him by someone else.

Yazeed wrote to Ubaidullâh Ibn Ziyâd, the Governor of Basra, “We gave you the governorship of Kufa (in addition to Basra).” He informed him about Moslem Ibn Aquil’s affair, and ordered that he should be arrested and killed. Ubaidullâh prepared to move towards Kufa.

Hussain (a.s.) wrote a letter to the nobles of Basra, and sent it through one of his friends, Sulaimân Abârzin , and invited them to assist him. He reminded them of their responsibility to obey the Imâm. This group included Yazeed Ibn Masood Nahsali and Munzir Ibn Jârood Abdi.

Yazeed Ibn Masood gathered Bani Tamim, Bani Hanzala, and Bani Sa’ad and told them, “O Bani Tamim! How do you find my character, condition, and family, and nobility among you?”

They said, “Well, very good! You are the pillar and head of every excellence, the center of nobility, and in the forefront of eminence.”

He said, “I have called you for obtaining your opinion and assistance in my affairs.”

They replied, “By Allâh! We will do our best to express our view. Tell us, so that we may know.”

He said: “Certainly Allâh has dragged Muawiyah into disgrace and destruction, and has removed his mark. It was he who opened the floodgates of sin and oppression, and it was he who laid the foundation of tyranny. He imposed the allegiance of his son on the people by force, and imagined that he had established him firmly state. Woe unto what he intended. He made an effort and failed. He called for advice and did not get support. Now his son, Yazeed, the drunkard and he who heads every evil and sin, claims to be the caliph of Muslims, and wants to be their ruler without their consent and approval. This is, while he does not know the path of truth, because of his being weak in knowledge and tolerance. I believe that war and fight against Yazeed is more urgent than war against polytheists.”

And here is Husain Ibn Ali, son of the dear daughter of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), who enjoys nobility, dignity, and wisdom. His distinction is beyond the ability of the pen to write, and the tongue to speak. He is an ocean of knowledge, which has no shore. He is the suitable person for the post of caliphate. He enjoys a brilliant record, an age full of experience, a glorious background, and honorable kinship. He is very affectionate to the youngsters and kind to the elders. How nice it would be if people had a leader like him, and if he had become the Imâm of the Ummah. Allâh has made his plea incumbent and his sermon very audible.

Do not run away from the Divine Radiance, and do not grope in darkness of falsehood. It was Sakhr Ibn Qais who brought on you the disgrace of not participating in Jamal war. Today you may clean that blot by rising help to the son of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). By Allâh anyone who refrains from helping him, Allâh has prepared humiliation and shortage for him and his family.

And now behold! I am the one who has worn the dress of war and have put on the armor. Now the one who is not martyred will die, and the one, who flees, will certainly meet death. May Allâh have mercy on you. Give me a good response. Banu Hanzala said, We always have been the arrows of your bow, and the horsemen of your family. If you come out for a fight along with us you will be victorious and conqueror. If you see difficulties, again we will be with you, and will help you with our swords and will protect you at the cost of our lives. So rise up for whatever you wish.

The Banu Sa’ad got up to speak and said, “O Aba (father of) Khâlid: The most inappropriate deed, in our eyes, is to oppose you and to disobey your command and opinion. If Sakhr Ibn Qais has ordered us to give up war he has eulogized us, and our honor, and pride has remained intact as before. Please permit us to consult one another so that we may convey to you the outcome.”

Thereafter Banu Amer Ibn Tamim spoke, “O, Aba Khâlid! We are sons of your father, and your confederates. If you become angry then we do not like to remain happy and silent. If you march we shall not sit at home. Every command of yours is right. So call us up so that we may respond, and give order to us so that we may obey. Issue order whenever you wish. It is only up to you.”

He said, “O Banu Sa’ad! If you will obey the command, then Allâh will not deprive you from power and the sword. It will always remain in your hand.” Thereafter, a letter was written accordingly (unanimously) to the Imâm (a.s.):

Bismillâhir Rahmânir Raheem

I have been honored by your graceful letter and I have come to know about its contents; wherein you have summoned me, and have invited me that I should profit from your obedience and become fortunate by helping your honor. The Almighty Allâh never keeps the world without the one who does well and who guides towards salvation. You are Allâh’s perfect Sign for the entire creation and His Trust on earth. Yes, you are the fruitful branches of the Prophetic Olive tree, which was planted by the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). The highflying bird acquires its graceful flying through your holy hand. I have made Bani Tamim subservient to you, and they are your total and perfect followers. They are rushing to you for obeying you, just as a thirsty camel rushes towards water. I hand over to you the obeyance of Bani Sa’ad and have washed away the internal dirt from their souls so thoroughly that it shines nicely before every eye to observe.

After reading this letter Imâm Hussain (a.s.) said: May Allâh protect you on the Frightful day (Hereafter), and gratify you on the Day of terrible thirst.

Ibn Masood Nahsali had just made preparations to move towards Imâm Hussain (a.s.) when he got the news of Hazrat’s martyrdom. As he could not get the opportunity of helping the Imâm, he got restless.

Munzir Ibn Jârood handed over the message of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) and the messenger to Ubaidullâh Ibn Ziyâd because he feared that he could be a spy of Ubaidullâh and Bahriya, daughter of Munzir, was wife of Ubaidullâh. Ubaidullâh hanged the messenger, and gave a speech warning the people against revolting and fanning troublesome news.

The next morning Ubaidullâh assigned his brother Uthmân Ibn Ziyâd in his office in Basra, and he himself rushed to Kufa.

Spending that evening near Kufa, he entered the city at night. People imagined that Hussain (a.s.) had arrived. So they became happy and rushed to greet him. But on seeing Ibne Ziyâd they dispersed. Ibne Ziyâd went to the Government House. He stayed there overnight. Next morning he went to the mosque and through his speech warned people against disobeying the ruler, and promised rewards for obedience.

When Moslem Ibn Aquil got this news he feared identification. So got out of Mukhtâr’s house and went to the house of Hâni bin Urwah. Hâni gave him a good welcome. Shias began to meet him at the house of Hâni. Ibn Ziyâd planted his spies over them.

When Ibn Ziyâd came to know that Moslem was in Hâni’s house, he summoned Muhammad Ibn Ash’ath , Asma Ibn Kharja , and Amr bin Hajjâj and asked, “What is the matter? Why is Hâni not coming to meet me?”

They said, “We do not know. It is said that he is ill.”

He said: “I have heard that he has now recovered and that he sits at the door of his house. If we know that he is not well we may go to see him. Go to him and remind him not to ignore our due right. Since he is a noble Arab, I do not like that he should be charged with corruption.”

They went to Hâni, stayed there with him and asked him: “What happened, why not you go to see the Amir (Ibn Ziyad)? He has remembered you saying, If I know that he is ill. I may go to see him.”

Hâni said: Illness prevented me.

They said, “He has heard that you have recovered and that you sit at the door of your house in the evening. The ruler will not tolerate this drawback and disloyalty, especially from someone like you. You are a nobleman of your community. We ask under oath to get up, take a ride and come along with us to him.”

Hâni put on his dress and rode on his animal. On reaching the palace, Hâni was fearful and said to Hassân bin Asma Ibn Khâriji, “O my nephew! By Allâh, I fear this man. What do you think?” He said: “O uncle! Do not be afraid. I do not feel worry about you.” (Hassân did not know what was going on behind the curtain and why Ibn Ziyâd had sent him to Hâni). Hâni went to Ubaidullâh along with other companions. Seeing Hâni, Ubaidullâh said: Dishonesty has dragged him to you (it is an Arabic proverb). Then he looked at Qâzi Shureih who was sitting by his side, pointed towards Hâni and recited the following couplets of poet of Madi Karb Zubedi.

I desired life for him, and he wanted death for me.

This is meant by the excuse of your friend.

Hâni said: What has happened to the Amir?

Ibn Ziyâd said, “Shut up, O Hâni! What is going in your house against Amir-ul- Momineen and the Muslims? You brought Moslem Ibn Aquil in your premises, and you are gathering fighters and arms for him there?”

Hâni said: I have done nothing.

Ibn Ziyâd: Call my servant, Ma’qqal. This Ma’qqal was a spy of Ibn Ziyâd who knew many secret of Hâni’s house. Ma’qqal came and stood near Ibn Ziyâd.

When Hâni saw Ma’qqal, he understood that he was Ibn Ziyâd’s spy, said, “By God! Neither I had called him to my house nor did I invite him to rise in revolt. But he took shelter in my house. I felt ashamed in refusing shelter. This sheltering made me responsible for him. I gave him protection. Now since you have known this matter let me go and relieve him from my house so that he may go wherever he likes and that my responsibility is over.”

Ibn Ziyâd said: “No, by Allâh. You cannot leave here until you hand over Moslem to me.”

Hâni: “No, by Allâh. I will never do such a shameless thing. I cannot hand over my guest to you so that you kill him.”

Ibn Ziyâd: “By Allâh, you must deliver him.”

Hâni: “I will never do so.”

Dialogue between them prolonged. Moslem Ibn Amr Bahli got up to say: If the Amir allows I may talk to Hâni in privacy. Both went aside in such a way that Ibn Ziyâd could see them. When their talk became loud Ibne Ziyâd also heard it.

Moslem told Hâni: “O Hâni, I administer oath of Allâh to you. Do not kill yourself, and do not put your tribe in trouble. I am afraid you will be killed. This man, Moslem Ibn Aquil is the cousin of Ibn Ziyad. He will never be harmed or killed by them. Hand him over to them as this deed will not cause any disgrace or loss to you, since you will be handing him over to the ruler.”

Hâni said: By Allâh, it is disgrace on my part if I hand over my refugee, my guest, and the representative of the son of the holy Prophet to his enemy, shile my hands are powerful and I have many friends. Even if I were alone and without helpers, I would not hand him over until I sacrifice my life for him.

Bahli administered him an oath. But Hâni declined emphatically.

Ibn Ziyâd, who heard these words said, “Bring him to me. So he was brought near him.”

Ibn Ziyâd said: “By Allâh. I say, hand him over. Otherwise I will behead you.”

Hâni replied: “Then light of the edges of swords will light up around your palace.”

Ibn Ziyâd said: “Woe unto you. Do you threaten me with your sword?” Hâni thought that his tribesmen had heard his voice. Ibn Ziyâd said: Bring him close to me. Then he beat him up on his head, face, nose and cheeks with his whip so much that his nose broke and flesh fell off his face, and blood rolled over his clothes. The whip was also broken.

Hâni stretched out his hands and took hold of the handle of the guard’s sword to snatch it and to attack. The

guard caught him. Ibn Ziyâd shouted: Hold him. They grabbed him and dragged and imprisoned him in one of the palace rooms, and closed its door. Ibn Ziyâd also ordered posting of warders to watch him.

Asma Ibn Kharja or Hassân Ibn Asma rose up and said: “Deceptive indeed was today. O Amir! You asked us to bring this man to you. Now when he arrived you broke and disfigured his face, and colored his beard with blood and tried to kill him.”

Ibn Ziyâd became angry at his words and said: You are also from him. On his order, they beat him up, chained him and jailed him in a corner of the palace.

He exclaimed: Inna lillâh wa inna ilaihi Râjeoon. O Hâni! I offer you condolences.

The narrator says: Amr bin Hajjâj heard that Hâni was killed. Raviha, daughter of Amr was Hâni’s wife. Amr came to government Palace along with the entire tribe of Mizhaj. He shouted: I am Amr Ibn Hajjâj, and all these are the warriors of Mizhaj, and its leading personalities. We have not left obedience and we do not want disintegration in the community. We have got news that our chief Hâni has been killed. Ibn Ziyâd understood the reason of the assembly of those people. He asked (Judge) Shureih to call on Hâni, and to inform the community about his being safe. Shureih (who was a liar Judge) did so, and the gathering became glad and returned.

Moslem Ibn Aquil got this news. So he stood up along with his friends to fight against Ibn Ziyâd. They surrounded the palace of Ibn Ziyâd. Ibn Ziyâd was beseiged in his palace. The battle began between the army of Ibn Ziyâd and the army of Moslem.

The companions of Ibn Ziyâd who were with him inside the palace, warned the friends of Moslem against war and asked them to fear the Syrian army. This condition continued till nightfall.

When night fell, the friends of Moslem left him and talked to one another: “What can we do for this sedition that has come on us so rapidly? It is better to remain in our houses, and leave these two parties to themselves until Allâh improves their affairs.”

Except ten persons from his friends no one remained with Moslem. He went to the mosque to offer evening prayers. The last ten also dispersed.

When Moslem saw such a situation, he moved alone in the Bazar and streets of Kufa, until he reached and halted at the door of the house of a lady named Tooa. He asked for water and she provided it. Then he sought shelter which also she extended. Tooa’s son knew this and he informed Ibn Ziyâd. Ibn Ziyâd summoned Muhammad Ibn Ashath and sent him with soldiers to arrest Moslem.

As Moslem heard the noise of the horse hooves, he put on the war dress, mounted a horse and proceeded to fight with the enemy.

Moslem, who was a brave man, killed a number of enemies. The sword in his hand moved in such a way that people remembered the wielding of Zulfiqâr in the hand of Haider Karrar Ali (p.b.u.h.).

Muhammad Ibn Ashath cried. “O Moslem. You are given amnesty.”

Moslem replied: “The amnesty offered by you liars, and misdoers does not have any value.”

Then he renewed fighting and recited the lyric poem of Humran bin Mâlik Khasami:

I have vowed not to die but as a free man, even if death looks ugly.

I dislike cheat and fraud or the mixture of cool and palatable drink with hot and bitter substance. Every man

must once meet with hardship and trouble. I shall strike

you, I am not afraid of harm and loss.

They said: “Our words are not deceitful.” Moslem did not care. He continued his constant attacks. Then the enemy rushed to him collectively. He became very weak due to frequent wounds. A man hit him with his spear from behind, whereby Moslem fell down and was captured.

When they took him to Ibn Ziyâd, Moslem did not salute him. The guard said: Salute the commander.

Moslem replied: You shut up. Woe unto you. He is not my commander.

Ibn Ziyâd said: Salute me or not, you will be killed.

Moslem told him: “It is no wonder if you kill me, as there were people worst than you who killed men better than me. If you cut my body in the worst way, it would only expose your inner dirt and meanness; as such crimes have been imbibed in your nature.”

Ibn Ziyâd said: “O disobedient and mischief-maker! Having left the chief, you have broken the power of the muslims and are now creating trouble.”

Moslem: “O Ibn Ziyâd! You have lied. It was Muawiyah and his son Yazeed who broke the strength of

the muslims. With regards to trouble, it is you and your father Ziyâd, bondsman of Bani Allâj of Thaqeef, who is the real germ of every hypocrisy and mischief. I hope Allâh will grant me martyrdom through the hand of the most corrupt person!”

Ibn Ziyâd said: You desired something which Allâh withdrew it from you and granted it to the deserving one.

Moslem asked: “O son of Marjâna! Who deserves it?”

Ibne Ziyâd: “Yazeed bin Muawiyah.”

Moslem replied: “Thanks to God! I am pleased with Allâh’s Judgment between you and us.”

Ibn Ziyâd said: “Do you think that you have a right in caliphate?”

Moslem replied: “No doubt, I am certain of it.”

Ibn Ziyâd: “Tell me, why did you come to this peaceful city and caused conflicts among its residents and disturbed their affairs?”

Moslem said: “I did not come to do anything like that. But it is you who uplifted evils, buried virtues, and imposed yourself on people without their consent. You dragged people against Allâh’s commandments. You are ruling the people like those dictators. We came to order good and prohibit evil, and make people to follow the Book of Allâh and, as averred by the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) this responsibility suits us.”

Ibn Ziyâd (may God’s curse overtake his soul) began to curse Moslem, Ali, Hasan and Husain.

Moslem said: “It is you and your father who are the worst of the people. O enemy of Allâh! Do whatever you like.”

Ibn Ziyâd ordered Bukair Ibn Umrân, the malicious and the accursed one, to take Moslem to the top of the palace and kill him. They took Moslem upstairs, who engaged himself in words of prayers and seeking Allâh’s rewards for the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). Then they decapitated him and came down fearful and trembling.

Ibn Ziyâd asked: “What is happening to you?”

He said: “While killing him, I saw a black colored and ugly faced man standing in front of me, who was biting his nails – or biting his lips -I was not afraid like that ever before.”

Ibn Ziyâd: “Perhaps you are frightened.”

Then he ordered for killing of Hâni Ibn Urwah. They took him for execution while he was shouting: O Mazhaja, where are Mazhajis? And where are our tribesmen and relatives?

The executers said: Raise your head.

Hâni said: I am not generous in giving away my own life and will not help you in assassinating me.

Ibn Ziyâd’s slave, Rashid, hit at his neck and killed Hâni.

About the martyrdom of Moslem and Hâni, Abdullâh Ibn Zubair Asadi (according to another statement, Farazdaq recited thus:

If you do not know what death is, then look at Hâni and the son of Aquil in the market field;

That brave man whose face was disfigured with a sword and another one who was fell from the top of a wall;

These two were crushed under the feet of oppression and yet their names are on the tongues of everyone;

You see a body that death changed its color and blood that continues to gush from it;

This is the young courageous man, whose modesty is higher than the modesty of a chaste young girl;

His power stronger than the power of a double edged sharpened sword;

Is there anyone else who sits so comfortably on a horse?

Now Mizhaj forgets him totally;

The one whom everyone was ready to obey;

If you have no guts to avenge the blood of your brothers;

Then play music for a while, with the bastards.

The narrator says: Ubaidullâh Ibn Ziyâd conveyed to Yazeed the news about Moslem and Hâni. In response, Yazeed appreciated his job and thanked for it. He also informed Ubaidullah about Husain’s intention of moving towards Kufa, and ordered him to arrest, imprison and kill any suspicious person.

Imâm Hussain (a.s.) left Mecca on Tuesday, the 3rd or 8th of Zilhajj 60 A.H., that is, on the day of Moslem’s martyrdom.

Abu Ja’far bin Muhammad bin Jurair Tabari Imâmi in his book Dalâil Al-Imâmah says; “Abu Muhammad Sufyân Ibn Waqee from his father Waqee, from A’mash (his uncle), from Abu Muhammad Wâqidi and Zurârah Ibn Khalaj We met Husain (a.s.) three days prior to his movement towards Iraq. We informed him about the weakness of the Kufians, and that their hearts were with him, but their swords were against him.”

Imâm Hussain (a.s.) pointed his blessed hand towards the sky. The gates of the sky opened and innumerable angels, whose number is not known to anyone except the Almighty Allâh, came down.

Imâm (a.s.) said: If it was not for the causality in this world and had not the fixed time (death) arrived, I would fight them with these powers. But I know, with certainty, that the place of the martyrdom of me and my companions is there, from where none, but my son Ali would be saved.

It is mentioned in narrations that when Imam Husain (p.b.u.h.) wanted to proceed towards Iraq, he stood up and gave a sermon and said:

All praise is for the Almighty Allâh, and only His will prevails; power and strength is not available except from Allah (sustenance too is only from Him); may Allâh’s mercy be upon His revered messenger (and his progeny), may Allâh shed His peace on him. The adoration of death on the son of Adam is like the adoration of a necklace on the neck of a maiden. My longing to meet my predecessors (my grandfather, father, mother, and brother) is like the longing of Jâcob to meet Joseph. A place for my killing has already been selected where I must reach. As if I see those wild wolves tearing apart pieces of my body between Nawawees and Karbala. How many stomachs shall be filled with me (my flesh and blood) and how many leather bags stuffed with my stuff? There is no escape from what has been inscribed on the state of destiny. We, the holy Ahle Bayt have considered the happiness of Allâh as our happiness, and we perform His tests patiently. He grants us the reward of the patient ones. Part of the prophet gets separated from him but that it returns to him in Hazeerat-ul-Quds, whereby his eyes become bright and His promise fulfilled. Whosoever wished to shed and sacrifice his life on our path and feels gratification of soul in meeting Allâh may get ready to march with us, as we are to move next morning, Insha Allâh.

Muhammad Ibn Dâwood Qummi narrates from Abi Abdullâh (a.s.) who said: During the night by the end of which Husain (a.s.) decided to leave Mecca, Muhammad Ibn Hanafiya went to the Imâm and said: O my brother! The disloyalty of the people of Kufa to your father and your brother is known to you. I am afraid they will do to you what they had done earlier. If you stay in holy city- Mecca- your respect, honor, and magnanimity would be apparent.

Imâm replied: “My brother! I fear that Yazeed Ibn Muawiyah may assassinate me in the limits of the holy Sanctuary, thereby violating its sanctity.”

He said: “In view of it you may go towards Yemen or proceed towards the desert. As your dignity is higher than everyone, nobody will touch you.”

He replied: “I consider your proposal.”

Next morning Hussain (a.s.) became ready to move. Muhammad Ibn Hanafiya got the news. He rushed to Imam, and held the rein of his camel saying: Didn’t you promise to think over my suggestion?

He said: “Yes, I did.”

He submitted: “Then why are you so hurry for moving?”

Imâm said: When you left, the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) appeared to tell me, “O Hussain! Leave this place. Allâh certainly Wills to see you slain.”

He exclaimed: “Inna lillâhe inna ilaihe râjeoon. If it is so what is the use of taking the womenfolk with you?”

Hussain (a.s.): “The holy Prophet said: Allâh desires to see them in the apparel of captives. Then he said farewell and departed.”

Thereafter Husain (a.s.) continued his journey until he reached Tanim.

There he came across a caravan led by Baheer Ibn Ressan Hamiri, the governor of Yemen, who was carrying gifts for Yazeed. Hussain (a.s.) took the gifts in the authority of Wilayat and told the cameleers: Whosoever wishes may come to Iraq with us and enjoy our company. We will completely pay his fare. Those who do not want (to accompany us) their fare will be paid [by us] upto this place.

A group accompanied the Imâm. The rest of them refrained from doing so.

Imâm (a.s.) went on until he reached Zât-e-Irq and saw Boshr Ibn Ghâleb, who had arrived from Iraq and inquired about the situation over there.

He said: “When I left them their hearts were with you while their swords were serving Bani Umayyah.”

The Imâm (a.s.) said: O brother Asadi! You are right. Verily Allâh does what He wants, and He commands what He intends.

The narrator says, “Imâm continued to move till he reached Thalabiya, and it was noon time. Imâm put his blessed head down, took a light sleep and got up and said: I dreamt that a secret voice was telling me, “You are en route and death will take you to Paradise.”

His son Ali said: “O dear father! But are we not on the right path?”

He replied: “Why not my son? By the One to Whom all have to return, we are.”

He replied: “Then we have no fear from death.”

Hussain (a.s.): “May Allâh gives you the best reward, which He gives to every child from his father.”

Imâm passed that night there. Next morning a Kufian man, Abu Hirra Azdi, came to Imâm and saluted him. Then he said: “O son of the Prophet of Allâh! What did bring you out of the Sanctuary of Allâh and the Sanctuary of your grandfather, the Prophet of Allâh?”

Hussain (a.s.) said: “O Aba Hirra! When the Umayyides grabbed my property I remained patient. When they attacked my honor, I tolerated it. Now as they demanded my blood I fled. By Allâh, this traitor and rebel group will definitely kill me, and Allâh will surely make them wear clothes of disgrace, and will make the sword rule over them.”

Then Imâm (a.s.) marched forward. Narrating the event, some people of Bani Fazarah and Bajilah said, “We were returning from the journey of Mecca with Zohair bin Qain. We met Imam Hussain (a.s.) on the way and were not pleased to see some women accompanying Imam (a.s.). Whenever Imâm intended to camp, we put our camp with a distance. Once Imâm descended at a place where we were also obliged to stay at the same spot. When we were eating lunch, the emissary of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) arrived and saluted us.

Then he told Zohair Ibn Qain, “Imâm has called you.” All of us left the food and became motionless.

Zohair’s wife, Delam, daughter of Amr told him: “All praise is to Allah. How strange! The son of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) summons you, and you do not respond? What would happen, if you go and listen to Imam?”

Zohair approached Imâm and soon returned with a happy and bright face. Then he gave instructions for pulling down the tent and stable, and then joined Imâm Hussain (a.s.) with his luggage tent.

Then Zohair told his wife: “You are divorced my dear wife, because I do not want you to see in our common life anything but welfare and comfort. I have decided to remain in the service of Imâm, and to sacrifice my body and soul for him. Then he gave his property to her, and dispatched her to her family with one of her cousins.”

While leaving her husband, the woman got up and said, “Allâh may grant good to you. I request you to remember me when you meet the grandfather of Hussain (a.s.) in the Hereafter.”

Then he (Zohair) said to his friends, “Anyone wants to be with us may do so. Otherwise, this is our last meeting.”

When Hussain (a.s.) reached the terminal of Zubala the news of the martyrdom of Moslem reached him. When this news spread, the materialists and those who were seeking money and were greedy left Imâm, and those who were the faithful and wise companions, remained with him.

The narrator said that the news of the martyrdom of Moslem was shocking and tears rolled from the eyes of onlookers.

Then Hussain (a.s.) moved towards the place where Allâh had summoned him and encountered Farazdaq. After saluting Imâm, Farazdaq asked: “O son of the Prophet! How do you trust the Kufi people who killed your cousin?”

Tears rolled from the holy eyes of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) when he said: “May Allâh have mercy on Moslem. He made his way towards Allah’s pleasure and paradise. He fulfilled his duty, and our responsibility still remains.”

Thereafter he recited the following couplets:

If the world is considered a Precious thing;

Then the reward from Allâh is more precious and valuable;

And if bodies have been created for death;

Then martyrdom in the path of Allâh is higher and better;

And if provision has already been destined;

Then how nice is it to be less greedy in searching it;

And if the treasured property has to be left behind;

Then why man should be stingy in spending the wealth which has to be left?

It is narrated that Husain (a.s.) wrote a letter to

Sulaimân bin Surad, Musayyab bin Najba, Rafaah bin Shaddâd, and some of the Shias of Kufa, and sent it through Qais bin Mosahar Saidawi. When Qais approached Kufa he was stopped by Ibne Ziyâd’s official Haseen bin Namir. He began to inquire of him. Qais tore the letter of Imâm and destroyed it. Haseen sent him to Ibne Ziyâd.

When he was taken to Ibne Ziyâd he asked, “Who are you?”

Qais said, “I am one of the friends of Amirul Momineen and his son.”

Ibne Ziyâd said, “Why did you tear the letter?”

Qais replied, “So that you may not know what was written in it.”

Ibne Ziyâd: “Who had written it and to whom?”

Qais: “From Hussain (a.s.) to a group of Kufis whose names I do not know.”

Ibn Ziyâd became angry and said, “By Allâh. I will not let you go until you give me their names, or stand up on the pulpit and curse Hussain and his father and brother. Otherwise I will cut you into pieces.”

Qais replied, “I will never tell their names. But with regards to condemnation, I have no objections.”

Then Qais went to pulpit, praised Allâh, gave salutations to the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), pleaded for mercy of Allâh on Ali and his sons, and condemned Ibn Ziyâd, his father and likewise all the stubborn fellows of Umayyids upto the last of them.

Thereafter he said: “O people! I am the messenger of Hussain (a.s.) to you. I left him at such and such point. Accept him and respond to his call (invitation).”

This news reached Ibn Ziyâd. He ordered that Qais to be thrown away from the top of his palace wall. Thus he was martyred.

The news of the martyrdom of Qais reached Imâm Husain (a.s.). Tears rolled from his blessed eyes. He said: “O Lord! Provide holy and honorable abodes for our companions and us and bring them and us under the cover of Your mercy, as You are Mighty over everything.”

The narrator says: Hussain (a.s.) traveled upto a place two stations from Kufa, when he confronted Hurr Ibn Yazeed, who was with one thousand riders.

Hussain (a.s.) said to Hurr: “Are you with us or against us?”

Hurr replied: “Rather, O Aba Abdillâh, against you.”

Hussain (a.s.): “La Hawla wala quwwata illa billâhil a’liyyil a’zeem (There is no Power nor Strength but what is granted by the Almighty Allah.)”

There was a lengthy conversation between them and at the end Imâm Hussain (a.s.) said: “Now that you are acting different from your writings and messages, I would return to the place from where I have come.”

Hurr and his army opposed this proposal and prevented him. Hurr said: “O son of the Prophet! Take a route, which would lead neither to Kufa nor to Medina, so that I may say to Ibn Ziyâd, as an excuse, that your way was different from us.”

Imâm (a.s.) continued his journey towards left till he reached Azib-ul-Hajanat.

It is said that at that place, the order of Ibn Ziyâd reached Hurr, rebuking Hurr for his soft attitude towards Hussain (a.s.), and he was ordered to harass and inconvenience the Imâm (a.s.).

Hurr came in the way of Imâm and prevented him from proceeding further.

Hussain (a.s.) said: “Did you not demand a change in my route?”

Hurr replied: “Of course, but here is the letter of the Amir, which orders me to tighten the path for you. He has appointed spies over me so that I should obey his command.”

The narrator says: Hussain (a.s.) stood up in front of his friends to give an address. After praising Allâh, he mentioned his grandfather and invoked blessings on him and said, “You can see the situation. The world has changed. It is showing its ugly face to us, and holding back its goodness. Nothing has remained from it, but just a sip at the bottom of a glass. Life appears to be mean and baseless, just like unpalatable grassland. Don’t you see that truth has been deserted, and falsehood is practiced? How nice if a faithful would long to meet his God (through a martyrdom in His path). It is so because I do not see death but prosperity, and living with the oppressors nothing but condemnation.”

Then Zohair Ibn Qain stood up and said, “May Allâh keep us steadfast on the path of guidance and in your service. We heard your words. If we are to continue living in the world, we prefer to follow you in any situation.”

Hilâl bin Nâfe Bajli rose from his place and said, “By Allâh, we do not see meeting our God unpalatable, and we are always steadfast in our intentions and insight. We are friends of your friend, and enemies of your enemy.”

Then Burair Ibn Haseen Khuzâir stood up and submitted: “O son of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.)! By Allâh, He has favored us by keeping us in your company, so that our bodies get torn into pieces, and your grandfather may be the intercessor for us in the Hereafter.”

Thereafter Hussain (p.b.u.h.) rode and moved on. The army of Hurr sometimes obstructing him and sometimes moving with him until Imâm reached Karbala. It was the 2nd of Muharram. Then he asked: “What is the name of this place?”

It was said: “Karbala.”

Imâm said: “Get down because this is the place for our camping, and for the flowing of our blood. This is the land of our shrines. By Allâh, this is the place where our womenfolk will be taken captives, and my grandfather has given this news to me.”

All came down. Hurr also descended aside along with his army. Hussain (a.s.) sat to sharpen his sword and said:

Woe unto you O world! What a bad friend you are;

And how much was for you every night and every morn! ;

How many of your seekers have been killed;

But it is this world, which does not show contentment;

Verily every affair is with the Lord, and every living one has a path before him;

How near is the promised time for moving towards Allâh’s Paradise!

It is narrated that Zainab, daughter of Fâtima (a.s.), heard those words and exclaimed, “O my brother! These are the words of one who is certain about his death!” Hussain said: “Yes, my sister.”

Zainab: “O’ God! Hussain gives me news of his own death.”

It is said that the women wept and beat their faces.

Umme Kulthum cried out: “O’ Muhammada…!”

Hussain (a.s.) tried to calm his sister and said, “My sister, be calm by relying on Allâh, since the residents of the sky do die, and the residents of the earth also do not remain in their place, and all will die, except Allah.”

Then he said: “O’ my sisters Umme Kulthum and Zainab, and you Ruqaiyah , Fâtima, and you Rubâb! Do not rend your collar; do not scratch your face, and do not utter unjust words after my martyrdom.”

As per another narration when Zainab heard the couplets, she was alone in her place without any lady besides her. Barefooted, with her clothes sweeping the ground, she reached her brother and said, “O’ God! I wish death had liberated me from this life. It seems that today I have lost my mother Fâtima Zahra, my father Ali Al-Murtuza, and my brother Hasan al-Mujtaba. O’ you the successor of the deceased, and the shelter of the rest (Hussain).”

Hussain (a.s.) had a glance at his sister and said: “O my sister, do not lose patience.”

She replied: “May my father and mother be sacrificed for you, and so may I be sacrificed for you! Are you to attain martyrdom soon? However she swallowed choking worries.”

His holy eyes became tearful. Then he said: “Alas. If they had left the bird alone in repose during night, it would have fallen slept.”

She said: “Ah, do you put yourself in danger. Do you still injure my heart? It is very unpleasant to me. Then she rent her collar and fainted.”

Imâm (a.s.) got up, poured water on her face until she regained conscious. Then he assured her, and reminded her of the death of her father and grandfather (s.a.w.s.).

One of the probable motives which caused Hussain (a.s.) to take his family members and womenfolk with him, was that if Imâm had left his family in Hijaz or in any other city, Yazeed (the cursed) would have come to know about it, and would had sent a group to arrest them, and had behaved very harshly with them. It could have prevented Hussain (a.s.) from jihâd and martyrdom. It was likely that for taking care of his family and womenfolk, he might have missed attaining lofty martyrdom.













































The narrator says that Ibn Ziyâd called his companions for fighting against Husain (a.s.) and they accepted. Though he held them in a low esteem they carried out his order. He offered Umar Ibn Sa’ad the command of the army, which he accepted blindly. Umar bin Sa’ad left Kufa with four thousand riding soldiers for fighting against the Imâm. Ibn Ziyâd sent many armed groups to support him till their number became twenty thousand on the night of the 6th Muharram of 61 A.H. Ibn Sa’ad surrounded Husain (a.s.), putting him in an extremely difficult situation. He cut off water supply from him, his families, and his companions. They all suffered a terrible thirst.

Then Imâm (a.s.) stood up, leaned on his sword and proclaimed in a loud voice: I administer an oath on you. Do you know me?

They said: “Yes! You are the son of the holy Prophet.”


Hussain: “I administer the oath of Allâh. Tell me, do you know that the Prophet of Allâh is my grandfather?”

They replied: “By Allâh, yes.”

He then asked: “I administer the oath of Allâh to you. Do you know that my mother Fâtima is the daughter of Muhammad?”

They said: “Yes.”

He said: “I administer the oath of Allâh to you. Do you know that my father is Ali Ibn Abi Tâlib?”

They replied: “By Allâh, yes.”

He said: “I administer oath of Allâh to you. Do you know that my grandmother is Khadija, daughter of Khuwailid, the first Muslim lady of the nation?”

They said: “Yes.”

He said: “I administer oath of Allâh to you. Do you know that Hamza , Chief of the martyrs, is the uncle of my father?”

They replied: “It is true.”

Hussain (a.s.) said: “I administer the oath of Allâh to you. Do you know THAT Ja’far , who can fly in Paradise, is my uncle?”

They said: “By Allâh, yes.”

Hussain (a.s.) then said: “I administer oath of Allâh to you. Did this sword, which I have unsheathed and which is now in my hand, belong to the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.)?”

They said: “Yes.”

Hussain then said: “I administer the oath of Allâh to you. Is this turban which is now on my head, the turban of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.)?”

They replied: “By Allâh, yes it is.”

Hussain (a.s.) then said: “I administer oath of Allâh to you. Do you know that Ali (a.s.) was the first man who accepted Islâm, his knowledge was deeper than that of everyone else, and his patience and tolerance was higher than that of anyone else, and that he is the Master of every Muslim man and woman?”

They replied: “By Allâh, yes.”

Hussain (a.s.) then asked: “How do you allow yourself to shed my blood when on the Last Day, my father (a.s.) will be the master of Kauthar Pool, who will drive away people from that Pool, as camels are hushed away from water, and that the flag of Praise (Liwaul Hamd) will be in the hands of my father on the Day of Judgment?”

They replied: “We know all of this, and yet we will not leave you until you taste death in thirst.”

When the women heard the speech of the Imâm they wept and wailed and lamented, slapped their faces and their voices arose.

Imâm (a.s.) sent his brother Abbâs and his son Ali towards them and said: “Make them quiet. By my life, how much wailing they would have in the future!”

The narrator says: Umar Ibn Sa’ad received a letter from Ibn Ziyâd. He had ordered Umar to start fighting immediately and had warned him for any delay. It made Ibne Sa’ad and his army to launch an attack on Husain (a.s.).

Shimr Ibn Ziljushan (may Allâh curse him) rushed ahead and cried: “Where are my nephews Abdullâh, Ja’far, Abbâs, and Uthmân.”

Hussain (a.s.) said to the sons of Ummul Banin: “Though he is a fasiq and evil- doer, give him a response.”

The sons of Ummul Banin replied: “What do you want?”

Shimr said: “O’ sons of my sister! You are under protection (amnesty). Do not get killed with your brother Hussain, and come to the service of Yazeed bin Muawiyah, the Amirul Momineen!”

Abbâs Ibn Ali (a.s.) shouted in response: “May your hands be cut! May your offer of amnesty be cursed!

O’ enemy of Allâh! Are you asking us to leave our brother and master Hussain Ibn Fâtima (a.s.), and to come under the command of the rejected, the cursed, and sons of those condemned by Allâh?”

Shimr returned angrily to his army.

The narrator says: “When Husain (a.s.) saw that the effect of his admonition was less, and the enemy was very eager to begin fighting he told his brother Abbâs, If you could get a period, and delay the war, it will be nice. We may offer prayers during this night for Allâh, as He knows that I am very fond of prayers (Salat) and of reciting His holy Book.”

Abbâs put up his proposal before them. Umar bin Sa’ad kept quiet. Amr bin Hajjâj Zubedi said to Sa’ad: “They are the family members of Muhammad; even if they were poor and low class people, their requests would have been accepted.”

Thus, their demand was accepted.

The narrator says: Hussain (a.s.) who was in a sitting position fell asleep, and then woke up and said: “O sister! During this hour I saw in a dream my grandfather, Muhammad (s.a.w.s.), my father Ali (a.s.), my mother, Fâtima (a.s.), and my brother, Hasan (a.s.).”

They said to me, “O’ Husain! You are coming to us very soon.”

According to another narration they said: “You’ll be with us tomorrow.”

The narrator says: “Zainab slapped her face and screamed.”

Hussain (a.s.) said: “Be quiet and calm. Do not make the enemy rejoice.”

Then came the night of Âshura. Husain (a.s.) gathered his companions. After praising Allâh he turned towards them and said: “Now, verily, I do not find companions better than you, nor any family more righteous than my family! Allâh may give you the best rewards. Now the darkness of the night has covered you. So make its use. Each one of you may hold the hand of one of my family members and get dispersed in this darkness, and leave this place because they do not want anyone except me!”

His brother, sons and the sons of Abdullâh bin Ja’far said in one voice: “Why should we do like that? To remain alive after you? May Allâh never bring such a day.” The first one to speak thus was Abbâs Ibn Ali (a.s.), and others also spoke one after another.

The narrator says: Husain (a.s.) looked at the sons of Aquil and said: “The martyrdom of Moslem is sufficient for you. All of you may leave. I permit you.”

According to another narration: “At that moment all the brothers and family members of Husain (a.s.) spoke up unanimously: “O son of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.)! What will people say about us, and what should we say to the people? That we left our elder, chief, Seyed, the Imâm, the son of the daughter of the Prophet, and did not threw an arrow along with him? Nor held a spear in our hands nor did our sword fall on the enemy. No, by Allâh! O son of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), we would never leave you. Rather our lives will guard your life until we die before your eyes. Whatever befalls you, will fall on us too. How wretched is the life after you!”

Thereafter, Moslem Ibn Awsajah stood up and said: “Shall we leave you alone, and return so that the enemy may surround you? No, by Allâh! Allâh may never allow such situation until I plunge my spear in the chest of your enemy till the time only its handle may remain in my hand, and I may crush the enemy under my feet. Even when I was unarmed I will fight with them. I will stone them, and will not separate from your honor until I drink the cup of martyrdom by your side.”

It is said that Saeed Ibn Abdullâh Hanafi got up and said: “No, by Allâh! O son of the Messenger of Allâh! I will never leave you alone, unless Allâh sees that we have remembered and acted upon the will of His messenger Muhammad regarding you. If I come to know that I were injured in your path and then will be burnt alive, and my ashes were dispersed in the air, and if this would be repeated for seventy times, even then I will not leave you until I see death and embrace martyrdom in front of you. Why not? This is only one death and thereafter, I will gain the eternal and everlasting generosity of Allâh.”

Thereafter Zohair bin Qain Bajali stood up and said: “By Allâh! O son of the messenger of Allâh! How much do I like to be killed one thousand times and to return to life so that, by this deed, Allâh may protect you, your brothers, and the young members of your family from any damage.”

A group of companions also uttered such words: “May our lives be sacrificed for you. We shall protect you by our entire beings, and if, we get martyred in your path, we would have fulfilled our promise of loyalty and would have kept our words.”

In the meantime news came to Muhammad Ibn Bashir Hazrami that his son was captured in the territory of Ray.

Muhammad said: “I like to get its compensation from Allâh. I did not like to see him caught during my lifetime.”

Hussain (a.s.) heard his words and said: “May Allâh have mercy on you. I take back my allegiance from you

for freeing your son. So go and so on.”

Muhammad said: “May wild animals eat me up alive if I ever leave your company.”

The Imâm (a.s.) then said: “Take this gift to your other son so that he may use it for freeing his captive brother.” Then he gave him something tht valued 1000 dinars.

The narrator says that during that night, the night of Âshura, Husain (a.s.) and his companions remained busy (in Ruku, Sujood, Qiyam, and Quood) in worship. The collective sound of their worship resembled the noises of a beehive. On that night 32 men from the army of Ibne Sa’ad came and joined the camp of the Imâm.

Next morning, Abd-ur-Rahmân told to Burair Ibn Haseen Hamdani: “Burair! Are you laughing! This time is not for laughing and joking!”

Burair said, “My people know that in my youth and my oldage I disliked false things and jokes. At present my smiling is only because of this course that we have chosen. By Allâh! The distance between us and the heavenly fairies is not more than an hour of fighting against this community and their swords.”

The narrator says that the soldiers of Ibne Sa’ad mounted their horses. Hussain (a.s.) sent Burair towards them so that he may admonish them. But his admonition was useless.

Hussain (a.s.) mounted his horse or camel, and stood before the army of enemy and asked them to be quiet. They became silent. Then he praised Allâh and remembered His virtues and attributes, and invoked blessings on Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) and the angels, and the messengers, and gave an impressive speech,

“Be you destroyed O group of the people! May you remain constantly in sorrow and grief! You sought justice from us with extreme distress and called upon us to help you. We speedily rose to help you. These swords, which are now in your hands, should have swung in our favor, not against us. This fire, which you have ignited to harm us, should have engulfed our enemies and your foes. Now you have befriended your foes without getting any justice or any usefulness from them!”

“Beware! Woe unto you. You left us even before the battle begins, and the storm of tyrannycould stop. This is absurd and crazy. Yet you attended them like the forest locusts and gathered around them like moths!”

“Go away, you slaves of bondmaids, the evil sects, those who have banished the Book, those who have changed the Word, you germs of sin and students of devil, and destroyers of the traditions.”

“Have you imagined that the enemy is strong and so you turned away from us?”

“By Allâh! Your trickery and unfaithfulness is indeed old. You shall be the worst sorrow for one who sees and the most unpalatable case for the tyrant.”

“Behold! Verily the bastard, and the son of bastard, has cornered me between two options, either battle or death with honor, or accepting disgrace and contempt! How far is disgrace from us? Allâh does not like dishonor for us. Similarly His messenger, the faithful people, the poor bodies and souls, and the high personalities who are most precious always prefer martyrdom to slavery by the mean people.”

“Now, verily, I am proceeding towards Allâh and martyrdom alongwith my family members and insufficient friends.”

Then Imâm added the following poem of Farwah Ibn Masik Murâdi:

If we win, we have been among the winners from the past;

And if we fail, we would never be actually defeated;

Fear has no room in our souls;

However, our death would precede the kingdom of others;

Whenever death spares someone it does grab another one;

Death of the brave nobles destroyed my community;

As was the case with the predecessors;

Were the kings everlasting, we too would have lasted forever;

And were the good people immortal; we also would have been alike;

Tell the evil wishers to rest assured regarding us;

As what has befallen us shall come to you also.

Then he added: “By Allâh! You will not be given except a short time before you will be pressed by the passage of time. Yes, this is a promise from my father and my grandfather. So resolve upon your affair and (gather) your associates, and let not your affair remain dubious to you. Then have it executed against me and give me no respite.”

“Rightfully, I have relied on the One Who is My Lord and your Lord. There is no living thing, out of His control. Justly, my Lord is on the right path.”

“O Allâh! Prevent the clouds from raining on them and make them suffer a famine like that of the time of Joseph. O Lord! Impose the child of Thaqif (Hajjâj Ibn Yusuf) on them so that he may make them taste all kinds of disgrace, indignity, injustice, and oppression as they have refuted me, and they have left me without friends.

O’ God! On you do we rely, and to you do we turn, and to you is the eventual coming.”

Then Imâm came down and called for the horse named Mortajaz. He rode it and prepared his friends for the battle.

It is reported from Imâm Bâqir (a.s.) that the total number of Imam’s army was 45 horsemen and 100 persons on foot. Otherthing have also been reported.

The narrator says: Umar Ibn Sa’ad rushed forward and threw an arrow towards the army of Hussain (a.s.) and said: “Bear witness before the Amir that I was the first person to shoot!” Then arrows began to fall like raindrops.

Imâm (a.s.) told his companions: “May Allâh have Mercy on you. Get ready for death, the death from which there is no escape, because these arrows are the enemy’s war couriers for you.”

On the day of Âshura, for some hours, there was a heavy collective war, which rendered a number of companions martyred. At that moment holy Imâm Hussain (a.s.) placed his hand on his holy beard and said: “Allâh’s anger became severe against the Jews when they attributed a son to Allâh; and on the Christians when they considered God to be a trinity; and on Zoarastarians when they worshipped the sun and the moon. The wrath of Allâh became harsh on my community when they united to kill the son of the daughter of His Messenger.”

“No, by Allâh! I will never submit to them until I meet my God when I get bathed in my blood.”

Imâm Sâdiq (a.s.) heard from his father that, “When Imâm Hussain (a.s.) encountered Umar Ibn Sa’ad and the battle began, Allâh sent down His Help. He caused shade over the blessed head of Hussain (a.s.). At that moment Hussain was provided two options: To be victorious over his enemies, or to meet his God. He opted for meeting Allâh.”

It is said that at that time Hussain (a.s.) shouted, “Is there anyone to help us for the sake of Allâh? Is there anyone prepared to defend the Prophet’s (s.a.) family?”

At that moment Hurr Ibn Yazeed Riyahi turned towards Umar bin Sa’ad and said: “Do you want to fight against this man?”

Umar Ibn Sa’ad replied: “Yes. By Allâh! The easiest form of it is choping off heads and cutting off the hands.”

Then Hurr went and stood between his fellowmen. He began to tremble like a cane stick.

Muhâjir Ibn Aus told him: “By Allâh! Your action is very strange. If it were asked that who is the bravest man in Kufa, I could not have ignored you. But in what condition am I observing you?”

Hurr replied: “By Allâh. I am, at present, finding myself in the position of opting for either Heaven or Hell. By Allâh! I will opt for nothing but Paradise; even if I were cut into pieces and then burnt.”

Then he drove his horse towards Husain (a.s.) and while placing his hands on his head said: “O Allâh! I have turned towards You, and I have repented. Kindly accept my repentance because I am guilty of causing unrest and anxiety to Your friends and to the children of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.).”

He requested Husain (a.s.): “May I be sacrificed for you. I am the same man who prevented you from returning to Medina and made things difficult for you. By Allâh! I never imagined that these people would behave like this with you. I am repenting before Allâh. Do you think that my repentance will be accepted?”

Hussain (a.s.) replied: “Yes. Allâh will pardon you. Please get down.”

He submitted: “In my humble opinion, I can serve you better mounted than on feet. My last coming down, as desired by me, is martyrdom.”

“Now that it is I who had revolted against you, kindly permit me to be the first martyr to be killed before your honor. Perhaps, tomorrow, on the Day of Justice, I may be one of those who will warmly shake hands with the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.).” Hurr said.

The compiler of the book says: What Hurr meant by the ‘first’ martyr, was to be the first after that moment, as per narrations; a few persons had already been martyred earlier.

Imâm allowed him. So Hurr went forward to fight and waged a good war. He killed many warriors of the enemy before getting himself martyred. His pure body was brought to the Imâm (a.s.) who cleaned his face and exclaimed; “You are indeed Hurr (Free) as your mother named you. You are free both in this world and in the Hereafter.”

The narrator says: Burair Ibn Haseen Khuzair who was a pious and worshipper went to the battlefield and was confronted by Yazeed bin Ma’qal. They both engaged in fighting and Burair sent Yazeed to hell and continued fighting till he attained martyrdom. May Allâh be pleased with Burair.

Wahab bin Habbâb Kalabi rushed out and exhibited nice firmness, waged a perfect jihâd. His wife and mother were with him. He returned to them and asked:

“O mother! Are you pleased (with my performance)?”

His mother said: “No. I will be pleased when you are martyred before Husain (a.s.).”

His wife said: “I give you an oath of Allâh. Please do not give me your bereavement.”

His mother said: “End this talk here. Go and wage the battle by the side of the son of the Prophet’s daughter, so that you may win the intercession of his grandfather on the Day of Judgement.”

Wahab went back to the battlefield, fought constantly until both his hands were cut. His wife held up the mace and rushed to her husband and said: “May my parents be sacrificed for you! Continue battling to protect the family of the Prophet of Allâh.” Wahab looked at his wife so that she may return. The lady held the clothes of her husband and said: “I will never return until I also get killed along with you.”

Hussain (a.s.) said: “May Allâh give good rewards to your family. Please return to the womenfolk. May Allâh have mercy on you.” Then she returned to the womenfolk.

Kalabi went to battlefield as before, and fought until he was killed. May Allâh be pleased with this martyr.

Thereafter Moslem Ibn Awsajah went to war. He, too, exhibited perfect jihâd against the enemy and remained steadfast during the calamities of battle until he fell. He was still breathing when Husain (a.s.) went towards him alongwith Habib Ibn Mozâhir. Hussain (a.s.) said:

“O’ Moslem! May Allâh have mercy on you.” Tnen Imam recited a Quranic verse:

“Then some of them (believers) carried out their responsibility, while others awaiting and they have not changed in the least;” (33: 32)

Habib went close to him and said: “O Moslem! This condition appears unpleasant to me. Congratulations to you for Paradise!” Moslem responded in a very weak voice: “May Allâh also give you good rewards.” Habib said: “Though I am also following you in this path, I like to hear every wish from you so that I may carry it out.”

Pointing to Husain (a.s.), he (Moslem) said: “Wage jihâd in the service of this master until death takes you up.”

Habib said: “I accept your will wholeheartedly.”

At that moment he expired. May Allâh’s pleasure be with him.

Thereafter Amr bin Qarzatul Ansâri sought permission of Hussain (a.s.), which was granted by the latter. He waged a war like the war of the lovers. He continued courageous fighting, killed many soldiers of Ibne Ziyâd. His battle was excellent. He took and turned every arrow, which was shot at Husain (a.s.) on his self. Similarly he bore every hit of the enemys’ sword wholeheartedly. Until Amr was on his feet, no harm reached Husain (a.s.). Then the ever-increasing wounds made him fall down, bleeding profusely. Then he looked at Hussain (a.s.) and asked: O son of the Prophet of Allâh! Have I fulfilled my promise?

Imam replied, “Yes! You will be in the Paradise prior to me! Give my regards to the holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) and inform that I am coming after you. He got martyred soon. May Allah bless him.”

Thereafter Jaun, the black slave of Abu Zarr sought permission for battle.

Hussain (a.s.) said: “You are at liberty and permitted to take a path to safety. As you were restful with us, and you need not fall in the troubles of our path.”

He submitted: “O son of the Prophet of Allâh! In my life of ease and comfort I was extremely indebted to you. Now I will bear the difficulties, which you are undergoing. By Allâh, my body’s odor is bad, my race is low, and my skin is black. Do oblige me so that by following the path to Paradise I may attain pleasant odor, pure race and a white face. By Allâh, I will not leave you until my black blood mixes with yours.” Thereafter, he fought fearlessly and became a martyr. May Allâh be pleased with him.

The narrator says: Then Amr bin Khâlid Saidavi got up for fighting and said: “O Aba Abdillâh! May I be sacrificed for you. My intention is to join my friends and I do not consider it proper to go against them and to see alone your family and being killed.”

Hussain (a.s.) said: “Go ahead because we are following you to meet you within hours.” So he went forward, fought and got martyred. May Allâh be pleased with him.

The narrator says: Hanzala Ibn Sa’ad Shabâmi came and stood in front of Hussain (a.s.) to protect him with his chest, face and neck against the arrows, swords, and spears. He shouted to the army of the enemy: “O People! I fear that what chastisement had befallen on the communities of Nuh, Āad, Thamud, and others may befall you too. Allâh never desires to oppress His servants. O people! I am afraid of what will happen to you on the Day of Resurrection, when you will run away and will find no helper or refuge. O people! Do not kill Husain (a.s.), otherwise you will be caught by the chastisement of Allâh. Verily whoever makes false accusations would cause more torment for himself.”

Then he turned towards Hussain (a.s.) and said: “Should I not proceed towards my God and join my friends?”

Hussain (a.s.) said: “Go towards what is better for you than the world and whatever is in it. Do proceed towards the kingdom where there is no doom.”

Then he rushed forward and fought a severe fight, like the great fighters, tolerated all troubles, and attained martyrdom. May Allâh be pleased with him.

Then it was the time for noon prayer. Hussain (a.s.) ordered to Zohair Ibn Qain and Saeed bin Abdullâh Hanafi to stand in front of them so that the remaining companions may perform the “Prayer of insecure time.”

Every arrow which was thrown at Hussain (a.s.) was defended by Saeed Ibn Abdullâh on himself, and he continuously defended the life of the Imâm, and did not step back until he fell down on the ground and said: “O Allâh! Curse be on these people, as You cursed the people of Āad and Thamud. My God! Convey my salutation to Your messenger and let him know, how we are bearing the wounds inflicted on us. I seek my reward in helping the progeny of Your messenger.” Then he attained martyrdom. May Allâh be pleased with him. In addition to wounds inflicted by sword and spears thirteen arrows were found in his body.

The narrator said: Suwaid Ibn Umar Ibn Abil-Mutā, who was a man of God and always busy in worship, rushed forward and dashed like a lion freed from the cage. He bore numerous hits with perfect patience, until he became unable to move. He fell between the killed ones till he heard that Husain was killed. He collected his latest energy and tried to fight the enemy, till he gained martyrdom. May Allâh be pleased with him.

It is said: The companions of Husain (a.s.) went to battle in front of him. They were as described by a poet:

A group, which is called out for crushing the calamity,

Ought to be mounted on marked horses and in rows,

They have covered their armor by their chests,

And they are competing with one another in giving away their lives;

When all his companions were martyred and none except his household remained, Ali Ibn Hussain (a.s.) who was more handsome than all the companions, and most pious from the viewpoint of morals, sought permission from his father. Imâm permitted him.

Imâm hopelessly had a glance at his son and wept with lowered eyes and then said: “O Allâh! Be witness. Surely a youth has rushed to battlefield who is the most similar person to your messenger in appearance, nature, and manners. Whenever I longed to look at Your Messenger, I would to look at him.”

Then he yelled and said: “O Ibn Sa’ad, may Allah cut off your generation just as you cut off my kinsfolk.”

Then Ali rushed to the battlefield and waged a furious war and sent a number of unbelievers to the hell. Then he returned to his father and said: “O dear father! Thirst has almost killed me, and the weight of the armor has sapped my strength. Is any water available?”

Hussain (a.s.) wept and replied: “O my dear son! Wherefrom can I bring water? Put up some more resistance. Very soon you will meet your grandfather Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) who will give you a drink, after which you will never feel thirsty.”

Ali went back to battlefield and gave the greatest fight. Manqaz Ibn Marrah Abdi threw an arrow, which made Ali fall down. He cried: “O father! Accept my Salâm (farewell). May Allâh protect you. Here is my grandfather who sends greetings to you, and says: Hurry up to us.” Then a jerk ended his worldly life.

Hussain (a.s.) came and stood by the body of his son, placed his cheek on his face and said: “May Allâh kill those people who killed you. What made them bold enough to go against Allâh and violate the honor of His Prophet? Life after you is but a spit.”

The narrator said: Zainab, daughter of Ali (a.s.), came out of the tent and threw herself on his body.

Hussain (a.s.) came and asked her to return to the womenfolk.

Thereafter, one after the other from the holy household of Imâm rushed to the battleground and won the honor of martyrdom.

Imâm cried: “O my cousins! O my family members! Be patient. Show forbearance. By Allâh, after this day, you will never be dishonored or humiliated.”

The narrator says: A moonlike radiant face youth came out and went to war. Ibne Fuzail Azadi inflicted a wound on his holy head. He fell down on earth and yelled: “O my uncle!”

Hussain (a.s.) rushed like a preying eagle or an angry lion and stricked Ibne Fuzail with his sword. He took the blow on his hand, which got cut off from elbow by the Imâm’s sword. Ibne Fuzail gave out a loud yell. Hearing his yell his army rushed to save him.

The horses crushed the blessed body of that handsome youth and thus he was martyred.

The narrator says: Once the storm of war settled, I saw that Hussain (a.s.) had stood by the head of the youth and he was hitting the ground with his feet. Imâm said: “Far from the Mercy of Allâh are those who killed you; those with whom your grandfather will quarrel on the Day of Judgement.”

“It is unpleasant for your uncle to hear your cry for help and he does not respond. Or that he responds but without any benefit for you. By Allâh, today his enemies are frequents, and his friends few.”

Then he embraced the youth and carried him to the place of the martyrs of the household of the Prophet (p.b.u.h.).

The narrator said that when Husain (a.s.) saw the slain bodies of his companions he personally became ready for fighting with the enemy. He cried: “Is there anyone to defend the family of the Prophet of Allâh? Is there anybody who knows Allâh and fears Him regarding our rights? Is there any helper to help us for the sake of Allah’s mercy? Is there any helper who would help us, seeking the Allâh’s Rewards?”

At that time, a wailing arose from the womenfolk. The Imâm came to the entrance of the tent said: “O my sister Zainab! Bring my little son so that I may bid him goodbye.” Imâm took him up to kiss him. Harmala threw an arrow, which pierced the neck of the little infant. Imâm asked Zainab: “Hold him.” Then he collected the child’s blood in his palms and threw it towards the sky, saying: “How easy are these afflictions that have befallen me in the Path and Presence of the Almighty Allâh!”

Imam Baqir (a.s.) has said, “Not even a drop of that blood fell back on the ground.”

According to another tradition, which appears more reasonable, it was not a normal situation and the Imâm, was so busy in the battle, who should not had called for the child. It is said that at that moment Zainab, sister of Imâm, brought the baby to him and said: “This child of yours has not had water for the last three days. Please ask water for quenching his thirst.”

Imâm (a.s.) took the child in his arms and exclaimed: “O people! You killed my companions, friends, and my household. And now only this infant has remained which is wailing for water. Give him some water for quenching his thirst.”

While Imâm was uttering those words, a man from the enemy army threw an arrow, which pierced the infant’s neck.

The narrator said: Husain (a.s.) became extremely thirsty. He rode a horse and intended to reach the Euphrates river. This was so when his brother Abbâs stood before him. The army of Umar bin Sa’ad blocked their way. A man from Bani Daram threw an arrow towards Husain (a.s.), which cut below his chin. Imâm placed his hands below the wound, and when his both hands got filled with blood he flung it upwards and exclaimed: “My God! I complain to You about what is happening to the son of the daughter of Your Prophet.”

Then the enemy separated Abbâs from Hussain (a.s.), encircled him, and killed him – May his soul be sanctified. Hussain (a.s.) wept very much over his brother’s death. The poet portrays it like this:

The worthiest of all the youths is one over whose death his brother weeps;

His martyrdom brought Husain to tears over;

His brother and the son of his father Ali,

Abul Fazl who; became red-faced with the blood.

The one who did fellowship; with Husain

To such an extent that he was his partner even in his thirst.

The narrator said: Then Hussain (a.s.) challenged the enemy to come and fight with him. Then whoever came forward to confront him was sent to hell by Husain’s (a.s.) hand. It continued until he killed many of them. He said:

“Martyrdom is better than acceptance disgrace, and humiliation is better than burning in (Hell) fire.”

One of the narrators says: “By Allâh, I have never seen a man who had lost his family members and companions, and bearing the sorrow of all calamities, yet showing so much courage and bravery on the battle- field. The enemy continuously launched collective attacks on him. He responded all of them as a consequence of which they fled from him, like a flock of goats flee from a wolf.”

Sometimes he attacked the crowded army of enemy, and scattered them. Then the Imâm would return to his main place and said: La hawla wa la quwwata illa billâhil a’liyyil a’zeem (There is no strength nor power, except from the Almighty Allah).

The narrator said: The Imâm fought continuously till the time the enemy came between him and the wowenfolk and separated them. The Imâm shouted at them: “Woe unto you, o followers of the family of Abu Sufyân. If you have no religion and do not fear the Hereafter and Resurrection, then at least be free and noble in your world; and if you are Arabs, then return to your race (in good behavior).”

Shemr yelled: “O son of Fâtima! What are you saying?”

Hussain (a.s.): “I say I am fighting you and you are fighting me. And it is no fault of the women. So until I am alive, these rebels, renegades and unwise people should not disturb my family.”

Shemr said: “It is your right, O son of Fâtima.”

Then the enemies began to attack on him, and he continued fighting. In the meanwhile, he sought water but could not get it until he suffered seventy-two wounds and injuries.

Then Imâm (a.s.) halted for a moment to take rest, when a stone thrown by the enemy hit his forehead. Imâm tucked up his shirt to prevent the flow of blood from his head. Then a poisoned trident arrow pierced his blessed chest. Imâm (a.s.) said: “In the name of Allâh, and by Allâh, and according to the religion of the Messenger of Allâh (s.a.w.s.).”

Imam raised his blessed head towards the sky and said: “O Allâh! You know that these people are killing a man who is the only son of the daughter of Your messenger on the surface of the earth.”

Then he fetched out the arrow from his back, and blood gushed through the wound like a drainpipe, depriving Imâm from his battling strength. Every person from the enemy camp who approached the wounded Imâm (to kill him) turned back fearing that he would have to meet Allâh as a partner criminal in killing the Imâm. Then a man from Kandah, named Malik bin Nasr (May Allâh’s curse him) came and uttered bad words to the Imâm, and hit the Imâm’s blessed head with his sword. It cut the top of the helmet reaching the skull. The helmet overflowed with the holy blood.

The narrator says: Hussain (a.s.) called for a robe and bound his head with it. He put a mitre on his head and fastened his turban over it.

After a short pause the enemies returned to Imâm and encircled him. At that time Abdullâh Ibn Hasan Ibn Ali, who was about twelve years old, came from the camp of the women and rushed towards the Imâm. Zainab, daughter of Ali (a.s.) went to him to stop him. Abdullâh forcefully refused to turn back and said: “By Allâh, I will not leave my uncle.”

Bahr Ibn Ka’b or Harmala Ibn Kahil – advanced towards Imâm with a sword in hand. Abullah said: “Woe unto you, the offspring of malicious man! Are you killing my uncle?”

The teenager shielded Imâm from the stroke of a sword whereby his hand was cut and began to dangle. Abdullah cried: “O uncle!” Hussain (a.s.) took hold of his nephew and drew him to his chest saying: “O’ the son of my brother! Bear patiently what you have suffered, and consider it good, because Allâh will make you meet your pious forefathers.”

Harmala bin Kahil threw an arrow at Abdullâh and martyred him by the side of his uncle.

Thereafter Shimr Ibn Ziljushan attacked the tents of Hussain (a.s.) saying: “Give me fire so that I may burn down these tents with all the inmates.”

Hussain (a.s.) said: “O son of Ziljushan! You are demanding fire to burn my family? May Allâh burn you in fire.”

Then came Shabth whom Imâm admonished. So he returned ashamedly.

Then Husain (a.s.) asked his family: “Give me an old cloth so that I may wear it as an undergarment, and they may do not uncover my body.”

A tight shirt was brought. He said: “Not this, because this is a disgraceful dress.”

Then he took an old cloth, made some tears in it, and wore it beneath his dress. But they stripped him after his martyrdom, and that cloth looted too.

Thereafter Imâm (a.s.) called for “Hebari” trousers and made holes therein so that they may not rob it from his body, and wore it. Yet, after his martyrdom, a man called Bahr Ibn Ka’ab stole it, and left Hussain (a.s.) bare bodied.

After Âshura day, both hands of Bahr Ibn Ka’ab became dry, like a couple of dry sticks during winter. During summer his hands used to become swollen with blood and puss oozed therefrom till Allâh killed him.

When many wounds were inflicted on the holy body of Hussain (a.s.) and his body became like a potcupine, a mean-minded cursed fellow called Sâleh Ibn Wahab al Mazni (may Allâh curse him) inflicted a forceful hit on the flank of Imâm which made Husain (a.s.) fall on the right side from his horse, and then he stood on his feet.

The narrator said: Zainab (s.a.) came out of the tent and yelled: “O my brother! O my leader! O my household! Iwish the sky had fallen down on earth. I wish the mountains had come down to the plains, scattered.”

Shimr cried out to his soldiers, “What are you waiting for?” Thereafter, they attacked Imâm from every side.

Zar’at Ibn Shuraik (curse of Allâh be on him), inflicted a wound on the left shoulder of Imâm. The Imâm also gave him a blow killing him.

Another fellow stricked his sword on the back of Imâm, which caused Husain (a.s.) to fall down on earth headlong. After this he sat up with much difficulty, and again fell on the earth and rose up and walked.

Sinân bin Anas Nakhai (curse of God be on him) inflicted a wound with his spear on the cavity of Imam’s (a.s.) pharynx and then pierced his spear in the chest.

Thereafter, Sinân shot an arrow, which pierced the Imâm’s neck. He fell again and then sat up and pulled out the arrow from his blessed neck. But thereafter he caught the lower part of his neck with both of his palms, which were filled with his holy blood. He colored his head and beard with it and said; “I am going to my God with such a hair dye, while my rights have been violated.”

Umar Ibn Sa’ad told to a man who was on his right: “Woe unto you. Come down and relieve Husain.”

Khuli Ibn Yazeed Asbahi went forward to cut off the head of Husain but began to tremble!

Sinân bin Anas (may he be cursed by Allâh) came down and struck his sword on the holy throat saying: “By Allâh, I am cutting your neck despite knowing that you are the son of Allâh’s Prophet, and the best offspring from the viewpoint of parents. Then he cut off the holy head.”

The poet says about this:

Which calamity is harder than that of Hussain;

On the day when Sinân cut off his blessed head.

Abu Tâhir Muhammad Ibn Hussain Bursi, in the book Ma’alimuddin, quotes from Imâm Sâdiq (a.s.), that “After Hussain’s martyrdom, angels arrived wept and said,

“O Lord! This is Your Husain, the chosen son of Your Messenger’s daughter.” In response to these words of the angels, the Almighty Allâh raised the holy shadow of the Qaem-e-Âle Muhammad and said, “I will take the revenge of Husain by his hands.”

The narrator said: After the martyrdom of Imâm (a.s.), a severe storm blew and the sky was covered by red colors making everything invisible, and people feared that the Divine Wrath had descended. So they paused for hours until the storm passed away.

Hilâl said, “I separated from the two rows of soldiers and stood by the side of Hussain (a.s.). His holiness was on the verge of death. By Allâh, I have never seen a blood-covered body more beautiful than he, nor any face brighter than his. The brightness of his face made me doubtful about his death.”

“In that condition Husain asked for water. Hilâl heard that someone telling him, “By Allâh. You will not taste water until you drink the boiling water in hell.”

Hussain (a.s.) said: “No! Rather I will approach my grandfather, the Messenger of Allâh, and will take refuge in his abode, on the platform of Truth, near the All Powerful Monarch (Allah), and will drink pure water and will complain to him about your atrocities.‍”

He said: “They became very angry, as if Allâh had not put any kindness in their hearts.” When Imâm (a.s.) was talking with them they beheaded him. Experiencing extreme wonder at this, stone heartedness and cruelty, I said, “By Allâh I will never join you in any matter.”

Then, with a view to steal the holy Imâm’s cloth, they came forward. Ishâq bin Haubah Hazrami (May the curse of Allâh be upon him) pulled up the holy Imâm’s shirt and wore it himself. Afterwards he suffered from leprosy, and his hair also dropped off.

It is mentioned in traditions that there were one hundred and ten marks of arrows and spears in it.

Imâm Sâdiq (a.s.) said, “There were thirty-three wounds of spears, and thirty-four of swords on the blessed body of Husain (a.s.).”

Imâm’s (a.s.) pyjamas was looted by Bahr Ibn Ka’ab Teemi (curse of Allâh on him). It is mentioned in a tradition that he too had become bedridden after both of his legs were paralyzed.

His turban was snatched by Akhnas bin Morthad bin Alqamah Hazrami, or Jabir bin Yazeed Oodi. He also had become a lunatic thereafter.

Imâm’s shoes were looted by Aswad Ibn Khâlid (l.a.).

For robbing the Imâm of his ring, Bajdal Ibn Salim Kalabi cut off his finger.

The robe of the Imâm, which was made of fur, was plundered by Qais Ibn Ashath (the cursed one) and his coat of mail was snatched by Umar bin Sa’ad (May God curse him).

The sword of Imâm was seized by Jumeeh bin Khalq Oodi. It is also said that a man from Bani Tamim named as Aswad Ibn Hanzala killed him.

In the narration of (the historian) Ibn Sa’ad the sword of holy Imâm had been plundered by Falafas Nahshali.

Muhammad Ibn Zakariya added that the sword, later on, reached to the daughter of Habib Ibn Badeel, and this plundered sword is other than Zulfiqâr. Because Zulfiqâr is one of the relics of Prophethood and Imâmat, which have been divinely protected. Narrators have testified what we have mentioned.

A narrator has said that a slave girl came out from the direction of the holy Imâm’s tent.

A man told her: “O the slave girl of Allâh. Your master has achieved martyrdom.”

The girl said: “I rushed towards the respected ladies and the womenfolk while screaming,” the chaste and veiled womenfolk stood up, cried and wailed.” It is said, “The enemies took precedence over one another in looting the tents and property of Hazrat Muhammad’s household and the dear ones of Fatemah (a.s.). They went to such extremes that they pulled off any cover from their shoulders. The Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) daughters rushed out screaming and wailing due to their separation from their defenders and dear ones.”

Hamid Ibn Moslem says: “There was a woman belonging to Bani Bakr bin Vâ’eil, who was with her husband in the army of Umar bin Sa’ad. When she saw how they had attacked and invaded the tents of the ladies, she took a sword in her hand and rushed to those tents and cried: O Âle Bakr bin Vâ’eil! Are you plundering the daughters of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.)? Command and kingdom belongs only to Allâh! Her husband caught her and sent her back to her place.”

The narrator reports: Thereafter, they drove out the honorable ladies from their tents bareheaded and barefoot, arrested them and put their tents to fire.

The ladies said: “For Allâh’s sake, take us to the place of slaughter.” When the ladies saw the martyrs, they cried and slapped their faces.

A narrator has said, “By Allâh! I can never forget how Zainab, daughter of Ali (a.s.), wept over Husain (a.s.) and wailed in an extremely sorrowful voice: “O Muhammad! May the blessings of God be on you. This is your Husain laid bare-bodied with bleeding dismembered organs. Woe unto this calamity. Your daughters are enslaved. I convey my complaints to Allâh, to Muhammad-el-Mustafa, to Ali-el-Murtuza, to Fâtima-az-Zahra, and to Hamza Sayyed-e-Shuhadā.”

“O Muhammad! Here is Husain killed by the bastards in this desert, where wind covers him with sands. We seek safety from all this grief and sorrow and all these hardships and calamities meted out to you Aba Abdillâh! It is as if my grandfather, the Messenger of Allâh, has left this world only today.”

“O companions of Muhammad! These are the progeny of Muhammad, who are being carried like slaves.”

” O Muhammad! Your daughters are captives, and your progeny assassinated, on the bodies of which the desert wind is spreading sands. Here is Husain whose head has been cut off from the nape of his neck, without turban or cloak.”

“May my father be sacrificed for the dear one whose army got routed on Monday, and his tent was destroyed. May my father be sacrificed for the dear one, who did not go on a journey from where there is a hope of returning. Nor is he ailing in such a way that it can be cured. May my father be sacrificed for the one, for whom my life is also ready to be sacrificed. May my father be sacrificed for the grieved one, who has been martyred, a thirsty one who died with dry lips. May my father be sacrificed for the esteemed one his own blood drained from his beard. May my father be sacrificed for the honorable one, whose grandfather was the messenger of Allâh. May my father be sacrificed for the one who is the grandson of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.).”

“May my father be sacrificed for Zahrā, the Chief of the Ladies, may my father be sacrificed for the one, whom the sun returned so that he may offer his prayer.”

The reporter says, “By Allâh, Zainab cuased both friends and foes weep through her sorrowful dirge.”

Thereafter Sakina drew the holy body of his father to her lap. Some Arabs separated her from her father.

The narrator has reported that thereafter Umar Ibn Sa’ad cried out to his army, “Who are volunteers to stampede horses on the body of Husain?” Ten persons responded: Is’hâq Ibn Haubah who had robbed Hussain’s shirt; Akhnas Ibn Marsad, Hakim Ibn Tufail Sab’ei, Umar Ibn Sabih Saidavi, Raja Ibn Manqaz Abdi; Salim Ibn Khaisama Jo’fi, Sâleh Ibn Wahab Ja’fi, Wāhiz Ibn Ghānam, Hâni Ibn Shabeet, and Usaid Ibn Malik (may Allâh curse them all). These ten fellows trampled the holy body of Hussain (a.s.) under the hooves of their horses and crushed the back and front of the body of the holy Imâm (a.s.).

A narrator said that those ten fellows went to Ibne Ziyâd (may Allah curse him) and one of them, Usaid Ibn Malik, said:

“We crushed the chest and back of Husain by driving strong and jumping horses on his body.”

Ibn Ziyâd asked: “Who are you?”

They replied: “We are those who crushed the back and chest of Husain with the hooves of our horses.”

Ibn Ziyâd awarded them prizes.

Abu Umar Zâhid has said, “We have searched the biographies of these ten fellows, and found that all of them were bastards.”

Ibne Riyah has narrated, “I saw a blind man. He was present in Karbala. He was asked about his blindness. He replied, “I was present in Karbala on the day of Âshura. I had not used any spear, sword, or arrow. After the martyrdom of Imâm (a.s.) I returned home. I went to sleep after performing the Isha (evening) prayer.”

He saw in hyis dream that someone asked him to respond to the call of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.).

He said, “I have nothing to do with him?” That person caught his collar and dragged him to the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). He saw holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) sitting in wilderness. His shirt sleeves were rolled up to elbows. There was a weapon in his hand. An angel had stood near him with a red-hot sword in hand. He was killing my nine friends. Every one of them who was hit by that sword caught fire and was in flames. He went near and sat down on his knees and said, “As-Salâmu alaikum O Prophet of Allâh!” He did not reply. There was a long pause. Then he raised his head and said, “O enemy of Allâh! You ended my respect, killed my relatives, did not honor my rights, and did what you did.”

I submitted: “O Messenger of Allâh! By Allâh! I did not use a sword, a spear, or an arrow.”

He said, “You have told the truth. But you were a soldier of that army. Come nearer to me.” I went nearer. I saw a plate full of blood. He said, “This is the blood of my son Husain.” He dropped from that blood in to my eyes. Then I woke up from my dream and from that moment I could not see anything.

It is reported by Imâm Sâdiq (a.s.) that the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said, “On the Day of Resurrection, a dome of light will be raised for Fâtima (s.a.), and Hussain (a.s.) will arrive with his head in hand. When Fâtima would see him she will shriek such a loud lament, which will cause every proximate angel and prophet to weep. Then the Almighty Allâh will bring Hussain (a.s.) in the most beautiful form. He will fight his enemy without head. Thereafter, Allâh will gather, for me, all those who cooperated and were participants in the shedding of his holy blood. Then I will kill all of them. They will be made alive and Amirul Momineen (a.s.) will kill all of them. Then they will be enlivened again to be killed by Hussain (a.s.) and then the grief will end.”

Then Imâm Sâdiq (a.s.) said, “May Allâh have Mercy on our Shias, who are, by Allâh, the faithful, and who are partners with us in every calamity and grief that engulfs us.”

It is reported that the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Fâtima (s.a.) will arrive in the midst of a group of women on the Day of Judgment.

An order will be issued: “Enter Paradise.”

She will say: “I will not enter till I know what has been done to my sons after my death.”

She will hear, “Just look in the midst of the resurrected people.” Her eyes would fall on Husain and would see that he is standing headless. Fâtima (s.a.) gives out a cry. I also cry out for her complaint, and will cry all the angels too.”

According to another tradition Fâtima (s.a.) would cry, “O my son! O fruit of my soul!” It is said that, at the moment, Allâh will became angry. He will order a fire named “Habhab”, a fire that had been fanned for one thousand years turning it into black. Comfort can never be within it, nor can grief go out of it.

Then comes a command: “take in the killers of Husain (a.s.).” That fire sucks in all of them and as they reach the middle of that fire a distressing shriek comes out and their collective shrieks also are heard. The roar of fire and the shrieks of the burning ones fill up the atmosphere.

The killers of Husain (a.s.) will cry out: “Why are we being burnt even before the idol-worshippers?”

There comes a reply: “Those who know are not like those who do not know.”

Ibne Babawayh has recorded these two traditions in the book Iqâbul Amâl.



















It is said that Umar Ibn Sa’ad (curse of God be on him), in the afternoon of the Day of Âshura, sent the holy head of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) to Ubaidullâh bin Ziyâd through Khuli bin Yazeed Asbahi and Hamid Ibn Moslem Azdi (curse of God be on them), and ordered that the heads of other holy martyrs be sent by Shimr bin Ziljaushan, Qais bin Ashath, and Amr Ibn Hajjâj. So they moved with the said holy heads and reached Kufa.

Umar bin Sa’ad remained the rest of Âshura, and the next day till noon time in Karbala. Then he moved with the remaining persons of the holy family of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) from Karbala. He made the members of the holy family (who were the trust of the best of the Messengers of Allâh) to sit on bare camels, while their veils were removed in front of the enemies. In the midst of all these sorrows and griefs, they were driven just as chained slaves.

How nice it is said:

How strange and wonderful that they were offering salutations on the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.); but fighting against his household!

It is mentioned in a narration that the number of the decapitated heads of the companions of Hussain (a.s.) was seventy eight, which were distributed by the tribes for winning favors of Ibne Ziyâd and Yazeed bin Muawiyah (may Allah’s curse be upon them). The distribution was:

1. Kandeh tribe – Headed by Qais Ibn Ashath = Thirteen heads

2. Havazan tribe – Headed by Shimr Ibn Ziljaushan = Twelve heads

3. Bani Tamim = Seventeen heads

4. Bani Asad = Sixteen heads

5. Mizhaj tribe = Seven heads

6. The rest of tribes and other people = Thirteen heads.

The narrator has said that: As Umar bin Sa’ad moved away from Karbala, a group of people from Bani Asad arrived and after funeral ceremonies for the holy bodies buried them as they are now. When Ibne Sa’ad reached Kufa along with the prisoners, people came to see the scene.

A Kufi lady asked the noble prisoners from the window of her home, “Where are you coming from? Who are you?”

They said: “We prisoners belong to the family of the holy Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.).”

She came out from her home and offered dresses and veils to the female prisoners, so that they might cover up themselves.

It is said that along with the ladies were a few men. Ali Ibn Hussain (a.s.) who had become very lean due to illness. Hasan Ibn Hasan Muthanna , who had patiently received serious wounds of the spear in support of his uncle and Imâm. Zaid Ibn-el-Hasan and Amr bin al-Hasan were with them too. The Kufians recited an elegy and wept.

Zain-ul-Âbedin (a.s.) said, “Are you mourning and weeping for us? But then who killed us?”

Bashir Ibn Khuzâim Asadi said, “On that day I heard the speech of Zainab, daughter of Ali (a.s.). I have not seen any modest and chaste lady with such oratory. It was, as if, being delivered by Ali (a.s.).” She pointed towards the people and said, “Silence please.” People became almost breathless.

She said, “All praise and applause fits only to Allâh. Salutation be upon my grandfather, Muhammad and the noble people of his family.”

“Now, people of Kufa! People of deceit and disloyalty! Are you weeping? Your tears may never stop flowing, and your mourning may not end. Your affair is like the affair of that woman who unweaved whatever she had woven. You always make your oaths a medium to make money. Do you have anything except repulsive deadly contamination, vengeance and flattery like the flattering of slave girls, and the grief and sorrow of enemies? Do you have a grazing land as large as a ruined area, or a pot of silver, hidden in your graves? What an evil thing you have forwarded to Allâh, which has caused His wrath against you and you will receive divine punishment forever?”

“Are you weeping and crying out from your hearts? Yes! By Allâh, you will cry more and smile less. Verily, you have carried all shame and disgrace with you, and not even a fragment of which will ever be washed by you. How will you respond the guilt of the blood of the offsprings of the seal of prophethood, and the mine of messengership, the leader of the youth of Paradise, the shelter of the righteous, and the rescuer of the deprived people, the symbol of divine reasoning for you, and the follower of traditions?”

“What a serious crime you have committed! Damn with you! May your efforts be fruitless; your hands perish, and may your merchandise causes loss to you. You have reverted to the wrath of Allâh, and the blot of disgrace and dishonor is now fixed on your forehead forever.”

“Woe unto you Kufians! Do you know that you have injured the heart of the Prophet of Allâh? What kind of pious ladies of the Messenger’s household have you unveiled? What blood of the holy Prophet have you shed? How did you violate his honor and respect? Verily, how much fuel have you added to the fire of dark calamities and troubles?”

It is mentioned in a narrative that she added “What large-scale foolish and ugly acts you have committed? Did you wonder that the sky rain blood? Know that the chastisement of the Hereafter is more disgraceful, and you will never be helped. Do not be happy at the respite that you have got. Because Allâh does not make haste in taking revenge, and that He completes the task when its time arrives. Most surely your Lord is watching.”

The narrator said, “By Allâh, I could see people weeping like the bewildered ones, and who that they held their hands over their mouths.”

I saw an old man who was weeping, standing by my side, and his beard drenched in tears. He was saying, “May my parents be sacrificed for you. Your elders are the best elders; your youths are the best youth; your women are the best women; and your race is the best race that will never be disgraced. None can equal you.”

Zaid Ibn Musa has reported from his father and grandfather that Fâtima Sughra (Daughter of Imam Hussain(a.s.)) had said after returning from Karbala, “Praise for Allâh, as many times as there are grains of sand, and as weighty as the weight of all that extends from earth to sky. I praise Him and I believe in Him, and I trust Him and I give witness that there is none worthy of worship except Him. And that Muhammad is His Servant and Messenger. And that his progeny were slaughtered by the bank of river Euphrates, though they were neither vindictive, nor did they claim or demand any land (state).”

“O Allâh! I seek Your refuge from the sin of saying any untruth about You and anything other than what You have said regarding the leadership (Imamat) of Ali Ibn Abi Tâlib; that they was killed without any fault (in the same manner his son was martyred yesterday). The martyrdom of Ali occurred in one of the houses of Allâh (Mosques), in the presence of a number of so called Muslims. May they be destroyed! Those who did not prevent oppressing him through his life, until You took him up to You. He who had a praiseworthy character, whose talent was famous, and whose guidance was well known. O Lord! No reproach of any taunter ever deterred him from his goal, or the blame of any ridiculer. My Lord! You guided him in his childhood to Islâm. You praised his character when he grew up. He was a constant well-wisher and concerned of Your religion, and of Your Messenger (s.a.w.s.) until you took his soul. The soul of the one who was a devout abstinent in the world. Who paid no heed to the world, but he was always inclined towards the Hereafter, and tried in Your path. He was Ali, whom You loved, selected, and guided to the right path.”

“Now, O Kufians! The cheats, disloyal, and proud folk! Indeed we are the members of Ahle Bayt. God has examined us with you, and you with us, and it was a fair test. He granted us His knowledge and wisdom. Hence we are the containers of His knowledge, wisdom, and metaphysics. We are His guiding signs on the earth, for His nations. He has honored us with His generosity, and has granted grace and superiority to His Messenger, Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) over many of His servants in a manifest manner.”

“Then you tried to deny and refute us, and considered it correct to fight us. You thought it was all right to roband appropriate our property as if we were non-Muslims. Yesterday you killed my grandfather (Ali). The blood of our youth is dripping from your daggers. All of these are due to your old enmity (against us). After committing all these felonious crimes your eyes have brightened and your hearts are overjoyed. Strange indeed is your slander against Allâh and the conspired planning, which you planned; while Allâh is the best of planners.”

“Lest you rejoice your deeds of shedding our blood, and plundering our property! Whatever calamities have fallen on us were in the Book (of destiny) even before we confronted them. This is easy in the Path of Allâh. So you may not grieve over what you lost, and do not become joyous on account of what you gained; and Allâh does not like the proud and the boasting people.”

“May you be destroyed! Await curse and chastisement, which will visit you. Calamities will rain continuously from the sky, and (Allâh’s) wrath will surround you. Some of you shall be treated harshly by some others, and you will remain in a permanent chastisement as a result of the atrocities inflicted on us by you. Beware that the curse of Allâh is on the oppressors.”

“Woe unto you: Do you know those people you’re your tribes who our bodies? How did your hearts incline to fight against us? Howcould your legs rush on us, seeking war with us? By Allâh, your hearts have become dark, and your soul, ears, and eyes have been sealed. Satan made these crimes beautiful for you, and threw dark curtain on your eyes. So you will never be guided rightly.”

“Be destroyed O Kufians! What inheritance of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) did you possess? Or for which vengeance you exhibited so much enmity towards his brother Ali bin Abi Tâlib (a.s.), my grandfather, and his two sons (Hasan and Husain) the noble progeny of the Prophet, that the boaster poem from you said so proudly:

“We killed Ali and his sons;

with Indian swords and the spears;

and we imprisoned their women like the non-Mulim slaves;

What a war we fought with them!”

“O Poet! May you suffocate? Are you proud that you have killed the people who have been purified by Allâh and impurity has been removed from them? How do you take pride in this? Take care of yourself and sit on your droppings like a dog, as was your father. Verily for everyone is whatever he has earned and sent ahead.”

“Woe unto you! Do you envy for what Allâh has granted us?

What is our fault if the ocean of our grace is roaring; while your rivulet has no wave!”

“This is a divine excellence, which will be given to whoever He wishes, and Allâh is the Lord of the greatest graces. The one whom Allâh does not grant light, for him there will be no light.”

It is narrated that the noise of crying became loud, while the Kufians were saying: “Oh daughter of the holy beings! It is now enough. Our hearts have been burnt! You have burnt our necks and burnt our souls.” She became silent.

On the same day Umme Kulthum, daughter of Ali, spoke from behind the cover of saddle of the camel-litter, while crying: “O Kufians! Woe unto you! What happened to you that you left Hussain (a.s.)? You killed him and destroyed and snatched his properties, and imprisoned the women from his household and heaped calamities on them? Mau Allah kills you.”

“Woe unto you. How many crimes you carried out? How many sins did you commit? How much blood you shed? How many respected women you insulted (arrested)? How many types of apparel did you plunder, and how much property did you destroy? You killed the best people after the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). Kindness has left your hearts.”

You caught my brother and killed him;

Woe unto your mothers!

Very soon you will be dragged into fire;

The heat whereof gets inflamed;

You shed the blood, which Allâh, Quran, and Muhammad had disallowed to be shed;

Beware to you for drowning in the depths of Hell tomorrow on the Day of Judgment;

I will weep over my martyred brother throughout my life;

Over the one who was better than all after the Holy Prophet;

With the tears rolling relentlessly on the cheeks, which will never dry.

The narrators said that the weeping of the audience became loud. Women tore their hair; threw dust on their heads; scratched their faces, slapped their cheeks, and wailed in a very sad voice. Men also wept profusely tearing at their beards. Never were seen such a crying people like them in the past.

Then Zainul Âbedin (a.s.) asked them to be silent. All became quiet. Imâm got up and praised Allâh; He sent blessings on the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) in the best manner and then said: “O people! One, who knows me, has known. As for those who did not recognize me I am introducing myself. I am Ali, son of Husain, son of Ali, son of Abi Tâlib (a.s.). I am the son of the one who has been slaughtered by river Euphrates, though he never killed any innocent person, nor he seized any heritage. I am the son of the one whose honorable ladies and family, have been disrespected; whose wealth and bounty has been plundered; whose children have been arrested. I am the son of one who was caught and killed and this is enough for me to be proud of.”

“O people! I administer you oath of Allâh. Do you know that you wrote a letter to my father and then cheated him? You gave your word to him and extended allegiance to him. Then you left him and prepared yourselves to kill him! Be you destroyed because of what you sent forth. Upon what you have garnished. With which eyes will you look at the Messenger of Allâh when he will say that you killed his household, and you insulted his family; and you are not from his nation.”

The narrator said that voices rose from all sides, while they were telling one another, “You destroyed while not knwoing?”

Imâm continued: “May Allâh have mercy on him who accepts my admonitions and remembers my advice regarding the command of Allâh, about His Prophet and his household, Since he is the good pattern for us.”

All responded: “O son of the holy Prophet! All of us listen to you and obey you. We are guardians of your responsibility. We are prepared to carry out your commands. We will not turn our face from you. Please give command to us. May Allâh’s mercy be on you. We will fight against your enemy, and we are with you in whatever you plan. We will arrest Yazeed. And we declare our disconnection from your enemy and our enemy!”

Then Imâm replied: “Alas, alas. O disloyal conspirers! Is there any excuse, which is not between you and your passions? Do you want to do with me what you did with my father earlier? No, by Allâh, no! Because these wounds have not yet healed. It was only yesterday when my father, along with his household (a.s.), were martyred. I am unable to forget the calamity of missing the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and the calamity of losing my father and his children. Its pain is in my mouth, and its bitterness is choking me. His sorrow is squeezing my chest.

No wonder that Husain is martyred; His father was better and greater than him (and he was also martyred)

Do not be joyous O Kufians, over what happened to Husain; as this calamity was more terrible;

May my life be sacrificed for the one who had been slaughtered near the river;

The punishment for those who killed him is the hellfire.

I consider this enough from you that you are neither for us nor against us.”

* * * *

The narrator says: Thereafter Ibn Ziyâd sat in his palace and gave audience to all. The holy head of Husain (a.s.) was placed before him. His women and children also arrived.

Zainab, the respected daughter of Ali (a.s.) sat unknown and unrecognized.

Ibn Ziyâd asked, “Who is this lady?”

It was said: “Zainab, the daughter of Ali.”

Ibn Ziyâd looked at her and said: “Praise to Allâh Who disgraced you and failed you in your efforts.”

Zainab (s.a.): “Verily, it is the libertine who becomes disgraced and the debauchee who gets refuted, and they are other than us.”

Ibn Ziyâd: “What did Allâh do to your brother and your family?”

Zainab: “Nothing but good! They, Husain and his friends, were a group for whom Allâh has destined martyrdom. They rushed towards their place of slaughter. Verily soon Allâh will gather you and them. Then you will be interrogated harshly. Then you will see who wins. May your mother mourn over you, O son of Marjâna!”

The narrator said that Ibn Ziyâd became furious, as if decided to kill her.

Amr Ibn Harees said, “O chief! She is a lady, and a lady cannot be punished for her words!”

Ibn Ziyâd: “Truly, Allâh has cursed my heart by killing your rebel brother and the criminal “family”!”

Zainab: You killed my leader, uprooted my branches, and destroyed my foundation! If this was your healing then you have attained your aim.

Ibn Ziyâd: This woman talks like a poet. By my life, your father was also a poet.

Zainab: O Ibn Ziyâd! What has a woman to do with rhythm and poem?

Thereafter Ibn Ziyâd turned towards Ali Ibn-al-Husain and asked: “Who is he?”

He was told: “He is Ali Ibn-al-Hussain (a.s.).”

Ibn Ziyâd: “But did not Allâh kill Ali Ibn-al-Husain?”

Zainul Âbedin (a.s.): I had a brother by the name of Ali Ibn-al-Husain. People killed him.

Ibn Ziyâd: But Allâh killed him!

Imam Sajjad: At the time of death, Allâh takes the souls.

Ibn Ziyâd: You dare to answer me? Bring him and decapitate him.

Zainab heard the words of that filthy fellow and said: “O Ibn Ziyâd, you have not spared anyone of us. If you have decided to kill him, then kill me along with him!”

Sajjâd (a.s.) told his aunt: “O aunt, please calm down so that I may tell him something!”

Then Imâm turned towards Ibn Ziyâd and said, “Are you trying to frighten me with threats of death? Don’t you know that martyrdom is our habit and greatness?”

Then Ibn Ziyâd ordered that Ali bin Husain and his family be lodged in a house near the main mosque.

Zainab (a.s.): No Arab woman should come to us. Only slave girls may come.

Then Ibn Ziyâd ordered that the holy head of Hussain (a.s.) should be taken in rounds in the streets and localities of Kufa.

The head of Muhammed’s (s.a.w.a.) grandson and his heir goes up on a spear for the onlookers. Muslims do see and hear. But none could deny the situation, nor could anyone sympathize with the victims of the tragedy. The terrible condition blinded eyes and the calamity deafened every ear, which heard wails.

The narrator has said that then Ibn Ziyâd climbed the pulpit, uttered words of praise of Allâh, and said in a part of his speech: “Praise to Allâh Who revealed the truth and helped Amirul Momineen (Yazeed) and his followers, gave them victory, and killed the liar, son of the liar!”

He had not yet ended that Abdullâh Ibn Afeef Azadi got up. He was a righteous and pious Shia, who had lost his left eye in the battle of Jamal, and the right one in Siffeen war. He used to attend the Grand Mosque of Kufa, and worship therein all the day.

He said, “Oh, son of Marjâna! You are the liar, son of a liar, and also the one who gave you government (Yazeed) and his father (Muawiyah)! Oh enemy of Allâh! You are killing the sons of the Prophet and uttering such words from the pulpit of Muslims!”

Ibn Ziyâd became angry and asked: “Who is speaking such words?”

Abdullâh: O enemy of Allâh! I am addressing you. Are you killing the pious progeny of the holy Prophet and think that you are following the religion of Islâm?

“Help! Help! O sons of the Pioneers! Where are you? Come up and take revenge from this cursed son of cursed (Yazeed and Muawiyah) who were so described by the holy Prophet.”

This doubled the wrath of the filthy Ibne Ziyâd to such extent that the veins of his neck swelled and he said: “Bring him to me.” The executioners and guards rushed from all sides to capture him. The noblemen of his tribe, Azd, and his cousins also stood up and freed him from the clutches of the government servants, took him out of the mosque and sent him to his house.

Ibn Ziyâd: Catch the blind – the blind man of Azd, whom Allâh has blinded and bring him to me.

A battalion went out and the news reached to the tribe of Azd. They united with the tribes of Yemen to protect Abdullâh.

Ibn Ziyâd heard this. He also gathered the tribes of Mazar in association with the people of Muhammad Ibn Ashath and ordered for a war.

The narrator has reported that there was a fierce fight in which a group of Arabs were killed.

The men of Ibne Ziyâd went to the house of Abdullâh bin Afeef, broke it open and attacked him.

His daughter said: “Those you feared from have come!”

Abdullâh: You will not be in a loss. Give me my sword.

He grasped his sword and began to defend himself chanting:

I am the son of Afeef Taher, the honourable; my father is Afeef and my mother is Umme Āmer. How many of your armored heroes have I dispatched to death?

His daughter said continuously: “Alas, I wish I were a man to fight with you against this destructive community, who killed the honorable members of the “holy family”!”

The enemy surrounded Abdullâh from every side and he continued to defend himself single-handed. Nobody was able to dominate him. The daughter was guiding her blind father, until finally he was encircled closely.

His daughter said: “May Allâh avoid disgrace. My father has been surrounded and there is none to help him.”

Wielding his sword Abdullâh said: “By Allâh, had I been able to see; then my movements would have exhausted you.”

The narrator said that the surrounded Abdullâh was, at last, arrested and taken to Ibn Ziyâd.

Seeing him Ibn Ziyâd said, “Praise to Allâh Who disgraced you.”

Abdullâh Ibn Afeef: O enemy of Allâh! How did he disgrace me? Had I been able to see with my eyes, I would have undoubtedly put you to trouble.

Ibn Ziyâd: What is your opinion about Uthmân bin Affan?

Abdullâh: O slave! O son of Marjâna! (He cursed him). What have you to do with Uthmân? He did good or bad, improved the affairs or spread corruption. Allâh is the guard over His servants. He will decide justly between people and Uthmân. You should just ask about yourself and your father, and about Yazeed and his father.

Ibn Ziyâd: No, by Allâh! I will not ask you anything till you taste death little by little!

Abdullâh Ibn Afeef: All praise to Allâh, the Lord of the worlds. Even before your mother delivered you I had asked for martyrdom from Allâh and requested Him that my martyrdom be carried out by the hand of the worst and the most evil fellow among His creation. After becoming blind, I had lost my hope for martyrdom. But now, praise be to Allâh, after disappointment I have achieved this good luck and my prayer has been answered.

The devil Ibn Ziyâd: kill him and hang him publicly in Kufa.

It is said that Ubaidullâh Ibn Ziyâd (may the curse of Allah be upon him) conveyed the story of Karbala and the martyrdom of Husain (a.s.) to Yazeed bin Muawiyah (may the curse of Allah be upon him) and to Amr Ibn Saeed Ibn Aas, who was the governor of Medina.

Amr Ibn Saeed, after getting the news, went up the pulpit and within a speech conveyed the news to the people. Bani Hâshem became very sad by this news and they arranged mourning. Zainab, daughter of Aquil bin Abi Tâlib recited a dirge and said:

“What will you reply when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) asks you, “Being the last Ummah what did you do to my progeny after my departure?” Some of them were imprisoned and some were drowned in their own blood. Had I willed you to misbehave with my household, you would not have done worse than what you did. O you, who killed Husain under utmost oppression, takes news of a painful chastisement. Everyone who is in the heaven and every prophet and messenger and every martyr (witness) wept over him. You are the cursed ones who have been cursed by the tongues of Soloman, Moses, and Jesus.”

* * * *

When the letter of Ibn Ziyâd reached Yazeed Ibn Muawiyah, and he got acquainted with the story, he wrote a reply and ordered that the heads of Husain (a.s.) and the martyrs, the women and family members, and bags of Imâm be sent to him.

Ibn Ziyâd called Mahaffar Ibn Thalaba and handed over the heads and the slaves to him.

The evil-hearted Mahaffar drove the slaves savagely towards Syria.

Ibn Laheeah has narrated, from which we are quoting the required parts as follow:

He has said that he was praying round Ka’ba when he met a man who was wailing, “O Allâh, forgive me, but I do not see to be forgiven.” I told him, “O servant of Allâh! Fear Allâh and do not say so! Even if your sins are more than drops of rain, or leaves of all trees, and you pray Allâh for pardon, Allâh will forgive you. He is the All- forgiving and the Most Merciful.”

He told me, “Come close to me so that I may tell you my story.” I went close to him. He said, “We were fifty men who carryied the holy head of Husain to Shâm. Every night we put the head in the midst of a coffin and engaged in wine drinking nearby. That night my friends were drunk. But I did not drink. As the curtain of darkness fell on us and lightning began I saw that the gates of the sky opened and Adām, Noah, Abraham, Is’hâq, Ismaeil and Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) came down along with Gibrael (Gabriel- Spirit) and a group of angels.”

“Gibrael approached the coffin, took out the holy head from it, embraced and kissed it. All the prophets did likewise. The holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) wept by the side of the blessed head, and the other messengers consoled him.”

Gibrael submitted the proposal, “O Muhammad! Allâh, the Almighty, has commanded me regarding your nation that I should do as you like. If you order, I may shake the earth severely, and make it topsy-turvy, as I did to the nation of Lūt.”

The holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) replied: “No, Gibrael! Because I have made an endowment with Allâh about them.”

The narrator says, “When the caravan of the slaves came near Damascus,” Umme Kulthum approached Shimr and said, “I have a request.”

He asked, “What do you need?”

She replied, “When you intend to make us enter the city, usher us from a gate where there are less people and issue order to take the heads of the martyrs out of the camel-litters, and to keep them away from us. Because we have been much disgraced in the eyes of the people.”

Shimr, due to his natural malice, gave an opposite order! The heads were placed on the top of the spears, and put in the midst of camel-litters, and the prisoners were thus paraded upto the gate of Damascus and thenceforth to the gate of the Grand Mosque. Then they were confined to the detention quarter.

It is mentioned in a tradition that when an elderly Muslim saw the holy head of Hussain (a.s.), he hid himself from the people for one month. Thereafter when people saw him they asked the reason. He replied: “Did you not see what happen to us?” Then he recited the following prose:

O son of the daughter of Muhammad! They brought your head drenched in your blood;

Thus, O son of the daughter of Muhammad! They have openly and intentionally killed the Prophet;

They killed you, keeping you thirsty, and did not pay attention to the Quran and its interpretation;

While killing you they said Allâho Akbar. Verily by killing you they have killed Takbeer (Allâho Akbar) and Tahleel (Lâ ilâha illa Allah).

An old man approached the womenfolk and household of Husain (a.s.) when they all were in the same place. Then he said, “Praise to Allâh Who killed and destroyed you, and relieved the cities from your men, and imposed the order of Amirul Momineen (Yazeed) on you!”

Ali Ibn Hussain (a.s.) told him, “O old man! Have you recited Quran?” He replied: “Yes.”

Ali Ibn Hussain (a.s.): Did you understand the meaning of this vrese that,

“(O’ Prophet) Say: I do not expect from you anything as wage (for my Prophethood) except friendship with my close relatives?”(Quran 42:43)

He replied: “I have read this verse!”

Ali Ibn Husain said: “We are ‘Zilqurba’ (the close relatives of the Prophet). O old man! Have you read in Bani Israel chapter this verse: Observe the rights of Zilqurba (the close relatives)?” (Quran 17:26)

The old man: I have read it!

Imam (a.s.): “We are the “Zilqurba”! Have you read this verse,” And know that whatever you may earn from everything, then truly one-fifth of it is for Allâh, and Prophet, and Zilqurba? (Quran 8:41)

The old man: “Yes.”

The Imam: We are the ‘qurba’ O Shaykh! Have your read this verse, “Indeed Allâh intended to remove impurity from you Ahle Bayt, and to purify you, in the best purification?” (Quran 33:33)

The old man: “I have read it!”

The Imam: “O Shaykh! We are the Ahle Bayt whom the Almighty Allâh has identified through this verse.”

The narrator has added: The old man kept quiet. He felt ashamed for what he had said. Then he asked: “Tell me, by Allâh, are you those persons?”

Sajjâd (a.s.): “By Allâh, we are those. I swear by our grandfather that, without any doubt, we are the same people.”

The old man wept, threw his turban on the ground. Then he raised his head towards sky and said: “O’ God! I hate the enemies of the Âle Muhammad, either jinns or human beings.” Then he asked, “Is there any scope of repentance for me?”

The Imam replied: “Yes. If you repent, Allâh will accept your repentance, and you will be with us.”

The old man said: “I repent.”

The story of that old man reached Yazeed. He ordered for his execution, and he was killed.

The narrators have said that thereafter the family and womenfolk of Hussain (a.s.) were brought to Yazeed bound in ropes. They stood before Yazeed in that condition. Ali Ibn Hussain (a.s.) said to Yazeed, “By God, what do you think about the holy Prophet, if he would see us in this condition?” Yazeed ordered to open their hands.

Then Yazeed placed the holy head of Hussain (a.s.) in his front, and asked the womenfolk go behind so that they may not see the face of Yazeed. Zainul Âbedin looked at the head and grief overtook him.

When Zainab saw the head of her brother she tore her collar and cried in a sorrowful voice that influenced human hearts. Then she said, “O Husain! O the beloved of the Prophet of Allâh! O son of Mecca and Medina! O son of Fâtima Zahra, the lady of the women of Paradise! O son of the daughter of Mustafa!”

The narrators said, “By Allâh, everyone in the audience wept, andYazeed remained silent.”

A woman of Bani Hâshim who was in the palace of Yazeed, began to mourn and said: “Ya Husain, Ya Habib, Ya Sayyad, Ya Sayyade Ahle Bayt, Ya Ibne Muhammad, O hope and shelter of the guardianless women and orphan children! O the one who has been killed by the bastards!”

All wept loudly.

Then Yazeed asked a whipper, and whipped the front teeth of Husain (a.s.)

Abu Barzah Aslami looked at Yazeed and said, “Woe unto you Yazeed! Do you whip the lips and teeth of Husain, son of Fâtima (s.a.)? I bear witness that I have seen the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) kissed the lips and teeth of Husain and his brother Hasan (a.s.) and said that they two were the leaders of the youths of Paradise. Allâh will kill their killers, and will curse the killers, and He has prepared hell for their killers. What a bad end!”

The dirty-hearted Yazeed frowned and ordered him to be dragged out harshly.

A narrator has said, “Then Yazeed began to sing the poems of the anti-Islam poet Ibnu Zabari:

Alas for my forefathers who were killed in Badr, who had heard the wailing of Khazraj, due to the pain of spear wound;

So now you rise up and glance and say: O Yazeed! May your hand not be paralyzed;

We killed their heads and chiefs and took the revenge of Badr;

Hâshimites played with the kingdom! Neither (divine) news nor any revelation had come to them!

I may not be considered as a person of my tribe, if I do not take the revenge from the sons of Ahmad, for what they did.”

Narrators have said that, Zainab, daughter of Ali (a.s.) got up and said, “Praise to Allâh, the Lord of the worlds! And blessings on Muhammad and on all the members of his family. Allâh told the truth that, “The end of those who did bad deeds is bad, because they denied the verses of Allâh and mocked them.”

“O Yazeed! Do you think that it is a matter of pride for you that you captured us, and made us to move like slave maids, and that it is a disgrace to us? Does all this make you rejoice as you have prepared the world for youself? You imagine that everything has been arranged properly for you and that the kingdom and the country is now in your favor! Take respite for a while. But you have forgotten the Word of Allâh Who has said, “And do not let the disbelievers think that our respite, [The postponement of their punishment] is good for them [and they will enjoy life through it]. We postpone the punishment only for that they may increase their sinfulness; and for them there is a Disgraceful Torment [because of their sins].”

“Is this just, o son of the liberated slaves that your wives and slave girls remain covered from the public, and the daughters of the Prophet of Allâh being remained as captives? You tore their veils, revealed their faces, and drove them from town to town like enemies! You degraded them in public view. You made people look at them, while their guardians and helpers were not with them.”

“What can one expect from the son of the one who chewed the liver of pious persons, and whose flesh was nourished by the blood of martyrs?”

“Due to enmity towards us, Ahle Bayt, how much harshness can one display? And then, without realizing, you utter such sinful words: (your elders) rise and dance and tell you: O Yazeed! May your hand not be paralyzed whereas you whip on the teeth of Abi Abdullâh (a.s.)!”

“Why should you not say so. By shedding the blood of the progeny of Muhammad (s.a.w.s.), who were the shining stars of the earth, you have driven his family to extremities and now you are remembering your ancestors and, in your imagination, calling them!”

“O Yazeed! Very soon you will join them and on that day, you will wish (and say): Alas, I wish, I had been paralyzed and would not have uttered what I uttered and should not had done what I did.”

“O Allâh! Restore our rights and take revenge from those who oppressed us, and send Your wrath on those who shed our blood and killed our supporters.”

“(O Yazeed!) By Allâh, you have skinned none but yourself, and have cut only your own flesh. No doubt, you will be brought before the Prophet of Allâh (s.a.w.s.) was having shed the blood of his progeny, and tore the curtain of the honor of their progeny and that will be the time and place when Allâh will gather them and remove their anxieties and restore their rights. Do not consider that those who are killed in the path of Allâh are dead. They are alive, getting provision near their Lord.”

“O Yazeed! It is sufficient for you that Allâh is the Judge, and Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) is your enemy and avenger of blood, with Gibrael as his supporter. The one, who deceived you and imposed you as the head of Muslims, will soon know that how bad has been his selection of succession! And whose place and position is worse and weaker!”

“O Yazeed! Though I have suffered many calamities from you, I consider you valueless! You have caused a great tragedy, and you should be always blamed. But, the eyes are tearful and the hearts are burning now.”

“I Wonder, I wonder! (It has been the) Killing of the members of the party of Allâh by the members of the party of Damn Satan. Our blood is dripping from your dirty hands. Your unclean mouths are devouring our flesh. Those holy and pious bodies are facing the attacks of rapacious wolves. And the hyenas leave no trace of them. If you have caught us as war booty, then very soon it will prove to be a fine instead of booty. On that day, you will not get anything except what your hands sent forth, your God is not cruel to His servants, and all complaints are before Allâh.”

“Carry out whatever fraud or betrayal and effort is in your mind! By Allâh, you will never be able to erase our name and fade out our revelation as you did not perceive our time. This shameful blot will not be removed from you. It is just your own viewpoint and it is wrong; your days (time) are limited and your group shall soon scatter. Yes, it will be soon the day when it will be proclaimed: Now, the curse is upon the unjust people!”

“So, all praises are for Allâh Who destined salvation and bless for the first group of us and martyrdom and mercy for the last among us.”

“We appeal to Allâh so that He may complete their rewards, and multiply causes (of such rewards), and may duely bless the caliphate to us; as He is Kind and Merciful. Allâh is sufficient for us. He is the best of the executors!”

“Yazeed (may the curse of Allah be upon him)! Wailing of the wailing women is nice; and how insignificant if they die.”

The narrator said that Yazeed consulted the Syrians regarding the affairs of Ahle Bayt. The Syrians (may the curse of Allah be upon them) said: “Deal with them like dogs.”

Nomân Ibn Bashir: “Do with them as the holy Prophet behaved with them.”

A Syrian man looked at Fâtima, daughter of Husain, and said: “O Amir! Give this girl to me!”

Fâtima told her aunt: “I became an orphan and now a slave girl!”

Zainab (a.s.) said: “No! Such greatness is not for this lewd fellow!”

The Syrian: “Who is this girl?”

Yazeed (may the curse of Allah be upon him): “She is Fâtima, daughter of Husain and this one is also Zainab, daughter of Ali.”

The Syrian: Husain, the son of Fâtima and Ali bin Abi Tâlib?

Yazeed: “Yes!”

The Syrian: “May Allâh curse you, O Yazeed! You are killing the progeny of the Prophet and imprisoning their offspring? By Allâh, I had thought that they are disbelieving prisoners of war!”

Yazeed: “By Allâh, I will add you with them.”

Then he ordered and the Syrian was killed.

Then Yazeed called a speaker and ordered him to imprecate Husain and his father (p.b.u.t.).

The speaker went up the pulpit and condemned Amirul Momineen and the martyr Hussain (a.s.), and praised Muawiyah and Yazeed extensively.

Ali Ibn Husain (a.s.) cried out: “O speaker! You have purchased pleasure of the created, by causing the wrath of the Creator. Verily your abode will be in Hellfire.”

“How true has Ibn Sinân Khafaji said in his poems in the praise of Amirul Momineen and his son (a.s.), Are you Abusing Ali from top of the Pulpit?

Though this pulpit has been raised by the sword of Ali (a.s.)!”

It was on that day that Yazeed (may the curse of Allah be upon him) gave a promise to Ali bin Husain (a.s.) that he would accept three requests from him.

Then Yazeed ordered to settle the Ahle Bayt in a place where they were not sheltered from heat and cold of day and night. They were kept therein for such duration that their holy faces were cracked. Yet they went on mourning on Husain (a.s.) during their staying in Damascus.

Sakina has said that on the fourth day of their stay, she has seen in a dream, “There was a lady in the camel litter. She had placed her hand on her head.” I asked about her. It was said, “She was Fâtima daughter of Muhammad.” I said that I should go to her and tell her what had happened to us. So I rushed to meet her, stood by her, wept and said,

“O my mother! By Allâh, they denied our rights and scattered our community. O mother! They considered the violation of our honor permissible. O mother! By Allâh, they killed my father.”

She said: “O Sakina! Keep quiet my dear! Your story has torn my heart, and wounded my liver. This is the shirt of your father, Husain that will not get separated from me until I meet Allâh.”

Ibn Laheeah has narrated from Abi Aswad Muhammad Ibn Abdul Rahmân, that he met Ra’s-ul- Jâloot, the chief of Jews. He said, “I am in the seventieth generation from Dâwood (a.s.). Yet the Jews honor and pay respect to me. Between you and your Prophet the distance is not more than one generation, and you killed his sons?”

Zain-ul-Âbedin (a.s.) is reported to have said, “When they brought the head of Husain (a.s.) to Yazeed (may the curse of Allah be upon him), he arranged several drinking parties, placed the holy head near him, and drank.”

Once, the Roman ambassador, who was from the nobles of Rome, who was present in the ceremony told Yazeed, “O king of Arabia, whose head is this?”

Yazeed: “It has nothing to do with you.”

The ambassador: “When I return to my country, the king will inquire about everything. I would like to narrate the story of this head, so that he may also share your joy!”

Yazeed: “This is the head of Husain, son of Ali Ibn Abi Tâlib.”

The ambassador: “And who is his mother?”

Yazeed: “Fâtima, daughter of the Prophet of Allâh!”

The ambassador: Damn with you and your faith! My faith is better than yours since my father is from the descendants of Dâvid and from his race, and there is a lengthy time span between them and me. Yet the Christians respect me and pick up dust from beneath of my footsteps, as an auspicious gift, only because I am a descendant of Dâvid. But you are killing the son of the daughter of your Prophet; whereas, the distance between him and your Prophet is only of one mother. What kind of a religion do you follow?

Then he asked, “Have you heard the story of the Church of Hafir?”

Yazeed: “Tell me.”

The ambassador: There is a sea between Oman and China. It takes six months to cross it. There is no habitation therein except for an island in the midst of the sea, which has an area of eighty farsakh in length and eighty in width. No city on the surface of earth is greater than that. Camphor and ruby are exported from there. It is under the control of Christians, and their king is a Christian too. There are many churches in it, and the biggest one the Church of Hafir. On its altar is a small golden box having a hoof mark. It is said that it is the hoof of the donkey that Jesus (a.s.) had rode. They have decorated it in a golden frame and brocade. Every year a large number of Christians visit it, go round it, kiss it, and standing near it, pray to Almighty Allâh for the fulfillment of their needs. This honor and tradition is for the hoof of the donkey of Jesus (a.s.) and it is for a place, where according to them, is the mark of the hoof of the donkey on which their Prophet used to ride. And you are killing the son of the daughter of your Prophet. Allâh will not bless either you or your religion.

The hostile Yazeed: “Kill this Christian so that he may not disgrace us in his country!”

When the Christian perceived his intention, he asked, “Do you intend to kill me?”

Yazeed: Yes!

The Christian: Know that last night I saw your Prophet in my dream and he told me, “O Christian! You are a man of Paradise.” I became very surprised by his word.

Now I witness that there is no God except Allâh, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allâh.

Then he rushed towards the head of Husain, embraced it and began to kiss it, and while doing so became a martyr!

It is said that once Zainul Âbedin went to the Market of Damascus, where Minhal bin Amr rushed to welcome him and said, “O son of the Prophet! How did you pass the night?” He replied: “Like the children ofIsrael (arrested) in the hands of the people of Pharaoh, who killed their sons and kept their daughters alive.”

“O Minhal! The Arabs always used to take pride over the non-Arabs since Muhammad was from them; and the Quraysh used to take pride over other Arab tribes telling them that Muhammad was from them. Yet we, the family of the holy Prophet, are homeless, tortured, and killed. So “Inna lillâhe wa inna ilaihe raajeoon” over whatever has happened to us, Minhal!”

How nice has Mahyar composed the couplets:

They honoured the wooden pieces of the Prophet’s pulpit

but tossed beneath their feet the Prophet’s children;

On what basis should the Prophet’s children follow you,

while you take pride in being his companions and followers!?

Yazeed said to Ali Ibn Husain: “Tell me the three needs for fulfilling, which I have promised.”

Imâm Sajjâd: First show me the head of my father so that I may look at it and bid him good-bye.

Second, whatever has been looted from us should be returned third, if you intend to kill me, and then ask someone to accompany the women and to take them to the city of their grandfather (Medina).

The spiteful Yazeed said: “You will never see the face of your father. I do not want to kill you. And none except you will take the women to Medina. I am ready to give the value of the property seized from you, plus equal to it as a fine!”

Imâm (a.s.) Sajjad: “I do not need your money, it is important only in your eyes. I demanded only what has been looted from us, because it included some thing knitted by Fâtima daughter of the holy Prophet, and also the veil, the shirt, and the manacle spun by her.”

Yazeed ordered that the property snatched from the Ahle Bayt be returned to them plus 200 dinars to Imâm Sajjâd. Imâm distributed the money among the poor.

Thereafter Yazeed ordered that the prisoners should return to Medina (from Syria).

It is narrated that the holy head of Imâm Husain (a.s.) was sent back to Karbala where it was buried with his body. The Shia people act according to this narration.

There are other narrations besides to the one we mentioned here. However, we overlode them, because we have decided to write this book in brief.

It is said that when the women and family members of Hussain (a.s.) returned from Syria and reached Iraq they asked the caravan guide to lead them via Karbala.

When the holy family reached the grave of Imâm Husain (a.s.), Jabir Ibn Abdullâh Ansâri and a group of Bani Hâshim men were also there in order to visit the holy grave…All of them began to recite the mourning poems together in an extremely sorrowful manner. Women of that area also joined them. They stayed there for a few days.

It is narrated from Abi Janab Kalabi that plasterers narrated to him that they used to go to the place where Imâm Hussain (a.s.) was slaughtered and during the night they heard the mourning of jinns who were reciting:

The holy messenger puts his hand on his forehead; verily his face was radiant;

His parents were from the high class of the Quraysh; and his grandfather was the best Grandfather.

Then the Ahle Bayt left Karbala for Medina. Bashir bin Jazlam has said, “Ali Ibn Hussain (a.s.) stopped the caravan near Medina and erected the tents and said:

“O Bashir! Your father (may Allâh have mercy on him) was a poet. Are you also able to recite poetry?”

I said: “Yes, O son of the holy Prophet! I am a poet!”

Imâm (a.s.) said: “Go to Medina, and announce the martyrdom of Aba Abdillâh (a.s.).”

Bashir says: I rode a horse, and rushed to enter Medina. When I reached the mosque of the holy Prophet, I raised my weeping voice and recited:

O people of Medina! Medina is no more your place;

Husain has been killed making me weep all the time;

His bleeding body was left in Karbala;

And his holy head was moved from place to place on a spear.

Thereafter I said: “Here is Ali Ibn Husain (a.s.) who has come to you near Medina with his aunts and sisters. I am his messenger informing you of their arrival.”

It is said that all the ladies and veiled women came out with unveiled faces and bare heads, and they scratched their faces and slapped their cheeks. They wept loudly in mourning. After the death of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) it was not seen so much weeping and mourning of men and women in the muslim society. I saw a girl who was mourning on Hussain (a.s.) reciting:

“The messenger of doom gave of death of my leader, that was so painful that it made me sick;

O my eyes! Pour out all your tears incessantly;

This mourning is for the dear one, whose prayer made the throne tremble;

Now the honor and greatness of religion has been badly damaged;

Go on weeping for the son of the messenger and the son of his heir; even though he was very far from us.”

Then she told me: “O the messenger of doom! You have renewed our grief by the news of martyrdom of Abi Abdullâh (a.s.). You put salt on our wounds, which were not yet healed. May Allâh have mercy on you, who are you?”

“I am Bashir Ibn Mazlam. My master Ali bin Husain has sent me, and he is at such and such place with his family members.” I said.

People left me alone and rushed to the outskirts of Medina. I drove my horse after them to reach them. I saw that people had jammed the road and surrondings. So I dismounted and went on foot to reach the entrance of the tent. Imâm Sajjâd (a.s.) was still in the tent. Then he came out with a handkerchief in hand, wiping his tears with it. A servant holding a chair was also behind him. He placed the chair on ground and Imâm sat on it. He was not able to prevent tears rolling from his holy eyes. The voice of weeping of men and women rent the whole atmosphere. Everyone from every side was consoling the Imâm. It is seemed that piece of earth had turned into a mourning land.

Imâm signaled with his hand for silence. All of them stopped weeping. Then Imâm Sajjâd (a.s.) said: “All praise is for Allâh, the Lord of the worlds. The Most Merciful and the Most Beneficent. Allâh is the Master of the Day of Judgment. He is the Creator of all creatures, the One Who is so far that His Height surpasses the highest skies, and He is also so near that even the noise of humming bee is not inaudible to Him. We praise Him over great affairs, and over tragedies of time, and over bitterness of scoldings, and over crushing difficulties and hardships!”

“O people! Praise is for Allâh; we have been affected by great hardship and a split in Islam. They have martyred Abu Abdillâh (a.s.), his household, and companion. They imprisoned his wives and daughters. They have carried his holy head on a spear from place to place, and so this is a calamity unparalleled.”

“O People! Now who among you can ever be joyful after this? Or who is able to stop tears rolling from the eye and who will be stingy in weeping?”

“Truly the seven heavens wept over his martyrdom, the oceans through their waves, skies with their pillars, the earth with its tracts, the trees with their branches, the fish in the depths of seas, and all the angels of Allâh and all in the heavens became tearful.”

“O people! Which heart is so hard that has not been shoked by his martyrdom, and which soul has not inclined towards him and which ear has not deafened after hearing this blow on Islâm?”

“O People! We spent in such a condition that we were expelled, scattered, and driven off away from cities and villages, as if we were slaves. And all this happened to us without any fault or mistake, or any harm to Islâm on our part. We have not heard such a thing in the predecessor histories.”

“By Allâh, even if the holy Prophet had declared war against us (instead of recommendation), our state would not have been worse than what we have faced till now. Inna lillâhe wa inna ilaihe râjeoon. We forward our complain to Allah, in over such a terrible calamity, so troublesome, so cruel… Verily He is Mighty and powerful to take revenge.”

It is said that Sauhan Ibn Sa’saeh Ibn Sauhan, who was bedridden and paralyzed, apologized before Imam for his inability of being present at Karbala. Imâm accepted his excuse, and thanked him for his good intention, and prayed for his father.

I, the editor and compiler of this book, Ali Ibn Musa Ibn Ja’far Ibn Muhammad Ibn Tâwûs say that thereafter Imâm Sajjâd (s.a.) marched towards Medina with his household, and looked at the homes of his own people. He realized that even the buildings could not hide their feelings, and hence were mourning and expressing grief over the loss of their men and sympathizers and helpers. They weeped just like a woman who has lost her child, and cried in grief.

O people! Assist me in mourning and help me in these terrible calamities. Because, those people for whom I am weeping, were such that my heart and mind look for their high moral virtues. They continue to come to my mind day and night. They are lights in my dark environment. They are my pride, strength and success.

How often (their honour) dispelled the clouds of horror from me, and how often their generosity made strong the foundation for my honor. How often in the nights my ears used to hear their soul-stirring supplications, which enriched me with their secrets.

How nice were the days when they enlivened and beautified my house by their gatherings, made fragrant my nature, and removed my misfortune by their auspiciousness. How many saplings of good character did they implant for me, and safeguarded my place from awful events.

How many nights, which I wholly passed in their service, while I used to take pride over mansions overtaken by joy and happiness!

“Hence destiny targeted me and time envied me. Those dear ones have been hit by the arrows of enmity when they came among them like aliens. With cutting off the fingers of those dear ones, virtues have been discarded. With the disappearance of their radiant faces heights have fallen down. With the dissection of their organs merits have fallen down.

So for God sake, respect his blood, which has been shed in those battles, and as a result of which, respect his dignity.

If I have missed the assistance of the wise people, and if the unwise people have left me, then I do have good luck in the forgotten traditions. So they may weep like me. And their grief and sorrow will be like my own grief and sorrow.

So if you could hear that how the prayers, are mourning for them, and how many hermits are weeping over them. Indeed its hearing will cause you full of grief. So care your any shortcoming in this matter.

Alas; how earnestly they chose their abodes and the inns where they lodged and made them their land. I wish, I were a man who could have protected them from the swords, spears and arrows. I wish I would had stood between them and the wicked ones and would have warded off the arrows of the enemies from them.

Now that I have missed the opportunity of cooperation, I should be capable of preserving the characters and rememberances of those dear ones from calamitie.

If I were with those brave and bountiful personalities, I would utilize all my talents to ensure their safety. I would fulfill the old promise of loyalty. I would fulfill my duties towards them. With my strength, I would protect them from any awful events, and like a loyal servant would continue to serve them wholeheartedly and enthusiastically. I would embrace them and their spiritual insights to illuminate the darkness of my soul and spirit.

In my eagerness to attain the said aspirations I have worded all these things. The absence of my beloved leaders has grieved me so much. I do not see any improvement, despite all my patience and forbearance. Hence my hopes remained only on the promised Day of Resurrection.”

How nice is the poem of Ibn Qattah, when he passed by the said holy place (Karbala):

I passed by the dwelling places of Âle Muhammad;

And did not find them like other houses;

May Allâh not keep these houses and their inhabitants far off;

Though they are now vacant against my wish;

Certainly those who killed the martyrs of Karbala from the progeny of Hâshim;

Were themselves disgraced;

Those chiefs were sheltering others;

But now they are in trouble, and the trouble is very great;

Did not you see that the sun has become sick?

And the cities are trembling for death of Husain.

And now, you, the one who hear! Follow the path of the holders of the holy book in this calamity.

It is narrated that our master Zainul Âbedin (a.s.), who is the master of forbearance, wept on this calamity very much and complained very much.

It is narrated from Imâm Sâdiq (a.s.) that truly Imâm Zainul Âbedin (a.s.) wept over his father forty years. He used to fast during the days and stand to worship during the nights. When the servant brought food and water for the breaking of his fast, and would request him to eat, Imam (a.s.) would have said,

“They killed the son of the holy Prophet when he was hungry; they killed the son of the messenger, when he was thirsty. He continued to repeat this complaint and went on weeping till his food became wet with his tears. This was the state of Imâm till the end of his life.”

One of his servants has said, Once, Imâm went out of the city. I followed him. I found that he was prostrating, and had put his head on a hard rock. I stood near him and heard the noise of his weeping and counted that he repeated these words in his prostration one thousand times (La Ilaha illallaahu haqqan haqqa, la ilaaha illallâhu ta-abbudan wa riqqan; la ilaaha illallâhu imaanan wa Tasdeeqa).

Then he raised his head from the ground, while his face and beard had become wet with tears.

I requested him, “O’ my master! Has not the time yet come that you end your grief and tears?”

He replied, “What has happened to you. Jacob Ibn Issac Ibn Abraham was a messenger, as well as, the son of


a messenger, the grandson of a messenger, and father of twelve sons. The Almighty Allâh kept one of his sons out of his sight. His hair became white due to grief and sorrow. His back also curved, and he became blind because of constant weeping, though his son was alive. However, I saw, with my own eyes, that my father, brothers, and seventeen members of my family were martyred. Then how will the grief in my heart end, and how can I stop to cry?”

* * * *

I cite the following prose while referring to them:

They ask me to discard the dress of grief and sorrow;

While it never turns old;

There was a time when their nearness made us to smile;

Now their separation causes us to weep;

Those whose absence has made our days dark;

Once our nights were illuminated like days, due to their presence.

This was the conclusion of everything that I desired to write. Everyone who becomes aware of its arrangement and structure will find that this book, despite its briefness, has distinction over other similar books. Praise be to Allâh, the Lord of the worlds, and peace and blessings be upon Muhammad and his purified Progeny.

Praise to Allâh for this success that under the special attention of Hazrat Waliullâh al-Azam Maulana Sahibul Amr (may God accelerate His appearance).















Praise be to Allâh the Lord of the worlds and blessings be upon the Messenger, the Prophet, the Warner, the Trustworthy and upon his Progeny, the blessed descendants, and curse be upon all their enemies.

No matter how powerful the tyrants are and no matter how long their rule lasts, it is of no use because Allâh the most High is All-Powerful against them. Thus, Allâh, the Almighty, always lies in wait for the tyrants and the sinners. He punishes them and sends different types of chatisement on them in this world and the Hereafter. The same rule applies to those who did injustice to Imâm Hussain (a.s.). They martyred him and insulted the ladies of his family. Allâh punished them in different ways and made them taste the bitterness of different calamities, although their chastisement would be much more in the hereafter. The Almighty Allâh always helps those who defend the truth and those who have to face injustice in the way of exalting the truth.

Those who endeavored to keep the name of Allâh alive and bore the injustice patiently for defending the truth, have become famous in this world and their enemies shall dwell in the Hell forever; an unfortunate destiny!

After the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) the Almighty Allâh showed many signs and miracles that prove the veracity of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) and his high and esteemed position near Allâh. For this reason their name and remembrance will remain alive forever, and all those freedom-loving people have followed him and shall continue following him till the uprising of Qaem Âle Muhammad (a.s.) when he would finally take the revenge of the holy blood of Imâm Hussain (a.s.).

Here we mention some of the signs and clear proofs mentioned in different Islamic sources that became apparent after the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.).

1. The severed head of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) recited Quran and supplications while it was held aloft on the point of a lance.

Miftâhun Najâh fi Manâqibe Âle Abā: P.145; Al-Khasâisul Kubra 2/127; Al-Kawâkibu Durriya: P.57; Isâfur Râghebeen: P.218; Nûrul Absâr: P.125; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/452-453

2. Imâm Hussain (a.s.) threw his holy blood towards the sky and not a drop of it fell back on the earth.

Kifâyatut Tâlib 284; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 454

3. On the day of the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) blood rained from the sky and whatever the people had was smeared with blood and the effect of the blood remained on the clothes till they became old and this redness on the sky was such that anything like it was never seen before.

Maqtale Husain 2/89; Zakhâirul Uqba, p.144, 145, 150, Târikh Damishq (Selections from the same) 4/339; As-Sawâiqul Mohreqa p.116 & 192; Al-Khasâisul Kubra: 126; Wasilatul Mâl: 197; Yanâbiul Mawaddâh: 320, 356; Nûrul Absâr: 123; Al-Ittehâf be hubbil Ashrâf: 12; Târikhul Islâm 2/349; Tadkeratul Khawâs: 284; Nazm Durarus Simtain: 220; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/458, 462

4. On the day of the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) whenever a stone was lifted gushed out blood underneath it.

Tadkeratul Khawâs: 284; Nazm Durarus Simtain: 220; Mawaddâh: 320, 356; Târikhul Islâm 2/349; Kifâyatut Tâlib: 295; Al-Ittehâf be hubbil Ashrâf: 12; Isâfur Râghebeen: 215; As-Sawâiqul Mohreqa 116 & 192; Miftâhun Najâh fi Manâqibe Âle Aba (Manuscript); Tafsir Ibne Kathir 9/162; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/262, 281, 283

5. When the severed head of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) reached Dârul Imârah (the royal palace) blood could be seen flowing from the walls of the palace.

Zakhâirul Uqba: 144; Târikh Damishq (Selections from the same) 4/339; As- Sawâiqul Mohreqa 192; Wasilatul Maâl: 197; Yanâbiul Mawaddâh: 322; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/463

6. At the time of the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) the sky became deep red, and for several days it seemed that it was smeared with blood and as if it had become sick.

Al-Mojamul Kabir: 145; Majmâuz Zawâid 9/196; Al-Khasâisul Kubra 2/127; Ehqâq-ul- Haq 11/464

7. For seven days after the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) when people saw the sun after Asr prayers they used to see the walls red, due to the deep redness like red clothes and veils, and they used to see that stars are crashing against each other.

Al-Mojamul Kabir: 146; Majmâuz Zawâid 9/97; Târikhul Islâm 3482; Seer Alâmun Nubla 3/210; Târikhul Khulafa: 80; As-Sawâiqul Mohreqa: 192; Isâfur Râghebeen: 251; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/465, 466

8. After the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) for two or three months, people saw that, as if the walls were smeared in blood from sunrise to sunset.

Tadkeratul Khawâs: 284; Al-Kâmil fi Târikh 3/301; Al-Bidâya wan Nihâya 8/171; Al-Fusoolul Muhimma 179; Akhbârud Dul: 109; Ahqâqul Haqq 11/466, 467

9. After the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) the horizons of the sky became deep red, and this redness was the weeping of the sky upon the tragedy of Imâm Husain (a.s.): The camel that was looted from them was slaughtered but when it was cut, they saw that its flesh was a fire and its meat was bitter.

Maqtale Husain 2/90; Târikhul Islâm 2/348; Seer Alâmun Nubla 3/311; Tafsir Quran Ibne Kathir 9/162; Tahzibut Tahzib 2/353; Damishq 4/339; Al-Mahâsin wal Masâwi: 62; Târikhul Khulafa: 80; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/467, 469

10. Till Six months after the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) the horizon was deep red, as if something like blood was visible in it.

Târikhul Islâm 2/348; Seer Alâmun Nubla 3/210; As-Sawâiqul Mohreqa: 192; Majmâuz Zawâid 9/197; Târikhul Khulafa: 80; Miftâhun Najâh (Manuscript), Yanâbiul Mawaddâh: 322; Isâfur Râghebeen: 215; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/269, 270

11. After the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) for three days the world was pitch dark and at that time redness appeared, and no one touched the lifeless body of Hazrat (a.s.) unless he was burnt.

Tadkeratul Khawâs: 283; As-Sawâiqul Mohreqa: 192; Nazm Durarus Simtain: 220; Miftâhun Najâh (Manuscript); Nûrul Absâr: 123; Târikh Damishq 4/339; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/274-275

12. The sky did not weep for anyone except for two: Yahya bin Zakariya and Imâm Hussain (a.s.). The weeping of the sky is such that it turns red like hot oil.

Târikh Damishq 4/339; Kifâyatut Tâlib: 289; Seer Alâmun Nubla 3/210; Tadkeratul Khawâs: 283; Nazm Durarus Simtain: 220; As-Sawâiqul Mohreqa: 192; Miftâhun Najâh (Manuscript); Yanâbiul Mawaddâh: 322; Nûrul Absâr: 123; Tafsirul Quran Ibne Kathir 9/162; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/476-478

13. At the time of the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) the sun became eclipsed, and stars became visible in the afternoon. People thought that -Last Day- had arrived!

Al-Mojamul Kabir: 145; Kifâyatut Tâlib: 296; Maqtalul Husain 2/89; Nazm Durarus Simtain: 220; Majmâuz Zawâid 9/197; Al-Ittehâf be hubbil Ashrâf: 12; Isâfur Râghebeen: Yanâbiul Mawaddâh: 321; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/479-480

14. At the time of the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) the sky became pitch dark and the stars became visible during the day, such that the Gemini star could be seen even at afternoon. Red dust rained for seven days and the sky looked as if it were colored with blood.

Târikh Damishq 4/339; As-Sawâiqul Mohreqa: 116

15. On the day of the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) no stone was lifted in Damascus and Baitul Maqdas but that fresh blood was found below it.

Al-Mojamul Kabir: 145; Zakhâirul Uqba: 145; Al-Unsul Jaleel: 252; Wasilatul Mâl: 197; Tahzibut Tahzib 2/353; Kifâyatut Tâlib: 296; Târikhul Islâm 2/348; Seer Alâmun Nubla 3/212; Maqtalul Husain 2/89 and 90; Al-Iqdul Fareed 2202; Al-Khasâisul Kubra 2/126; Majmâuz Zawâid 9/196; Târikhul Khulafa: 80; Miftâhun Najâh (Manuscript); Nûrul Absâr: 123; Yanâbiul Mawaddâh: 321; Isâfur Râghebeen: 215; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/484

16. On the day of Âshura the fowls refused to eat.

Maqtalul Husain 2/91; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/490

17. A beam of light emerged from the furnace containing the holy severed head of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) and shot up to the heavens. The white birds were seen circling it.

Maqtalul Husain 2/101; Al-Kâmil fi Târikh 3/296; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/491

18. When Imâm Hussain (a.s.) was martyred a crow threw itself in his blood, soaked itself in it, and sat on the high wall of the house of Fâtima, the daughter of Hussain (a.s.) in Medina.

Maqtalul Husain 2/92; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/492-493

19. When Imâm Hussain (a.s.) was martyred, many people heard the following lamentation recited by a Jinn with regards to Imâm (a.s.):

O the eyes! Weep as much as you can, and who will weep upon the martyrs after me?

On a group with whom death walks hand in hand towards a strange land, a kingdom of the people.

O those who killed Imâm Hussain (a.s.) out of ignorance. You are informed about a terrible chastisement.

All the creatures of the heavens, the prophets and the tribes shall curse you.

You certainly are cursed by the tongue of the son of Dâwood; (Suleiman) and Musa and Isa (a.s.).

The best of the female Jinns are dressed in black and they weep in sorrow and slap their beautiful faces.

* * * *

By Allâh! I did not come near you until I saw Hussain (a.s.) rubbing his forehead on the dust at Karbala.

And the young men circled him with blood oozing from their necks like the lamps that brighten the darkness.

Hussain (a.s.) is a glowing lamp and his luminosity is beneficial. Allâh knows that I have not uttered anything false.

Hussain (a.s.) was martyred alone in an alien land. His heart and soul burnt due to severe thirst.

The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) caressed his forehead and it became shining bright.

His parents were from Quraysh and his grandfather the best of grandfathers.

They killed you o, son of the Messenger and now they all would abide in the Fire forever.

The Thamud were destroyed as they killed the she-camel and their happiness turned into grief.

The respect for the Prophet’s Progeny is much more than the she-camel of Sâleh (a.s.).

It is a wonder that the killers of the Messenger’s son were not metamorphosed and Allah gives respite to the transgressors.

Asmâur Rijâl 2/14; Seer Alâmun Nubla 3/214; Akâmul Marjân: 147; Nazm Durarus Simtain: 217, 223 & 224; Al-Isâbah 1/334; Majmâuz Zawâid 9/199; Al-Bidâya wan Nihâya 2316, 8/197 and 200; Târikhul Khulafa: 80; As-Sawâiqul Mohreqa: 194; Wasilatul Maāl 197; Miftâhun Najâh: 144; Yanâbiul Mawaddâh: 320, 323, 351, 352; Ashrâful Mobad: 68; Kifâyatut Tâlib 294 and 295; Al-Maqtal 2/95; At-Tadkerah: 279 & 280; Târikh Ibne Asâkir 341/4, Al-Khasâisul Kubra 2/126 and 127; Muhâsiratul Abrâr 2/160; Târikh Umam wal Muluk 4/357; Kâmil fi Târikh 3/301; Tahzibut Tahzib 2/353; Al-Bada wat Târikh 6/10; Akhbârud Dul: 109; Nûrul Qabas al-Mukhtasar Minal Maqtabas: 263; Tâjul Uroos 3/196; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/579-580

20. After the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) the following inscription was found on a stone:

It is a must that Fâtima will come in Qiyamat while her dress is smeared with Hussain’s (a.s.) blood,

Woe be to those whose intercessors are their enemies in Qiyamat when the trumpet is blown.

At-Tadkerah: 284; Nazm Durarus Simtain: 219; Yanâbiul Mawaddâh: 331; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/569

21. The following was written on the wall of a monastery:

Does the Ummah that killed Husain have any hope for the intercession of his grandfather on the day of accounting?

They asked the monk regarding this couplet as to who had composed it. He said: This couplet was written here five hundred years before the advent of your Prophet.

Hayatul Haiwan 1/60; Nûrul Absâr: 122; Kifâyatut Tâlib: 290; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/567-568

22. A man from Najran dug into the ground and found a gold plate on which the following was inscribed:

Does the Ummah that killed Husain have any hope for the intercession of his grandfather on the day of accounting?

Miftâhun Najâh: 135; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/566

23. A wall cracked revealing a palmar on which the following was inscribed in blood:

Does the Ummah that killed Husain have any hope for the intercession of his grandfather on the day of accounting?

Târikhul Khamis 2/299; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/567

After the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) and after he was beheaded, the carriers of his severed head sat down at the first stage of the journey to drink. A hand came out of the wall and wrote with an iron pen in blood:

Does the Ummah that killed Husain have any hope for the intercession of his grandfather on the day of accounting?

Al-Mojamul Kabir: 147; Zakhâirul Uqba: 144; Maqtalul Husain 2/93; Muhâsiratul Abrâr: 2/160; Kifâyatut Tâlib: 291; Târikh Damishq 4/342; Târikhul Islâm 3/13; Majmâuz Zawâid 9/199; Al-Bidâya wan Nihâya 8/200; As-Sawâiqul Mohreqa: 116; Al-Khasâisul Kubra 1/23; Majmâul Fawaid 2/217; Wasilatul Mâl: 197; Al-Arâisul Wâzeha: 190; Isâfur Râghebeen: 217; Yanâbiul Mawaddâh: 230-351; Jaliyatul Qadar: 198; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/561/565

24. On the stone is the inscription dating one thousand years before Be’sat (Proclamation of Prophethood): (Or it is written 600 years before Be’sat according to an inscription in a church in Rome):

Does the Ummah that killed Husain have any hope for the intercession of his grandfather on the day of accounting?

Al-Mojamul Kabir: 147; Maqtalul Husain 2/93; Kifâyatut Tâlib: 290; Al-Bidâya wan Nihâya 8/200; Majmâuz Zawâid 9/199; Târikh Damishq 4/342; At-Tadkerah: 283; Nazm Durarus Simtain: 291; Ma Asârul Anafata fi Malimul Khilâfata: 117; Yanâbiul Mawaddâh: 331; Mukhtasar Tadkeratul Qurtubi: 194; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/557-560

25. One of the soldiers of Ibn Ziyâd saw the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) in the dream who drew across his eyes with the blood of Hussain (a.s.) and the soldier became blind.

Nûrul Absâr: 123; As-Sawâiqul Mohreqa: 117 and 194; Isâfur Râghebeen: 192; At-Tadkerah: 291; Maqtalul Husain 2/104; Rishfatul Sâdi: 291; Yanâbiul Mawaddâh: 330; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/552

26. Abu Raja’ said: Do not abuse Ali and the Ahle Bayt (a.s.). A man from Bani Hajim (neighbor of Bil Hajim) came to Kufa and said: Did you not see this transgressor, the son of transgressor? How did Allah kill him? He actually meant Husain Ibn Ali (a.s.). And Allâh put an obstacle between the black and white of his eyes and he became blind.

Al-Manâqib Ahmad bin Hanbal (Manuscript); Al-Mojamul Kabir: 145; Târikh Damishq 4/430; Kifâyatut Tâlib: 296; As-Sawâiqul Mohreqa: 194; Majmâuz Zawâid 9/196; Akhbârud Dul: 109; Al- Mukhtâr: 22; Tahzibut Tahzib 2/353; Seer Alâmun Nubla 2113; Târikhul Islâm 2/348; Nazm Durarus Simtain: 220; Miftâhun Najâh: 151; Rishfatul Sâdi: 63; Yanâbiul Mawaddâh: 220; Wasilatul Mâl: 197; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/547-550

27. The killers of Imâm Hussain (a.s.), no matter where they were; they all were punished in this world. Either they were murdered or they became blind, or were degraded, lost their power and kingdom and were arrested in a short time.

At-Tadkerah: 290; Nûrul Absâr: 123; Isâfur Râghebeen: 192; Yanâbiul Mawaddâh: 322; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/513

28. A man who prevented Imâm Hussain (a.s.) to get water was cursed by Imâm (a.s.) in the following words: O Allâh, keep him absolutely thirsty! The man was afflicted with the heat of the stomach and the coldness of the back. He began to plead and scream till his stomach burst like that of a camel.

Maqtalul Husain 2/91; Zakhâirul Uqba: 144; As-Sawâiqul Mohreqa: 195; Mujabiad Dawa: 38; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/514-515

29. When a man said to Imâm Hussain (a.s.): I give you news of the hell. Imâm (a.s.) cursed him and said: O Allâh, throw him into fire. The horse of this man began to move and crashed into a ditch and the man’s leg got caught in the stirrup and the horse began to gallop while the head of the wretched man crashed against trees and stones till he finally died.

Târikhul Umam wal Muluk 4/327; Al-Mojamul Kabir: 146; Maqtalul Husain 2/94; Zakhâirul Uqba: 144; Al-Kâmil fi Târikh 2/893, Kifâyatut Tâlib: 287; Wasilatul Mâl: 197; Yanâbiul Mawaddâh: 342; Ehqaq- ul- Haq: 11/516-519

30. When they deprived Imâm Hussain (a.s.) of water a man said: Look at the water, it is like the heart of the sky and you cannot even taste a drop of it until you die of thirst. Imâm (a.s.) said: O Allâh! Kill him due to thirst. The man drank as much water as he could but his thirst was not quenched and finally he died.

As-Sawâiqul Mohreqa: 195; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/520

31. A man who deprived Imâm Hussain (a.s.) of water was himself (a.s.) killed by thirst by the curse of Imam (a.s.).

32. A man who wanted to snatch the string of Imam’s trousers, turned blind and his hands and legs were dismembered. This occurred after he had seen Fâtima (s.a.) in a dream and she had cursed him.

33. The hand of the person who had looted the turban of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) was severed from the elbow. He fell into poverty and misfortune till he died.

34. One who said: “I am the killer of Husain”, lost his sense and became dumb.

Al-Bidâya wan Nihâya 8/174; Yanâbiul Mawaddâh: 348; Maqtalul Husain 2/34, 94, 103; Târikh Damishq 4/340; Al-Kâmel fi Târikh 3/283; Al-Mojamul Kabir: 146; Zakhâirul Uqba: 144; Kifâyatut Tâlib: 287; Wasilatul Mâl: 196; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/522, 527, 528 & 530

35. The man who looted the trousers of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) became paralyzed; the one who had taken the turban of Imâm Husain (a.s.) became a leper and the one who had robbed the chain armor became insane. A dust storm, which was dark, arose with a red storm in which nothing could be seen till the people thought that Divine punishment had descended on them.

Maqtalul Husain 2/37; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/526

36. When the holy severed head of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) was brought to Yazeed and kept before him, a hand came out from the wall and wrote:

Does the Ummah that killed Husain have any hope for the intercession of his grandfather on the day of accounting?

Ghurarul Khasâisul Wâzeha: 276; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/546

37. When the severed heads of the evil Ibne Ziyâd and his friends were presented to Mukhtâr, a snake emerged among the heads and while passing over the heads, entered the mouth of Ibn Ziyâd and came out of his nostril. Then it entered the nostril and came out of the mouth and it kept on repeating this; and people said, “Ubaidullâh Ibn Ziyâd and his companions are losers”, then their wailing on Husain, his sons and his followers echoed in the atmosphere.

Sahih at-Tirmidhi 13/97; Maqtalul Husain2/84; Usdul Ghaba 2/22; Al-Mojamul Kabir: 145; Zakhâirul Uqba: 128; Seer Alâmun Nubla 3/359; Mukhtasar Tadkeratul Qurtubi: 192; Jameul Usool 10/25; As-Sawâiqul Mohreqa: 196; Nazm Durarus Simtain: 220; Umdatul Qari 16/241; Yanâbiul Mawaddâh: 321; Isâfur Râghebeen: 185; Nûrul Absâr: 126; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/542-545

38. Harmala came out with the ugliest and the darkest face, and not a night passed on him, but that he was thrown in the flaming fire.

At-Tadkerah: 291; Yanâbiul Mawaddâh: 330; Isâfur Râghebeen: 192; Nûrul Absâr: 123; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/531-532

39. A person said: “None co-operated in the slaying of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) except those who faced calamities before death.” At that moment a very old man said: “I was in Karbala (being a part of the infidel army) but till now I have not suffered any calamity. Just then, the lamp went out. The old man got up to rekindle the lamp and while he was lighting it, fire engulfed him. He ran towards the Euphrates and threw himself into it. But the flames increased and he was reduced to ashes.

Maqtalul Husain: 62; Tahzibut Tahzib 2/353; Al-Mukhtâr: 22; Târikh Damishq 4/340, Kifâyatut Tâlib: 279; At-Tadkerah: 292; Wasilatul Mâl: 197; Nazm Durarus Simtain: 220; Seer Alâmun Nubla 3/211; As-Sawâiqul Mohreqa: 193; Yanâbiul Mawaddâh: 322; Miftâhun Najâh(Manuscript); Isâfur Râghebeen: 191; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/536-539

40. A tree had blossomed by the miracle of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and after the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) blood flowed from its stems and all its leaves dried and puss began to ooze from them.

Rabiul Abrâr: 44; At-Tohfatul Aliyyatul Adab al-Alamiyya: 16; Maqtalul Husain 2/98; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/296-297

41. A bowl looted in the battlefield from Imâm Hussain (a.s.) turned to ash (dust).

Al-Mojamul Kabir: 147; Seer Alâmun Nubla 3/211; Târikhul Islâm 2/348; Tahzibut Tahzib: 2/353; Maqtalul Husain: 2/90; Zakhâirul Uqba: 144; Majmâuz Zawâid: 9/197; As-Sawâiqul Mohreqa: 192; Nazm Durarus Simtain: 220; Al-Khasâisul Kubra 2/126; Yanâbiul Mawaddâh: 321; Ahqâqul Haqq 11/503-505

42. The meat of the camel looted from the camp of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) was distributed among the people of the tribes but fire engulfed the pot in which it was cooked. Nothing from the looted property of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) was kept on the pot but that it turned into fire.

The camel meat of the camel looted from Imâm Hussain (a.s.) became as bitter as colocynth.

Nazm Durarus Simtain: 220; Al-Mahâsin wal Masâwi: 62; Al-Mojamul Kabir: 147; Majmâuz Zawâid: 9/196; Târikh Damishq: 4/340; Târikhul Islâm: 2/348; Seer Alâmun Nubla: 3/211; Tahzibut Tahzib: 2/353; Al-Khasâisul Kubra: 2/126; Târikhul Khulafa: 80; Maqtalul Husain: 2/90; At-Tadkerah: 277; Nûrul Absâr: 123; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/506-510

43. After the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) his blessed severed head was brought to Ibn Ziyâd. He asked: Who has killed him? A man arose and said: “I.” At that very moment his face turned black.

Zakhâirul Uqba: 149; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/540

44. At mid-night a light arose from the place where the blessed head of Imâm (a.s.) was kept and it spread upto the sky and due to it the monk converted to Islâm.

At-Tadkerah: 273; Maqtalul Husain: 2/102; As-Sawâiqul Mohreqa: 119; Rishfatul Sâdi: 164; Yanâbiul Mawaddâh: 325; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/498-502

45. The next morning after the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) the food in the pots and water in the vessels turned into blood.

Nazm Durarus Simtain: 220; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/502

46. Any woman that used the perfume looted from Imâm Hussain (a.s.) was afflicted with leprosy.

Al-Iqdul Fareed 2/220; Uyoon Akhbâr 11/212; Ehqaq- ul- Haq 11/511

Whatever we have mentioned so far in the book is only a part of whatever is recorded in the numerous books of Ahle Sunnat. As for the Shia sources there are many more signs and proofs that became apparent after the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.). We shall mention a few of them here.

47. After the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) the owls took an oath that they would not make nests in inhabited places; and make them in ruins and lonely spots. They fasted during the day and lamented on Imâm Hussain (a.s.). Though before the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) the owls lived in habitated houses and palaces. When people ate they used to fly out and share the food and drinks then returned to their nests.

48. After the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) the melodious pigeons used to curse his killers.

49. After the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) the sky rained blood and dust.

50. After the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) red dust rained from the sky.

51. After the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) when people in Baitul Maqdas picked a stone, a clod or a rock, they saw blood underneath. The walls were red as if smeared with blood, and for three days blood rained from the sky.

52. After the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) four thousand angels descended. They would be smeared in dust and disheveled till the day of Qiyamat -the advent of Qaem- (a.t.f.s.) and shall weep. The chief of them is named Mansoor.

53. After the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) a redness arose from the east and another from the west till they nearly joined in the middle of the sky.

54. After the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) for forty days the people said they witnessed the sun to be deep red at the time of sunrise and sunset and that was its lamentation.

55. After the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) blood rained from the sky and dewdrops turned to blood and when camels were taken to drink water, blood was found

in the watering places.

56. The sky did not weep for anyone except Yahya Ibn Zakariya (a.s.) and Imâm Hussain (a.s.). It’s weeping was such that wherever it came in contact with a cloth it seemed as if blood of flea was smeared on it.

57. After the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) the seven heavens and the seven earths with whatever is in them and the Gardens and the Hells and the seen and the unseen wept upon him.

58. After the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) everything wept for him. Even the beasts of the forests and the fishes of the seas and the birds of the sky, the sun and the moon and the stars and the sky and the earth and the believers among the men and the jinn and all the angels of the heavens and the earth and Rizwan and Malik and the bearer of the Arsh (throne).

59. After the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) wild animals surrounded his holy grave since nightfall till the morning and with lowered heads lamented for him.

60. After the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) for forty mornings the sky was blood red, the earth was black and pitch dark and the sun was crimson and the mountains split and spread and the seas were stormy and the angels beside the blessed grave wailed and due to their lamentation the angels of the sky, the earth and the atmosphere also wailed.

61. When Amirul Momineen (a.s.) recited the verse: So the heaven and the earth did not weep for them, nor were they respited. Hussain (a.s.) came near him. Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: Husain will be slain in the near future and the sky and the earth will weep upon him.

62. Fâtima (s.a.) lamented upon Husain (a.s.).

63. At the time of the martyrdom of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) the jinns recited the following Nauha (Lamentation):

Indeed the arrows shot towards Hussain (a.s.) actually were aimed at the Quran.

And by killing you, they have killed the Tahleel (There is no Allâh except Allâh) and Takbeer (Allâh is the Greatest).

Then, as if they killed your grandfather Muhammad, upon whom Allâh and Jibraeel send blessings.

O son of the martyrs. O the martyr who had the best of Uncles, Ja’far at-Tayyâr, Who was also a martyr.

It is surprising of the swords that arose in the dust and their sharp edges fell on you.

O eyes do not stop weeping and weep on the chief of the martyrs.

He was martyred in Karbala and we are his mourners.

The female jinns weep with a deep sorrow and like the Hashemite ladies recite mournful elegies.

Dressed in black they recite elegies for the great tragedy that struck Imâm Hussain (a.s.) and they slap their beautiful faces in grief.


“Al-Manâqib” of Ibn Shar Âshub Vol. p.4/754, Kâmiluz Ziyarât: 75; Amâli of Sadooq, Majlis no. 27; Ilalush Sharze 1/217, Amâli of Mufid; Bihârul Anwâr 45/201-241 and other sources which are present in large numbers.


































Yazeed and his men were not the only persons who fought with Hussain (a.s.). The rulers who came to power after Yazeed were against those who had affection for the companions of Hussain (a.s.), and they tried to cover up the events of Karbala, or to alter and erase them. But the Lord decided to complete His Radiance, though the polytheists do not like it. Yet right from the time of the event many persons have written a number of books on this subject in various manners and in different languages.

Unfortunately most of the old books on the subject of Maqtal have not remained except their very names and titles. They have been burnt, stolen, or destroyed. This has been done with the intention that Hussain (a.s.) and his uprising may not encourage liberty-loving people to fight oppression. What has reached us from the old writings is very little or history has mentioned very less about it.

In this chapter the names of those persons have been listed who have, since the event of Karbala upto the time of Sayyid Ibne Tâwûs or the time of writing this Maqtal book, written about the martyrdom in Karbala.

(1) Abul Qâsim Asbagh bin Nubâta Majâshai Tamimi Hanzali

He is from the close friends (Khawâs) and companions of Amirul Momineen (a.s.). He is also one of the Shurtatul Khamees (security) who lived for a long time after Ali (a.s.) and expired after 100 A.H.

He has written Maqtale Husain and apparently he must be the first to write a book on this topic – Allâh knows best.

Al-Fehrist: 37-38 Sh. 108, Az-Zariah: 22/23-24, Sh 5838

(2) Abu Makhnaf Lut bin Yahya bin Saeed bin Makhnaf bin Salâm Azadi Ghamidi

He is a known personality and one of the chiefs of knowledgeable men of Kufa. He quotes Ja’far bin Muhammad (a.s.) and his statement, that he narrates from Abu Ja’far (a.s.), appears to be true.

In the opinion of Kishi he is among the companions of Amirul Momineen, Hasan and Husain (a.s.). But what is correct is that his father was a companion of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and that he himself did not meet him (Ali).

He has written Maqtale Husain – Qatlul Husain (a.s.).

The book Maqtalul Husain that was printed recently in the name of Abi Makhnaf is, doubtlessly, not his book but rather belongs to the later writers. Some of the later writers raise a doubt that this work might be of Seyed Ibne Tâwûs and that he took it from Maqtal Abi Makhnaf and made some additions and omissions in it. About Maqtale Abi Makhnaf we do not have anything at hand except whatever has come down in Tarikh –e- Tabari.

Rijâl Najjâshi: Part 320, 875, Al-Fehrist: 129 Part 573; Al-Muallim: 93-94; Az-Zariah 22/27 Sh 5859

(3) Abu Ahmad Abdul Aziz Bin Yahya Bin Ahmad Bin Isa Al-Jaludi

He is from the companions of Abu Ja’far (a.s.) the teacher of Ja’far bin Quluwayh. He is the author of Kitâb Maqtal Abi Abdullâh Al-Hussain (a.s.).

Rijâl Najjâshi: 240-244 Sh 640, Az-Zariah 22/25 Sh 5851

(4) Abu Abdullâh Abu Muhammad Jabir Bin Yazeed Ju’fi

He was an Arab. He was a contemporary of Abu Ja’far and Abu Abdillâh (a.s.) and expired in 125. He has written Maqtal Abi Abdullâh Al-Hussain (a.s.).

Rijâl Najjâshi: 128 Sh. 332; Az-Zariah 22/24 Sh 5840

(5) Abdullâh Ibne Ahmad Muhammad bin Abeed Duniya

He was a Sunni who expired in the year 281 A.H. He has written Maqtalul Hussain (a.s.).

Al-Fehrist: 104 438; Al-Ma’alim: 76 Sh 506; Seer Alâmun Nubla 13/403

(6) Abul Fazl Salmah bin al-Khattâb al-Barawastani al-Azdurqani

He has written Maqtalul Husain (a.s.).

Rijâl Najjâshi: 187, Sh 498; Al-Fehrist: 79, Sh 324; Al-Ma’alim: 57 Sh 378; Az-Zariah 22/25, Sh 5847

(7) Abul Hasan Ali bin Muhammad al-Madâeni

He belonged to the Sunni faith. His books are good. He expired in 224 A.H. He has written Maqtalul Husain or Sirah Dar Maqtalul Hussain.

Al-Fehrist: 95, Sh 395; Al-Ma’alim: 72, Sh 486

(8) Abu Zaid Ammârah bin Zaid Khaiwâni Hamadâni

He has written Maqtalul Husain Bin Ali (a.s.).

Rijâl Najjâshi: 303, Sh 827; Az-Zariah 22/26, Sh 5855

(9) Ahmad bin Abdullâh Bakri

He is the author of Maqtal Abi Abdillâh Al-Hussain (a.s.).

A copy of this book is available in the library of the University of Qareen in the city of Faas. Classified in collection 3/575 and titled: Hadith Wafâte Sayyidna al-Hussain.

(10) Abu Ja’far Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Yahya bin Umar bin Abdullâh bin Sa’ad bin Mâlik Ashari Qummi, known as Dabbate Shabeeb

He has written the book entitled Maqtale Abi Abdillâh Al-Hussain.

Rijâl Najjâshi: 348-349, Sh 939; Az-Zariah 22/27, Sh 5861

(11) Abu Ubaidah Muammar bin al-Muthanna at-Tamimi

Sayyid Tâwûs has quoted from him. He expired in 210 A.H. He wrote Maqtal Abi Abdillâh Al-Hussain.

Az-Zariah 22/28, Sh 5873

(12) Hisham bin Muhammad bin as-Saeb bin Bashar bin Zaid

He is a well-known scholar famous for his knowledge and grace especially about our faith. He has written Maqtalul Hussain.

Rijâl Najjâshi: 434-435, Sh 1166

(13) Abul Mufaddal Nasr bin Muzahim Munaqari Attâr

He is from Kufa and was a Shia. He expired in 212 A.H. He has written Maqtalul Hussain.

Rijâl Najjâshi: 427-428, Sh 1148, Al-Fehrist: 171-172, Sh 751, Al-Ma’alim: 126, Sh 851; Az-Zariah 22/29, Sh 5874; Fehrist Ibne Nadeem: 106

(14) Abu Abdullâh Muhammad bin Umar Wâqidi Madani Baghdâdi

He is the author of Al-Adab. He expired in 207 A.H. Maqtal Abi Abdillâh Al-Hussain (r.a.) is written by him.

Az-Zariah: 22/28 Sh 5869, Fehrist Ibne Nadeem: 111, Al-Wafi Bil Wafiyyat 4/238

(15) Abu Ja’far Muhammad bin Ali bin Husain bin Musa bin Babawayh Qummi

He is the author of Maqtalul Hussain (a.s.).

Al-Fehrist: 156-157 Sh 695, Al-Ma’alim: 111-112, Sh 764, Az-Zariah 22/28, Sh 5867

(16) Muhammad bin Ali bin Fazl bin Tamam bin Sakeen

He is the teacher of Ibn Ghazâiri, and is in the level of Sadooq (a.r.). He is reliable, noble, having true beliefs and author of very good books. He wrote the book Maqtale Abi Abdillâh Al-Hussain (a.s.).

Rijâl Najjâshi: 385 Sh 1046, Az-Zariah 22/28, Sh 5868

(17) Abu Abdullâh Muhammad bin Zakariya bin Danyar al-Ghalâbi

He was the Maula of Bani Ghalla. He is a known person who knew our companions in Basra. He expired in 298 A.H. and has written Maqtalul Hussain (a.s.)

Rijâl Najjâshi: 346-347, Sh 963, Fehrist Ibne Nadeem: 121

(18) Abu Ja’far Muhammad bin Yahya at-Tayyâr Qummi

He was a chief of our companions of his time. A reliable man who wrote many hadiths. Maqtalul Hussain (a.s.) is also his work.

Rijâl Najjâshi: 353, Sh 946

(19) Ibne Wazeh al-Yâqubi Ahmad bin Ishâq

He was a renowned narrator, author of Târikh Yâqubi. He expired after 292 or in the year 284. He came after Abi Makhnaf. He wrote Maqtale Hussain (r.a.).

Az-Zariah 22/23, Sh 5833

(20) Abu Ishâq Ibrahim bin Ishâq Ahmari Nahavandi

He was a man of deep research and his books are quite balanced. Qâsim bin Muhammad bin Hamadâni had heard hadiths from him. He expired in 269 A.H. He has also written Maqtalul Hussain (a.s.).

Al-Fehrist: 7, Sh 9, Al-Ma’alim: 7, Sh 27; Rijâl Najjâshi: 19, Sh 21, Az-Zariah 22/23, Sh 5835

(21) Ibrahim bin Muhammad bin Saeed bin Hilâl bin Masood Thaqafi

He was born in Kufa and brought up in Isfahân. He belonged to the Zaidi sect. Thereafter he became an Ithna Ashari and expired in 283 A.H. He has written Maqtalul Hussain.

Al-Fehrist: 4-5, Sh 7, Al-Ma’alim: 3, Sh 1, Rijâl Najjâshi: 16-17, Sh 19, Az-Zariah 22/23, Sh 5835

(22) Abul Husain Shafei

He was an expert in hadith. Najjâshi has quoted him through his teacher Ahmad bin Abdul Wahid bin Abdoon. He has written Kitâb Alqatal.

Az-Zariah 22/21-22, Sh 5825

(23) Ibne Shahr Âshob

Abu Ja’far al-Husaini quotes him in Sharhe Shafiya. He has written Kitâb Al-Maqtal.

Az-Zariah 22/22, Sh 5827

(24) Muhammad bin Hasan bin Ali Tusi

He is the author of Maqtalul Hussain (a.s.).

Al-Fehrist: 159-161, Sh 699, Al-Ma’alim: 114-114 Sh 766, Az-Zariah: 22/27 Sh 5863

(25) Najmuddin Ja’far bin Najibuddin Muhammad bin Ja’far bin Abi al-Baqa Nibbatullâh bin Nama Hilli

He expired in 645 A.H. The book Maseerul Ahzân Wa Muneer Subulal Ashjân is written by him.

Az-Zariah 19/349, Sh 1559-22/22

(26) Abu Ubaid al-Qâsim bin Salâr Salâm al-Harvi

He expired in 224 A.H.

At-Tahbeer Zahabi 1/185

(27) Abdullâh bin Muhammad bin Abdul Aziz Baghavi

He expired in 317 A.H. He was the author of Maqtalul Hussain (a.s.).

Kashfuz Zanoon 2/1794

(28) Umar bin Hasan bin Ali bin Mâlik Shaibâni

He expired in 339 A.H. He wrote Maqtalul Husain (a.s.).

Mojamul Muallifeen 7/282

(29) Ziyâuddin Abu Muaiyad al-Muwaffiq bin Ahmad Khwârizmi

He expired in 568 A.H. He has written Maqtalul Hussain (a.s.) in two volumes.

(30) Abul Qâsim Mahmood bin Mubârak Wâsti

He expired in 592 A.H. He wrote Maqtalul Hussain (a.s.).

Eezâh al-Maknoon 2/540

(31) Izzuddin Abdur Razzâq Zajri

He expired in 661 A.H. He wrote Maqtal as-Shaheed al-Hussain (a.s.).

(32) Sulaimân bin Ahmad Tibrâni

He expired in 360 A.H. He has authored Maqtalul Hussain (a.s.).

Ibne Manzah has, in Nihâyat al-Mojamul Kabir, included an important part of the translation of the biography of Tibrâni and on p. 362 No. 39 of the same book, mentioned Maqtalul Husain in the name of Tibrâni.

(33) Ali bin Musa bin Ja’far bin Tâwûs

He expired in 664. A.H. This book Malhoof Ala Qatli at-Tafoof is his work. He has also written Al-masra as-sheen fee Qatl al-Hussain (a.s.).































He is Seyed Raziyuddin Abul Qâsim Ali Ibn Sa’aduddin Abi Ibrahim Musa Ibn Ja’far Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Tâwûs.

His holy ancestry reaches to Imâm Hasan al-Mujtaba (a.s.) from his father’s side and upto Imâm Husain (a.s.) from his mother’s side and hence he is also called Zul Hosnain.

He is known as Tâwûs (peacock) because one of his ancestors Abu Abdullâh Muhammad bin Ishâq bin Hasan was a handsome man with ugly legs. Therefore, they called him Tâwûs, and thereafter his progeny too got the same title.

He was born in the middle of Muharram 589 in Hilla. The report that he was born in Rajab of 587 is weak.

Ibne Tâwûs grew up in Hilla and acquired the preliminary training there. He was in Hilla upto year 602 where he was taught by many teachers and got certificates from others who included:

His father Sa’aduddin Musa bin Musa.

His grandfathers Warâm bin Abi Farâs Nakhaee. As he himself says, his father and his grandfather, Warâm had given special attention to his education and training and had taught him the best of righteousness and courtesy.

Abul Hasan Ali bin Yahya al-Khiyât al-Hanât Sawrâvi Hilli.

Hussain bin Ahmad Sawrâvi

Asad bin Abdul Qâdir

Muhammad bin Ja’far bin Hibbatullâh

Hasan bin Alyud Darâbi

Muhammad as-Sawrâvi

Muhammad bin Ma’d al-Musavi

Fakhr bin Muhammad al-Musavi

Haider bin Muhammad bin Zaid al-Husaini

Salim bin Mehfooz bin Azizat al-Hilli

Jibraeel bin Ahmad as-Sawrâvi

Ali bin al-Husain bin Ahmad al-Jawâni

Husain bin Abdul Karim al-Gharvi

Muhammad bin Abdullâh bin Ali bin Zahra al-Halabi

Ibn Tâwûs learned from non-Shia teachers and got permission (testimonial) and explained the gracefulness of Shia through their narrations. Among such teachers are:

Muhammad bin Mahmood Najjâr

Muaiyaduddin Muhammad bin Muhammad Qummi.

Ibn Tâwûs married Zahra Khâtoon, daughter of the Shia Vazir of Nâsir bin Zaidi. He was not pleased with that matrimony because it involved tendency towards the world. We do not have enough information about the said persons. We do not know whether or not she bore any child for the Shaykh. The Seyed’s famous children were known by the names of their mothers.

The Seyed had good relations with the ruling diplomats like Vazir Alqami Muhammad bin Ahmad, his brothers, and his son.

He also had good relations with Caliph Mustansir Abbâsi so that the caliph built a house for the Seyed in the eastern part of Baghdad.

The caliph had tried to involve Seyed Ibne Tâwûs in political affairs and to place all the Tâlibiyyin under his leadership but the Sayyid emphatically rejected this.

Mustansir also tried to send the Seyed as an emissary to the Mongol ruler, which was not accepted.

The first son of the Seyed was born on the 9th of Muharram 643 in Hilla and the second on the 8th of Muharram 647 in Najaf.

What we come to know from books of biography and translated works is that the Sayyid had returned to Hilla in 641 and had gone to Najaf in 645 wherefrom he had gone to Kerbala in 649 and had proceeded on a journey to Sâmarrah in 652 and on reaching Baghdâd he stayed there and when Baghdâd fell to Moguls he was in that city.

When Holaku Khan arrived in Mustansariyah he asked the Ulamas (scholars) this query: Who is better, a tyrant Muslim ruler or a Kâfir judicious ruler? None gave a reply to this query but the Seyed said: A Kâfir judicious ruler is better. All the ulama followed the Seyed’s reply!

It is obvious that the reply of Seyed saved and proteced the lives of the people of the city. Only Allâh knows that any Muslim would have remained alive in Baghdâd if he had not replied so.

It was on the 10th of Safar 656 A.H. that Holaku Khan called Seyed and gave him protection and the Seyed left for Hilla.

On 9th Muharram 658 he was in Najaf in his house.

On 14th Rabiul Awwal 658 he was in Baghdâd in his residence.

It is mentioned that Holaku gave the leadership of the Alawys to Seyed during 656-661, and it appears that in 656 he was given the leadership of Baghdâd and in 661 that of all the Tâlibiyyin.

In the beginning, Seyed refused the leadership. But Shaykh Naseeruddin Tusi told him that non-acceptance of it would result in his death and thus he was compelled to agree.

The Seyed expired on the morning of Sunday, the 5th of Zilqad 664 A.H. in Baghdâd, and his long time wish for being buried in Najaf was fulfilled.

Information about his last days is difficult to obtain.

Some say that he died as the chief, and some state that in the last days of his life he was dismissed from leadership or he and his brother were martyred.

He wrote the first part of his book Al-Malâhim on 15th Muharram 663 while leaving Baghdâd for Ziyarat in Najaf and during his stay in Hilla.

In Jamâdiul Awwal 664 A.H. he gave Ijaza (Doctrinal authority certificate) to some of his students.

We have no information that he left Iraq in 624 A.H. for a reason other than the Ziyarat of the House of Allâh (Ka’ba).

Seyed’s economic condition was good and he reminded his children in his will that, “following the traditions of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and Amirul Momineen (a.s.) he did not leave gold and silver as his heritage. He invested his property and orchards as charity memorials.

It is famous that Seyed had Karâmat (Divine Miracles) some of which have been mentioned in his notes and some have been written by his biographers. It is also said that he had direct contact with Hujjatullâh al-Muntazar (a.t.f.s.) and also that he was given Isme Âzam but was not permitted to teach it to his children.

Ibne Tâwûs had three brothers:

Sharfuddin Abul Fazl Muhammad

Izzuddin Hasan

Jamâluddin Abdul Fazâil Ahmad, father of Ghayâsuddin Abdul Karim

Ibne Tâwûs had four daughters, the names of two; Sharful Ashraf and Fâtima are found in books.

Seyed always remembered his daughters with pride, because they had learnt the holy Quran by heart. Sharaful Ashrāf had learnt it at the age of 12, and Fâtima at 9. Seyed had willed two copies of the Holy Quran for them.

Seyed had willed many things whereby his children and the Shias (friends) were urged to fear Allâh (taqwa), to be abstinent and to remain away from people as far as possible because (excessive) involvement with people results in getting distanced from the Almighty Allâh.

Seyed Ibne Tâwûs owned a large library and a list of its books was prepared. It is one of the important libraries in history.

He always maintained righteousness and regularity, and encouraged others to learn about the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and the Ahle Bayt (a.s.). Because such knowledge about the original sources of religion was the actual understanding of religion (in practice).

Seyed Ibn Tâwûs has written many and various useful books. Some of them are as follow:

Al-amân min akhtâr al-Asfâr waz zamân

Anwâr Akhbâr abi Umar az Zâhid

Al-Anwâr al-bâhirah fee intisâr al-itratit Tâhirah

Al-asrâr al-muwaddah fee sa’atil lail wan nahâr

Asrâr as-salât wa Anwârud dawât

Samarat al-mahjah fee muhimmatil awlâd

Al-basharât be qazâil hajât alâ yadil aimmah badal mamât

Ad daroo al-waqiât minal akhtâr

Falah as-sâil wa Najâh al-masâil fee amalil yawm wal lail

Farjul mahmoom fee ma arifatil halâl wal harâm min Uloom nujoom

Farhatun nâzir wa bahjatul khawâtir

Fathul abwâb baina zavil albbâb wa rabbil arbâb fil istikharah wa ma feeha min wajoohis sawâb

Fathul jawâb al-bâhir fee khalqil kâfir

Ghayâsul sultânul warâ li sukkanis sarâ

Al-ibânah fee ma’rifatil asma kutubul khazânah

Ighâsatud dâee wa Iana as-sâee

Al-ijazât li kashfi turuqil mafazât

Al-Iqbâl bil amalil hasanah

Al-istifa fee Akhbâril mamlook wal khulafa

Jamâl ul usboo’ fil amalil mashroo’


Kashful mahjah li samaratil mahjah

Libâbil musarrah min Kitâbe ibne Abi Qurrah

Al-malhoof ala qatlit tufoof

Al-manamât was Sâdiqat

Sâlikil mahtaj ila manasikil hajj

Al-mizmâr lis sibâq wal lihâq bi saumi shahri itlâqil arzaqi wa itâqil a’naqi

Misbâhuz zair wa janâhul Musâfir

Mahjud dâwât wa manhajul inayât

Muhasibatun Nafs

Al-muhimmât fee islâhil muta abbad wa tatimmat li Misbâhi mutahajjad

Al-Mujtana minad dua il Mujtaba

Mukhtasar Kitâbe ibne Habib

Al-muntaqa fil auzi war riqâ

Al-muwâsa wal muzâiqa

Al-qabas al-wazih min Kitâbil jalees as-sâleh

Rabiul albâb

Raiuz zamaan min marviyy Muhammad bin Abdullâh bin Sulaimân

Rooh ul asrâr wa rooh ul asmâr

As-sâdât bil ibadatallati lais laha awqâtu muaiyinât

Sa’adus suood lin nufoos

Shifa ul uqool min dail fuzool fee ilmil usool

At-tehseel minat taz yeel

At-tehseel min asrâri ma za da min Akhbâri Kitâbil yaqeen

Attamam li maham shahr siyâm


Taqreeb us sâlik ila khidmatil Mâlik

At-tarâif fee ma’rifati mazahib tawâif

At-tarâjum fee ma nazkuruhu anil hâkim


At-ta’reef lil moolidis shareef

At-tashreef bil minani fit tareefe bil fitani

At-tashreef bi târeef waqtit takleef

At-tawfeeq lil wafai ba’da tafreeqi dârul fana

Turfaum minalambai wal Manâqib fee sharfi saiyadil ambiya wa itratihil ataib

Al-yaqeen fee ikhtisâsi maulana Ali (a.s.) bi imratil Momineen

Zahrur rabee’ fee adiyatil asâbee’

This was a brief story of the great and fruitful life of the Seyed, which we have compiled from numerous books and most important of them are the writings of Âle Yasin about the life, books, and library of Seyed Ibne Tâwûs. Other writings are from Eton Kulburk about the library and the life of the Seyed in English, which were later translated into Persian.



Scholars who have quoted from Seyed Ibn Tāwūs:

1. Mirza Abdullâh: Riyâzul Ulama 4/161

2. Ali bin Anjab bin al-Sâyi: Târikh Ibne al-Sâyi

3. Khwânsâri: Rawzâtul Jannât 4/325-339

4. Al-Majlisi: Bihârul Anwâr 1/12-13, 107/34, 37-45, 63, 208

5. Ibn al-Taqtaqi: Târikhul Fakhri: 13

6. Mashârekatul Irâq fee Nashre Turâth: Issue no. 58

7. Zahra Journal: 2/635

8. Journal of Educational Society of Irâq: 12/192

9. Mahd al-Makhtootât Journal: 4/216

10. Abdul Husain al-Amini: Al-Ghadeer 4/187

11. Muhammad Hâdi al-Amini, Mojamul Rijâl al-Fikr wa al-Adab fee Najaf 1/80-82

12. Jawwâd Shahristâni: Preface to Kitâb Al-Amân: 4-8

13. Al-Hurr al-Amili: Amalul Amil 2/205

14. Aliyy Adnâni: Muqaddama Kitâb Naba-ul Maqalatul Fatemiyya: 12-21

15. Eton Kulburk: Kitâb Khana-o-Athar-o-Ahwal Ibne Tâwûs (Written in English in 1413 AH and translated into Persian and published in 771 pages.)

16. Muhammad al-Hassoon: Preface to Kashful Muhajja 15-34

17. Hamid al-Khifaf: Preface Kitâb Fathul Abwâb: 9-41

18. Kamâluddin Abdur Razzâq bin al-Futi: Al-Hawâdisul

Jamia wat Tajâribul Nâfiqa fil miyatis Sâbeqa: 346 and 350 (In this it is to be considered that this book is written by Bin al-Futi) Talkhees Majmu-ul Âdâb 5/489 and 547

19. Ibne Unba: Umdatul Tâlib fee Ansâb Âle Abi Tâlib: 190-191

20. At-Turaihi: Majmâul Bahrayn 4/83 Tusi

Jameul Maqâl Fima Yatallaq bi Ahwâlul Hadith war Rijâl: 142

21. Ash-Shaykh Yusuf al-Bahrâni: Loulouatul Bahrain: 235

Al-Kashkool 1/306-307, 2/196

22. At-Tafrishi: Naqdur Rijâl: 244

23. Muhammad Aminul Kâzmi: Hidâyatul Muhaddetheen Ila Tareeqatul Muhammadeen: 306

24. Sirkees: Mojamul Matbuât 1/145

25. Al-Ardibeli: Jâmeur Ruwât 1-603

26. Abu Ali Muhammad bin Ismail: Muntahiul Maqâl fee Ahwâlur Rijâl: 225 and 357

27. Al-Wahid al-Bahbahani: At-Taleeqa: 239

28. Al-Dizfuli: Maqâbisul Anwâr: 12 and 16

29. An-Noori: Mustadrakul Wasael 3/467-472

30. Al-Baghdâdi: Hadiyatul Arefeen 5/710

Izâhul Maknoon 3/76 and 77, 90, 110, 202, 340, 365, 471, 548, 4/16, 82, 83, 151, 158, 160, 186, 366, 417, 430, 439, 492, 495, 609, 683, and 731

31. Mâmaqâni: Tanqihul Maqâl: 2/310

32. Al-Qummi: Al-Kunni wal Alqâb: 1/327, Hadiyatul Ahbâb: 70

33. Safinatul Bihâr 2/96

34. Al-Fawâidur Razawiyya: 43, 109, 199, 312, 334, 338, 386

35. At-Tahrâni: Al-Anwârul Sâte-ah fil Miyatis Sâbeqah

(Tab-aat Aalâmush Shia): 107-116 and 164

36. Musfal Maqâl: 301

37. Ad-Dhariah 1/58, 127, 222, 366, 396 and 2/20, 45, 49, 56, 59, 121, 249, 264, 392, 418 and 3/111, 113, 159, 303, 396, 398 and 4/115, 130, 189, 197, 215, 454, 500 and 5/129, 170, 236 and 6/260 and 7/100 and 8/146, 190 and 10/75 and 11/109, 262 and 12/73, 101, 119 and 14/140, 205 and 15/154, 161, 242 and 16/73, 103, 108, 113, 302, 303, 407 and 17/36, 289 and 18/58, 69, 76, 95, 274, 281, 326, 389 and 19/3 and 20/1, 68, 112, 121, 122, 167, 170, 183, 296, 319, 320, 330, 380 and 21/12, 20, 23, 107, 118, 135 and 22/189, 223, 225, 228, 276, 338 and 23/8, 161, 222, 272, 277, 287, 299 and 24/63, 158, 177, 270 and 25/8, 105, 224, 279 and 26/210, 249 and 270.

38. Al-Ameeni: Ayânush Shiah 8/358

39. Al-Khoei: Mojam Rijâlul Hadith 12/188

40. Az-Zarkulial Alâm 5/26

41. Kahhala: Mojamul Muallifeen 7/248

42. Âle Yasin: As-Sayyid Ali Âle Tâwûs Hayâte, Muallifate Khazanate Kutub page 58

43. Abdur Razzâq Kamuna: Mawâridul Ittehâf fee Nuqabâil Ashrâf 1/107-110

44. Yâqubi: Al-Babiliyât 1/64-66

45. Hâji Khalifah: Kashfuz Zunoon: 166, 752, 1608, 1911

46. Al-Ansâri: Preface Kitâbul Yaqeen: 53-84

47. Muhammad Hasan Zanoozi: Ar-Riyâzul Jannâh 1/219-224

48. Al-Mudarris: Raihânatul Adab 8/76-79

49. Mashâr: Muallifeen Kutube Chapi 4/413-417

50. As-Sadr: Taseesus Shia: 336

51. Afrâm: Dâiratul Ma’rif 3/296

52. Journal of the Arabic Educational Society of

Damascus: 28/468

53. Ibne Dâwood: Ar-Rijâl: 226-228

54. Ash-Shaheed at-Thâni: Haqâiqul Eimân: 156, 170, 177, 252, 256, 260 and 267

55. Brockleman: Under 1/911-913

56. Name Danishwarân: 1/161-168

There are many other sources but we have sufficed with this much.

The study of books by Seyed Ibne Tâwûs tell us a lot about his life as he has left many biographical details in many places in his writings out of which we mention some here.

1. Al-Iqbâl: 334, 527, 585, 586, 588 and 728

2. Al-Amân: 107, 116, 143

3. Al-Ijazât li Kashfi Turuqil Mafazât, In Vol. 107/37-45 Bihâr of Allamah Majlisi parts are quoted from the same.

4. Jamâlul Usboo’: 2, 23, 169, 170 and 172

5. Mahjud Dâwât: 212, 256, 296 and 342

6. Kasful Muhajja: 4, 86, 109, 112-114, 115, 118, 122, 125 and 127, 130, 132, 134, 136, 137, 138, 151 and 193

7. Al-Yaqeen: 5, 45, 79-81, 178-191

8. Falâhus Sael: 2, 5, 6, 14-15, 68, 70, 72, 74, 194, 246, 264, 269, 270

9. Sa’adus So’ud: 3, 25-27, 232-233

10. Al-Malâhim wal Fitan: 81, 82 and 92

11. Fathul Abwâb: 223, 237, 264 and 328

12. Farjul Mahmoom: 1, 146, 126-127 and 187

Apart from this, the respected Seyed has written other books, and in most of them he has written many thing about his life; that if all those material is collected we may have a complete book in his biography.












Relation of this Book to Seyed Ibn Tâwûs

Seyed Ibn Tâwûs has considered this book as his work in Iqbâl; and Kashful Muhajjah.

He says in Kashful Muhajjah: The book Al-Malhoof ala qatlat Tufoof which has been written about the martyrdom of Hussain (a.s.) contains wonderful things in its arrangement and composition, and it was the Grace of Allâh that enabled me to write it.

In his book Ijazat, as mentioned in Bihar 42/107, he says: I have compiled the book Al-Malhoof ala qatlat Tufoof in such a manner which, as far as I know, nobody has adopted and whoever has knowledge about this book can understand these words.

Among the proofs of the relation of this book with the Seyed, is that the name of the writer of the book is mentioned in the Preface of the same book. Moreover, everyone who is acquainted with the type of writing of Seyed can understand that this book is his work.

The author, at the end of this book, says: Anyone who is aware of the brevity and concisenes of this book knows that it is distinct from similar ones. Shaykh Tehrâni, in Zariah 18/389, No: 576, 22/223 and Brockleman, under 1/912 Sh 15, have said that this book is a work of the Seyed.

Eton Kulburk, in his writing, says that this book is of Seyed Ibne Tâwûs. “Al-Malhoof is the best of Seyed Tâwûs’ works.” He says: This book has been printed several times and also translated into Persian. He says: The book Lohoof contains quotations of the original events related to the tragedy of Karbala and subsequent happenings. He has brought many narrations from unknown narrators, which began to be read in Âshura.

Kulburk describes: One of the books of Seyed is Al-Masra Sheen fee qatlal Husain and this has not been mentioned at any place and the only proof thereof is that its handwritten manuscript is available in the Leiden library under registration No: 792.

He enumerates doubts and compares Al-Masra sheen and Maqtal, which has been attributed to Abi Makhnaf and says that it is possible that both might have existed at a time.

Eton Kulburk believes that it is probable that Seyed Ibne Tâwûs had relied on Maqtal of Abi Makhnaf and has made additions to it, arranged it and gave it the title of Al-Masra Sheen.

On this ground, the printed Maqtal, which has been attributed to Abi Makhnaf, is the same book, which the Seyed compiled and expanded.

It is said: Al-Masra Sheen and Lohoof are two books. Though there are instances to show that there is similarity between the two.

According to writing, Eton has referred to Seyed Ibn Tâwûs 76-78.

Shaykh Muhammad bin Âle Yasin, in his writing from Ibne Tâwûs, attributes this book to Seyed Tâwûs saying that it has been published several times in Iran and Najaf.

Anyhow, undoubtedly, Malhoof is written by Seyed, and that it is other than Al-Masra’Sheen, which he took from Maqtal of Abi Makhnaf. Though there is similarity between them.

Name of the book

This book is known by several names and all of them with the difference in prints return to the compiler because the compiler has chosen various names or one name with variances. The names of such books, which are mentioned in scripts and in sources, are like this:

1. Al-Lohoof ala qatlat tafoof

2. Al-Malhoof ala qatli Tafoof

3. Al-Malhoof ala qatlat tafoof

4. Al-Lohoof fee qatli at-tafoof

5. Al-Malhoof ala ahlit tafoof

6. Al-Masâlik fi Maqtalul Hussain (a.s.), as it is mentioned on the title page of the copy “R”, on the ground that, Ibne Tâwûs says in the preface: and I have prepared it in three styles.

Shaykh Tehrâni, in Zariah, 22/223, considers Al-Malhoof ala qatlat tafoof as “the most famous.”

We have chosen the name Al-Malhoof ala qatlal tafoof on the basis of the reliable copy “R” as the same title is seen in Kashful Mahajja: 194 and Ijâzate Bihâr and in other books.


Publication of the book

This book, due to its importance and texture with elegant style, attracted many buyers because scholars needed it. We see many copies of it in the libraries of the world. Some of them are:

1. The Great Public Library of Ayatullâh Marashi (r.a.) under No: 6068, Risâla III, writer (scribe) Muhammad Taqi bin Âqa Muhammad Sâleh, date of writing: 1303 A.H. Fehrist Kutubkhâna 16/17.

2. The same library under Majmua No: 7520, Risâla III in the handwriting of Muhammad Tâlib Zamandarani Mazandarani. Date of writing: 1119 A.H. Fehrist Kutubkhâna 19/327.

3. Library of Malik, Tehrân Sh 6069. Date of writing 1052.

4. Library of Majlis, Tehrân. Majmua No: 38150. Date of writing: 1101 A.H.

5. Library of Majlis, Majmua No: 4826, Date of writing: 11th century.

6. Library of Imâm Reza (a.s.), Mashhad, No. 6712. Date of writing: 1091 A.H.

7. Razaviyah Kutubkhâna, Mashhad, No: 13671, Date of writing: 1202 A.H. or 1220 A.H.

8. Also Razaviyah Kutubkhâna, Mashhad, No: 2132, Date of writing: 1233 A.H.

9. Also Razaviyah Kutubkhâna, Mashhad, No. 8874, without date.

10. Also Razaviyah Kutubkhâna, Mashhad, No. 8824, without date.

11. Also Razaviyah Kutubkhâna, Mashhad No. 15317 Handwriting of Abul Hasan Isfahâni, Date of writing: 1117 A.H.

12. Library of Berlin, No: 912, Date of writing: 1020 A.H.

Printings (Editions) of the book

This book has been printed many times. Some editions are mentioned below:

1. Tehrân, Litho edition, Rehli with cover, with 10th volume of Bihar.

2. Tehrân, 1271 A.H. with Risâla Akhzassar and Qaseeda Ainiyah, Sayyid Humairi.

3. Tehrân year 1287. Litho.

4. Tehrân year 1317, Litho, Ruqai, corrected by Mahmood Mudarris.

5. Tehrân, 1275 with book Muhaiyajul Ahzan and Maqtale Abi Makhnaf.

6. Tehrân, 1322, Litho, Ruqai.

7. Tehrân, 1365 Litho, Pocket.

8. Tehrân Al-Maktaba Islâmiya, Pocket Edition, with margins by Sayyid M. Sohofi.

9. Saida, year 1329 H.

10. Beirut, Ruqai.

11. Bombay, year 1326, Litho, Raqqi, with Maqtal Abi


Makhnaf and Mathirul Ahzan

12. Najaf, Ruqai.

13. Najaf. Ruqai, along with Dastane Mukhtâr.

14. Najaf, 1369 H. Ruqai.

15. Qum, Pocket Edition, with Preface and Marginal Notes by Muhammad Sohofi.

16. Najaf, 1385 A.H. Kutubkhâna Haideriya with Hikayate Mukatar.

17. Qum, Manshoorate Shareefe Razi, Year 1364 Solar (Shamsi) with Qissa Mukhtâr

18. Tabriz, Litho edition.

Translations of the book

Mirza Reza Quli Khan translated the book into Persian and named it Lajjatul Alam wa hujjatul umam.

Al-Zariah 18/269

Also, Shaykh Ahmad bin Salamah Najafi has translated it into Persian.

Al-Zariah 26/201

Muhammad Ibrahim bin Muhammad Mahdi Nawab translated this book into Persian under title Faiz ud dumoo, which has been printed in Tehrân in 1286 A.H. Also Sayyid Ahmad Fehri translated it into Persian under the title Ahe soozan bar mazare shaheedan.


Our Style in this book

Our aim behind the research on this book is to present the original text without any errors and for attaining this aim our reliance has been on the below mentioned copies:

A: The copy in Razaviya library in Mashhad, No: 15317 along with the book Ad-durrus Sameen and the copy inscribed by Abul Hasan Isfahâni in the year 1117 which we have indicated this by the ‘R’ sign.

B: Whatever Majlisi has mentioned in Bihar from Malhoof and he has brought most of the content of the book in Bihar, we have marked it ‘B’.

C: The printed copy printed at Haideria Press, Najaf in 1369 A.H. indicated by sign ‘A’. We have used it sparingly.

We have followed the original wordings and texts but most of the differences have appeared in the explanatory notes in the margin.

The second stage of our research has been the quoting of the statements found in this book. While verituing these statements with the authoritive and historical sources, we have come across this difficulty that the statements in the said reliable copies also have been altered and changed. Thus, we have verified them with the true authoritive books and corrected them a brief note of which we have brought in the margin so that the reader by studying it, may get the maximum awareness of the event of Kerbala. In case of some of the translations we have relied on Kitâbul Elâm by Khairuddin Zarkali and Hâshiya Alâm an Nubla and some other books also.

We have also quoted brief translations from other books in our text.

Short notes of information about cities and areas have been furnished so that the reader can also be fully aware, from the beginning to the end of the event of Kerbala, from geographic viewpoint too.

And Praise is for Allâh the Lord of the Worlds.


The holy city of Qum

3rd Shabân-141 A.H.

Birthday of Imam Hussain (a.s.)

Faris al-Hassoon (Tabriziyan)



















1. The Holy Qurân

2. Absârul A’yn fee Ansârul Husain -Shaykh Muhammad Samawi, Kitâbkhana-e-Baseerati, Qum, 1408 A.H.

3. Ehqâqul Haqq -Qazi Nûrullâh Marashi Shustari, With marginal notes by Sayyid Shahâbuddin Marashi -Public Library of Ayatullâh Marashi, Qum

4. Adabut Tiff -Sayyid Jawwâd Shabbar, Dârul Murtuza, Beirut

5. Al-Irshâd -Shaykh Mufid, Kangirah Hazâra Shaykh Mufid, Qum

6. Usdul Ghâba -Ali bin Muhammad Jazâri, Egypt

7. Al-Elâm -Khairuddin Zarkuli, Dârul Ilm lilmalaeen, Beirut

8. Elâmun Nisâil Muminât -Muhammad Hassoon and Ummo Ali Mashkoor, Intishârât Uswah, 1411 A.H.

9. Al-Ikmâl -Ibne Mâkoola, Muhammad Amin Printery, Beirut

10. Al-Amân -Sayyid Ibne Tâwûs, Mausise Âlal Bait, Qum

11. Ansâbul Ashrâf -Ahmad bin Yahya Balâzari, Dârul Târruf, Beirut

12. Ansârul Husain -Shaykh Muhammad Mahdi Shamsuddin, Dârul Islâmiyyah, 1401 A.H.

13. Izâhul Ishtebâh -Allamah Hilli, Institute Nashre Islâmi, Qum

14. Bihârul Anwâr -Allamah Majlisi, Dârul Kutubul Islâmiyyah

15. Turâthul Kerbala -Salmân Hâdi Tama’, Mausise Alami, Beirut

16. Biography of Imâm Husain and his Martyrdom from the Book: Tabaqât Ibne Sa’ad -Turâthona Journal, Ins. Âlal Bait, Qum, Issue no. 10

17. Tasmiya min Qatli Ma al-Husain -Fazl bin Zubair Kufi, from the companions of Imâm Bâqir and Sâdiq (a.s.), Turâthona Journal, Issue No. 2

18. Taqreebul Ma’arif -Abu Salâh Halabi, Manuscript at Public Library of Ayatullâh Marashi, Qum

19. Tanqihul Maqâl, Shaykh Abdullâh Mâmaqâni,

20. Tahzibut Tahzib -Ahmad bin Ali bin Hajar Asqalâni, Dâiratul Ma’rif Nizâmiyyah Press, India

21. Jumheratul Lugha -Muhammad bin Hasan bin Dareed, Dârul Ilm Lil malaeen, Beirut

22. Hikâyâtul Mukhtâr fee akhaz at-thâr -Sayyid Ibne Tâwûs, Inteshârât Sharif Radi, Qum

23. Khulâsatul Aqwâl -Ar-Rijâl -Allamah Hilli, Inteshârât Sharif Radi, Qum

24. Ad-Dharia ila tasânefa Ash-Shia -Shaykh Âqa Buzurg Tehrâni, Dâral Adwa, Beirut

25. Ar-Rijâl -Ibne Dâwood Husain bin Ali, Inteshârât Sharif Radi, Qum

26. Ar-Rijâl -Shaykh Tusi, Inteshârât Sharif Radi, Qum

27. Ar-Rijâl -Najjâshi, Ins. Nashre Islâmi, Qum

28. Ar-Rijâl fee Tâjul Uroos -Majlis Dâiratul Ma’rif Uthmâni Press, Hyderabâd, 1401 Lunar

29. Riyâzul Ulama -Shaykh Abdullâh Âfandi, Public Library of Ayatullâh Marashi, Qum

30. Zainab Kubra -Shaykh Ja’far Naqadi, Imâm Husain Foundation, Qum

31. Safinatul Bihâr -Shaykh Abbâs Qummi, Mausise Inteshârât Farhani

32. Seer Alâmul Nubala -Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Uthmân Zahabi, Mausisar Risâlah, Beirut

33. Sharho Nahjul Balâgha -Ibne Abil Hadid, Dârul Ahya Kutubul Arbiyyah

34. As-Sihâh -Ismail bin Hamâd Jauhari, Dârul Ilm lilmalaeen, Beirut, 1990 AD

35. Ziyâtul Ainain Fee Tadkerah Ashâbul Husain -Muhammad Hasan Buqrât Sabzawari, Iran Printing Press, Mashhad

36. Tabaqât Alâmush Shia -4th Century, Shaykh Âqa Buzurg Tehrâni, Dârul Kitâb al-Arbi, Beirut

37. At-Tarâif -Sayyid binTâwûs, Khayyâm Printing Press, Qum

38. Al-Ghadeer -Shaykh Abdul Husain Amini, Dârul Kutubul Islâmiyyah, Tehrân

39. Fehrist al-Fabâi Catalogue of Manuscripts at the Library of Âsatâne Quds Radawi -Muhammad Asif Fikrat, Inteshârât Âstâne Quds Radawi, Qum

40. Catalogue of Manuscripts -Public Library of Ayatullâh Marashi, Sayyid Ahmad Husaini, Qum

41. Catalogue of Manuscripts at Majlis Library -Abdul Husain Haeri, Majlis Library Publications, Tehrân

42. Catalogue of Manuscripts at Mulk Library (Tehrân), Hunar Publications, Tehrân

43. Fehrist Shaykh Tusi, Inteshârât Sharif Radi, Qum

44. Fehrist Nam-o-athar Danishmandane Shia -Muntajibuddin Ali bin Ubaydullâh, Kitâbkhâna-e-Murtazavi, Tehrân

45. Fehrist Kitâbhâi-e-Arabi -Khan Baba Mashâr Offset Press

46. Qâmoos ar-Rijâl -Shaykh Muhammad Taqi Shushtari, Mausise Inteshârât Islâmi, Qum

47. Kitâb Khana Ibne Tâwûs-o-Ahwal-o-Athare-oo, Eton Kulburk, Public Library of Ayatullâh Marashi, Qum

48. Kashful Muhajja -Sayyid Ibne Tâwûs, Daftare Tableeghât-e-Islâmi, Qum

49. Al-Kunni wal Alqâb -Shaykh Abbâs Qummi, Inteshârât Bedar Qum

50. Lisânul Arab -Muhammad bin Mukarram, Ibne Manzoor, Dârul Ahyait Turâthul Arabi, Beirut 1408 A.H.

51. Al-Lohoof -Sayyid Ibne Tâwûs, Inteshârât Sharif Radi, Qum

52. Al-Mujâzir at-Tâefiya fi ahdil Shaykhil Mufid -Faris Tabreziyan, Kangoorah Hazarah Shaykh Mufid, 1413 Lunar

53. Majmâul Bahrayn -Shaykh Fakhruddin Tarihi, Dârul Kutubul Ilmiyyah, Najaf

54. Mukhtasar Târikh Damishq, Muhammad bin Mukarram ibne Manzoor, Dârul Fikr, Beirut

55. Al-Mudawwunatul Târikhiyya Li Waqâtit Tiff, Sayyid Abdul Aziz Tabatabâi, Mujalla-e-Mausoom, Issue no. 12, Volume 3, 1412 Lunar

56. Mustadrakât ilme Rijâlul Hadith – Shaykh Ali Namâzi, Haidery Printing Press, Tehrân, 1414 Lunar

57. Mualimul Ulama -Ibne Shahr Âshob, Haidariyyah Printers, Najaf

58. Mojamul Buldân -Yaqoot bin Abdullâh, Daru Ahyâut Turâthu Arabi, Beirut 1399 Lunar

59. Mojam Rijâlul Hadith -Sayyid Abul Qâsim Khooi, 4th Edition, Beirut, 1409 Lunar

60. Maqâtilut Tâlibiyyin -Abul Faraj Isfahâni, Dârul Ma’refa, Beirut

61. Maqtalul Husain -Lut Ibne Yahya Abu Makhnaf, Châpkahna-e-Ilmiyyah, Qum

62. Maqtalul Husain wa Masra’ ahle baitehi Ashâbehi fee Kerbala -Lut bin Yahya Abu Makhnaf, Inteshârât Sharif Radi, Qum

63. Maqtalul Husain -Maufaq bin Ahmad Khwârizmi, Inteshârât Kitâbkhana Mufid, Qum

64. Maqtalul Husain -Sayyid Abdul Razzâq Musavi Muqrim, Dârul Kitâbul Islâmi, Beirut, 1399 Lunar

65. Manâqib -Ibne Shahr Âshob, Inteshârât Mustafawi

66. Waq’atu Tiff -Lut bin Yahya Abu Makhnaf, Inteshârât Islâmi, Qum

























1. Akâmul Marjân -Shablanji, Deluxe Edn. Cairo

2. Al-Ittehâf be Hubbil Ashrâf -Shubrawi Zubaidi, Egyptian Edition

3. Al-Akhbârut Tiwal -Qirmani, Baghdâd Edition

4. Al-Akhbârut Tiwal -Dinawari, Cairo Edition, 1330 A.H.

5. Usudul Ghaba -Ibne Athir, Egypt Edition, 1280 Lunar

6. Isâfur Râghebeen -Muhammad bin Sabbân, with marginal Notes of Nûrul Absâr, Egypt Edition

7. Asmâur Rijâl -Dhahabi, Manuscript

8. Al-Isâbah -Ibne Hajar Asqalâni, Egypt Edition

9. A’lamun Nisa -Kahhala, Damascus Edition, 1359A.H.

10. Al-Aghâni -Abul Faraj Isfahâni, Egypt Edition

11. Al-Insul Jaleel -Majeedudeen Hanbali, Cairo Edition

12. Izâhul Maknoon -Baghdâdi

13. Al-Bada wat Târikh -Mutahhar bin Tâhir Maqdasi, Shalon Edition, 1916 AD

14. Al-Bidâya wan-Nihâyah -Ibne Kathir Dimishqi, Chap Sa’ada, Egypt

15. Al-Bayân wat-Tabbiyyin -Jahaz, Egypt Edition

16. Tâjut Tarâjum -Qâsim Hanafi, Leipzig Edition, 1862 AD

17. Tâjul Uroos -Muhammad Murtuza Zubaidi, Cairo Edition

18. Târikhul Islâm -Muhammad bin Ahmad Dimishqi, Egypt Edition

19. Târikhul Islâm -Zahabi, Egypt Edition

20. Târikhul Islâm wa Rijâl -Uthmân Dâdâ Hanafi,

21. Târikhul Ummam wal Muluk -Muhammad bin Jurair Tabari, Regular Edition, Egypt

22. Târikh Baghdâd -Khatib, Egypt Edition, 1349 A.H.

23. Târikhul Khulafa -Suyuti, Chap Maimaniyyah, Egypt

24. Târikhul Khamees -Husain bin Muhammad Diyar Bakri, Chap Wahbiyya, Egypt

25. Târikh Dimishq (Selection) -Ibne Asâkir Dimishqi, Chap Rauzatush Shâm

26. Târikh Kufa -Burâqi, Najaf Edition, 1356 A.H.

27. At Tabeer -Sama’ani

28. At-Tohfatul Oliya wal Adabul Ilmiyyah -Ali bin Husain Bakthir, Manuscript

29. Tadkeratul Huffaz -Zahabi, Hyderabâd Edition

30. Tadkeratul Khawâs -Sibte Ibne Jawzi, Chap Ghari

31. Tafsirul Quran -Ibne Kathir Dimishqi, with marginal notes of Fathul Bayân, Chap Bulâq, Egypt

32. Tahzibul Asmâ wal Lughat -Abi Zarkiya Nawawi, Egypt Edition

33. Tahzibut Tahzib -Ibne Hajar Asqâlani, Hyderabâd Edition, 1325 A.H.

34. Jaliyatul Kidri fee Sharhi Manzoomihil Barzanji -Abdul Hâdi Abyâri Misri, Egypt Edition

35. Jâmeal Usool -Ibne Athir Jaziri, Egypt Edition

36. Jâmeul Fawâid min Jâme-al-Usool -Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Sulaimân, Indian Edition

37. Jumharatul Ashâril Arab -Ibne Abil Khattâb, Egypt Edition, 1308 A.H.

38. Jumharatul Ansâb -Ibne Hazam, Egypt Edition, 1948 AD

39. Hilyatul Awliya -Abu Nu’aym Isfahâni, Egypt Edition, 1351 AD

40. Khizânatul Adab -Abdul Qâdir bin Umar Baghdâdi, Egypt Edition, 1299 A.H.

41. Al-Khasâisul Kubra -Suyuti, Hyderabâd Edition

42. Ad-Durrul Manthur fi Tabaqâti Rubâtil Khudoor -Zainab Fawaz, Egypt Edition, 1312 A.H.

43. Zakhâirul Uqbah -Muhibuddin Tabari, Chap Qudsi, Cairo

44. Zailul Mazeel -Ibne Jurair Tabari, Egypt Edition, 1326 A.H.

45. Rabiul Abrâr -Zamakhshari

46. Rishfatus Sâdi -Abu Bakr Alawi, Chap Ghari

47. Rughbatul Âmil min Kitâbil Kâmil -Sayyid bin Ali al-Marsafi, Egypt Edition

48. Ar-Riyâzun Nazarah fee Manâqibul Asharah -Muhib Tabari, Egypt Edition, 1327 A.H.

49. Sabaikuz Zahab fi Ma’rfate Qabailul Arab -Muhammad Amin Baghdâdi As-Suwaidi, Baghdâd Edition, 1280 A.H.

50. Simtul Layâli -Abdul Aziz Maimani, Egypt Edition, 1354 A.H.

51. Seer Alâmun Nubala -Zahabi, Egypt Edition

52. Sharho Nahjul Balâgha -Ibne Abil Hadid, Beirut Edition, 1374 A.H.

53. Ash-Sharaful Mâbad le Âle Muhammad – Nabhani, Egypt Edition

54. Sahih Tirmidhi -Chap Sa’adi, Egypt

55. Sifatus Safwa -Abul Faraj Ibnul Jauzi, Hyderabâd Edition, 1355 A.H.

56. As-Sawâiqul Mohreqa -Ahmad bin Hajar Haithami, Abdul Latif Edition, Egypt

57. At-Tabaqâtul Kubra -Abdul Wahhab She’rani, Cairo Edition

58. Al-Arâisul Wâziha, Abyari Misri

59. Al-Iqdul Fareed -Ibno Abdi Rabbi, Egypt Edition

60. Umdatul Qâri -Mahmood bin Ahmad A’ini, Cairo Edition

61. Ghurarul Khasâis -Burhânuddin Muhammad bin Ibrahim, Egypt Edition

62. Al-Fusoolul Muhimma -Ibne Sabbâgh Maliki, Chap Ghari

63. Al-Fehrist -Ibne Nadeem

64. Al-Kâmil fi Târikh -Ibne Athir, Egypt Edition


65. Kasfuz Zunoon -Hâji Khalifa

66. Kifâyatut Tâlib -Kanji Shafei, Chap Ghari

67. Al-Kunni wal Asma -Dawlabi, Hyderabâd Edition, 1322 A.H.

68. Al-Kawâkibud Durriya -Abdur Rauf Manawi, Chap Al Azhar, Egypt

69. Al-Lubabo fi Tahzibil Ansâb, Ibne Athir, Egypt Edition 1356 A.H.

70. Lisânul Mizân -Asqalâni, Chap Hyderabâd, 1331 A.H.

71. Mâsirul Inâqah -Qalqashandi, Kuwait Edition

72. Mujâbi Ad-Dâwâh -Abdullâh bin Muhammad bin Ubaidullâh Abi Duniyya, Bombay Edition

73. Majmâuz Zawâid -Haithami, Chap Qudsi, Cairo

74. Al-Mahâsin wal Masâwi, Baihaqi, Beirut Edition

75. Muhâzirul Abrâr -Muhiyuddin bin Arabi, Egypt Edition

76. Al-Mahbar -Muhammad bin Habib, Hyderabâd Edition, 1361 A.H.

77. Al-Mukhtâr -Ibne Athir, Manuscript

78. Mukhtasar Tadkeratul Qurtubi -Sherani, Egypt Edition

79. Mirâtul Jinân -Yafa’i, Hyderabâd Edition

80. Al-Mojamul Kabir -Tibrâni, Manuscript

81. Miftâhun Najâh fi Manâqibe Âle Aba -Muhammad Khân bin Rustam Badakhshi, Manuscript

82. Maqtalul Husain -Khwârizmi, Chap Ghari

83. Al-Milal wan-Nihal -Shahristâni, Egypt Edition

84. Al-Manâqib -Ahmad bin Hanbal, Manuscript

85. Muntakhab Kanzul Ummâl -Maulavi Ali Hindi, on the margins of Musnad, Egypt Edition

86. Al-Muntazam -Abul Faraj Ibne Jawzi, Hyderabâd Edition, 1357 A.H.

87. Mizânul Etedâl -Zahabi, Egypt Edition, 1325 Lunar

88. An-Nujoomuz Zâhira -Ibne Taghri Bardi, Printed by Dârul Kutubul Misriyyah

89. Nasabu Quraysh -Musab bin Abdullâh Zubairi, Egypt Edition, 1953 AD

90. Nazm Durarus Simtain -Zarandi, Printed at Al-Quza Printing Press

91. An-Naqaidh baina Jurair wal Farazdaq -Muammar bin Muthanna, Leiden Edition

92. Nûrul Absâr -Shablanji, Egypt Edition

93. Nûrul Qabasul Mukhtasaru minal Maqtabis -Yusuf bin Ahmad Yaghmoori, Chap Qasyaran

94. An-Nihâyah -Qalqashandi

95. Al-Wafi bil Wafyât -Safdi

96. Wasilatul Mâl -Hadhrami ba Kathir, Manuscript

97. Al-Wulah wal Quza -Hamad bin Yusuf Kandi, Beirut Edition, 1908 AD

98. Yanâbiul Mawaddâh -Qundoozi, Istanbul Edition





























The Savior in Islam – Full Text

The Savior in Islam


Mansour Pahlavan




Associate Professor of

University of Tehran




Pahlavan, Mansourسر شناسه : پهلوان، منصور

آوانویسی عنوان : سیویر این اسلام

The Savior in Islam/Mansour Pahlavan؛ عنوان پديد آور : edit

Hamid Farnagh

Tehran: Naba Cultural Organization، مشخصات نشر :


مشخصات ظاهری : 48ص

شابک : 6-52-8323-964

یادداشت : فیپا

یادداشت : زبان: انگلیسی.

موضوع : مهدویت.

Farnagh, Hamid شناسه افزوده : فرناق، حمید

BP 224 / رده بندی کنگره : 9س9پ

رده بندی دیویی : 462/297

شماره کتابخانه ملی : 22114-85 م





The Savior in Islam

Author: Mansour Pahlavan

No. of Copies: 1000/ First Edition

Publisher: Naba Cultural Organization

Address: 3rd Floor, No. 62, Adibi Alley,

Shabestari St., Shariati Ave., Tehran, Iran

Address: P. O. Box: 15655/377 Tehran, Iran



ISBN: 964-8323-52-6





Table of Contents


Foreword 5

Preface 7

The Good News 9

The Birth 19

The Minor Occultation 29

The Major Occultation 37

The Shia During The Imam’s Occultation 42

Bibliography 48






























































At the heart of every religion, there is a belief in the savior, the Rescuer of human communities. Such a belief is commonly accepted among the major religious doctrines. All the people believe that one day the Savior will come and rid the world of all evil.

The only difference among the religions, regarding this particular belief, is in the identity of the Savior. He has been introduced as a different person in every religion, and in the religion of Islam, with which we are currently concerned; he is non but Imam Mahdi (p.b.u.h.), who will one day emerge as the Savior of mankind.

It is on the day of salvation that he will bring east and west of the world to justice, and by his powerful hand annihilate demons, infidelity, and disbelieving on that day, the authority of the Last Luminous Jewel of Allah will be established

on the face of earth. It is he who will decide the end of the long struggle between truth and falsehood. His appearance will mean a victory for truth and the annihilation of falsehood.

He is the same person who, by the will of Allah, will overpower fragile doctrines, and will pursue and accomplish the objectives of the Last Prophet, Muhammad (p.b.u.h.).

He will remove ignorance and discriminations from the world, and will establish equality instead; he will exploit the earth’s resource, distribute them among the poor and make them wealthy and happy.

The outburst of enthusiasm and happiness will at that time cause tears to flow down the cheeks, and the happy and mournful eyes of the awaiting people will be filled with light.

Belief in the Savior is the most genuine and fundamental Islamic beliefs, which even a person with limited knowledge of Islam will surly accepted. Since it is necessary for every Muslim to know Imam Mahdi (p.b.u.h.), it has been endeavored here to study a short history of this fundamental belief and present an introduction to the life of Imam Mahdi. Let us hope that he would accept this meager collection as a humble gift.














The magnificent and auspicious celebration of the fifteenth of Sha’ban can be observed every where.

Every place has been decorated.

In every place joyful and cheerful gathering can be seen.

The enthusiasm and happiness of the Shi’ite on this auspicious day is apparent every where.

Indeed, what day is revered like this day by people with such elation and glory?

The fifteenth of Sha’ban is the day in which the shi’ites saw the fulfillment of the glad tiding of the divine messengers.

It is the day in which the good news of Islam, the Quran and the traditions (ahadith) of the infallible Imams will take place.

It is on his birthday that he will bring the east and west of the world to justice, and by his powerful hand annihilate demons (‘ifrit), infidelity and irreligiousness.

On this day, the authority of the last Luminous Jewel of Allah will be established on the face of earth. He it is who will decide the end of the long struggle between truth and falsehood. His appearance will mean a victory for truth and the annihilation of falsehood.

He is the same person who, by the will of Allah, will overpower fragile doctrines, and will pursue and accomplish the objectives of the Last Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.)

He will remove ignorance and class-dis-crimination from the world and will establish equality instead; he will exploit the earth’s resources, distribute them among the poor and make them sufficient.

The outburst of enthusiasm and happiness will at that time cause tears to flow down the cheeks of enthusiasts, and the lustrous and mournful eyes of the awaiting people will be filled with light.

Mahdism is the most genuine and fundamental Islamic beliefs, which even a person with a limited knowledge of Islam will surely accept.

Since it is obligatory for every Muslim to know the “Leader of the Age” – Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi (a.s.) , it has been endeavored here – though in brief – to study the short history of this fundamental belief and present introduction to the life of Hujjat-e haqq (The Rightful Proof [of Allah]). We hope this meager “collection”, as a humble gift, will be accepted by the “Solomon of the Age”.

The Good News


There is no doubt that the holy Qur’an is the Book of Allah, and that all the Muslims of the world accept and obey its teachings and instructions.

When one opens this Book (Qur’an) and casts a glance at its verses, one will come to what seems to be a clear vista of the extraordinary, sensational and exciting future and end of the universe.

The holy Quran says that the ultimate mission of the holy Prophet of Islam is to make this holy religion prevail over all other religions of the world; and one day this holy aspiration will finally be fulfilled, as the holy Quran says:

He it is who has sent his messenger (Muhammad) with the guidance and the Religion of Truth, that He may cause it to prevail over all religions, however much the idolaters may be averse.

The divine book of the last Messenger of Allah gives the glad tiding that rule over the earth shall finally belong to the righteous and virtuous servant of All.0ah:

The earth is Allah’s. He gives it for an inheritance to which He will. And lo! The sequel is for those who keep their duty (unto Him).

The earth, which will be full of corruption, destruction and ignorance like a lifeless body, will be revived with the glowing light of justice, as referred to in the holy Quran.

We also read in the holy Quran:

Allah has promised such of you as believe and do good works that He will surely make them succeed (the present rulers) in the earth even as he caused those who were before them to succeed (others) and that He will surely establish for them religion which he has approved for them, and will give them in exchange safety after their fear. They serve Me. They ascribe no thing as partner unto Me.

The Almighty Allah also says:

Fain would they put out the light of Allah with their mouth, but Allah will perfect His light however much the disbelievers are averse.

These are some short examples of the divine glad tidings mentioned in the holy Quran. By studying these and tens of other similar matters, it shall be perceived that the Islamic message will reach its complete fulfillment when these holy aspirations and desires have taken place. All fabricated and superstitious objectives will disappear, and then only Islam, the unique and true religion, will be the faith of the people in the east and west of the world. Injustice, oppression, and inequality shall vanish and instead justice and equality which is the law of the creation of the world will be established everywhere. The sovereignty of the divine caliphs will be established in all the corners of the world. The light of the guidance of Allah will shine and the earth be long to the virtuous ones.

Yes, the holy Quran gives the good news that a day will come when all Muslims of the world shall wait enthusiastically for such a time.


Neat to the holy Quran, the words of the holy Prophet and the honorable Imams are the most important and worthiest treasure of Islamic knowledge. For every Muslim, it is obligatory and essential to follow and obey the sayings of the holy Prophet and the holy Imams since obeying their commands is particularly and clearly mentioned in the Book of Allah.

In the sea of Jewels of Islamic traditions, glad tidings on the Government of Justice can be seen. Moreover, especial mention has been made regarding the “Divine Revolution” and the divine leader who will fulfill this holy aspiration.

The holy Prophet of Islam said:

“Even when the entire duration of the world’s existence has already been exhausted, and one solitary day is left to embrace the eve of Doomsday, Allah will expand that day and make it swell to such a length of time as to accommodate the ultimate reign of a person out of my holy progeny who will be called by my name and my agnomen (‘Abu’ l-Qasim). He will then make the earth abound with peace and justice as it will have been fraught with injustice and tyranny before him.”

The context of this precious tradition reveals definite good news more than anything else, and informs the people of the Government of Justice, Achievement and Divine Promises as mentioned in most of the Shi ‘ite and Sunnite sources.

In another tradition, the Holy Prophet told Amir al-mu’minin ‘Ali (a.s.):

“There will be twelve Guides after me, the first of who are you, Ali, and the last one will be Qa’em, who by Almighty Allah’s grace, will gain victory over the whole of the east and west of the world.”

The purified Imams reminded people, in several traditions, of the significance of the Divine Promise and Government of the twelfth Imam, and told them that waiting for the Great Savior is the most valuable deed, and that his followers and devotees are the best and the beloved people.

It will suffice here to quote a few of these traditions:

1) When Imam Hasan Mujtaba (a.s.) held the seat of the caliphate, he fought the hypocrite Mu ‘awiyah, who, with the assistance of his cunning minister, gradually deceived the companions of Imam Hasan (a.s.); and left the Imam alone. Hence, he was compelled to make a peace treaty with Mu ‘awiyah in which he (Mu ‘awiyah) was obliged to comply with some duties and to refrain from appointing a successor and fighting.

On some occasions, the Imam took the opportunity to point out to the people the Mu ‘awiyah’s errors and unjust acts. Meanwhile, some of ignorant people started criticizing the Imam that why he had accepted the peace treaty! Imam Hasan (a.s.) clarified for the people the meaning of the Imam and the leader, and the necessity of obeying every command of the Imam.

Then he explained about the Government of the twelfth Imam:

“Don’t you know that every one of us (Imams) has the responsibility of giving allegiance to the oppressors of his time, except the Qa’em, behind whom the Spirit of Allah (Jesus) will pray; Almighty Allah will keep secret his birth from some people and will conceal him from their sights? When he appears he will not be responsible to obey anyone. He is the ninth descendant of my brother Husain, the son of the captive princess. Almighty Allah will prolong his age during his occultation, and by His Perfect Power, h will appear as a young man of less than forty years so that all people will know that Allah truly has power over all things.”

2) Imam Jafar Sadiq (a.s.) in reply to a question of his followers about his successors, said:

“The Imam succeeding me is my son Musa, and the Awaited Imam is Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Musa.”

The same Imam is quoted as having said repeatedly that:

“Every group of people is waiting for a government, and we are waiting for our Government to be established at the End of the Time.”


3) The seventh holy Imam Musa ibn Jafar (a.s.) in a reply to one of his companions who asked him whether he was “Qaem bi’l-Haqq”, said:

“I am Qaem bi’l-Haqq, but that “Qaem” who will remove Allah’s enemies from the earth, and will fill it with justice and equity is my fifth descendant. Since he will fear for his own life, he will be in occultation for a long time during which a group of people will apostate, but there will also be a group who will be firm in their belief.”

He added: “Blessed are our followers (the Shi ‘ites) who, during the time of occultation of the Imam of the Age, identify themselves with our Authority (Wilayah) and keep away from our enemies. They belong to us and we belong to them. They have accepted our leadership and we are pleased with their adherence. Therefore, blessed are they. I swear Allah that they will be with us, in our rank, in Paradise.”

4) Finally, the Eleventh Imam, Hasan Askari (a.s.) said:

“I see that after me difference will appear among you concerning the next Imam. Whoever accepts the Imams after the Prophet of Allah but denies my son is like a person who accepts all the prophets but denies Muhammad (p.b.u.h.), the Prophet of Allah. And whoever denies (Muhammad) the Prophet of Allah is like one who has denied all the prophets of Allah. For to obey the last of us is like obeying the first, and to deny the last of us is like denying the first. But beware! Verily, for my son there will be an occultation during which all people will fall into doubt except those whom Allah protects.”

The available traditions from the holy Prophet and the infallible Imams are so many in number as to make us well-informed on this important principle of faith. One can say that the most important, and the highest recorded number, of traditions are on the subject of Imamology (Imamate) in the Shi ‘ite books of traditions.

The subject of the leadership of the twelfth Imam, his Government, and other related maters, comes next to the subject of the successorship of Imam ‘Ali, Amir al-mu’minin (a.s.). There are hundreds of traditions recorded both in the Shi ‘ite and Sunnite books. A large number of religious scholars from all Islamic sects have independently compiled books on this subject.


The years of Imams’, Islamic leadership passed one after another along with tyranny of the rulers contemporary with them, till the leadership of Imam Hasan Askari (a.s.) came. This holy Imam lived in a difficult circumstance, appearing less frequently in the public gatherings. His beloved son who is the last Divine Proof, was hidden from the sight of strangers till the year 260 A.H., when the rays of his being set, while the eyes of all people were fixed at the door of Imam Mahdi (a.s.).



















































The Birth


At dawn, on the 15th sha ‘ban 255 A.H., the rays of the illuminating world shone with a powerful shaft of light in to a human form which became the source of existence for the universe.

Yes, finally, the Divine Promise was fulfilled and Imam Mahdi (a.s.) was born in spite of the efforts of those who denied him.

It is one of history’s miracles that the Umayyids, ‘Abbasids, and other opponents of this holy Imam attempted to extinguish this divine light but met complete failure.

The cruel and tyrannical Abbasid caliphs had heard that the twelfth Imam of the Shi ‘ites would establish a just Government and would rule over the east and west of the world, and would destroy the foundations of injustice. Therefore, to counter this event, they tortured and shed the blood of the Shi ‘ites. The history of the martyred Shi ‘ites can be referred in the books on this subject.1

In the year 235 A.H., Mutawakkil, the ‘Abbasid caliph, ordered the tenth Imam of Shia, Muhammad Hadi (a.s.) and his family to move from Medina to Samarra, his seat of government, so that he could keep a close watch on the Imam of the Shi ‘ites.1

Similarly, Mu ‘tamid, the ‘Abbasid caliph, the Pharaoh of the time, was afraid of the son of Imam Hasan Askari (a.s.). He formed a group of detectives and midwives who had the mission of searching through the houses of Imam Hasan Askari (a.s.), so that if a newly-born child were found, he could be killed immediately.2

The search to find and kill Imam Mahdi (a.s.) was intensified when Imam Hasan ‘Askari (a.s.) left this world for the eternal one. It is because everyone knew that on that day the command of Divine Leadership (Imamate) was to be entrusted to the twelfth Imam, and the universe would come under his authority.

Shaikh Saduq, the eminent scholar of the Shi ‘ite world, writes in Kamalu’d-din:

“When the holy body of Imam Hasan ‘Askari (a.s.) was buried and the people went away, the caliph and his staff started their efforts to search for his son and inspected the houses carefully.”3

Shaikh Mofid, a distinguished Shi ‘ite scholar, also wrote in Irshad:

“When Imam Hasan Askari (a.s.) passed away, the caliph of that time, pursued his son because the Shi ‘ite Imamiyyah’s belief was famous, and they knew that the Shias were waiting his eminence.”1

Mu ‘tazid, one of the tyrant ‘Abbasid caliphs who ruled from 279 to 289 A.H., decided, all at once, to destroy the entire family of ‘Askari when he heard that more than twenty years had passed since the birth of the son of Imam Hasan Askari (a.s.) and that he was living in spite of the attempts of the preceding caliph to kill him.

One of Mu ‘tazid’s officers said:

“Mu ‘tazid has ordered me and two other persons, each of us to mount a horse and to proceed to Samarra’ in full speed, without even stopping for prayer. He gave us the address of (Imam) Askari and instructed us to enter his

house without permission, and to bring him the head of whoever we find there.”2

As a matter of fact, they were unaware that the same power which had protected the Imam from the former caliphs would give him protection from his evil, because:



Allah disdains (nothing) save that he shall perfect His light, however much the disbelievers are averse.

Indeed what an immature thought and foolish act it was! If the Divine Will bears on some matter can a person revolt against it and combat it? Is it possible that definite Divine promises my not be accomplished? Or is it possible that the reins of oppressive imposters who fight against the Divine decree will not cut?

Is it not more amazing that peerless, Almighty Allah has shown His power many times before, so that after that all men should know that if He wishes to give His chosen servant government and sovereignty and to abolish infidelity and polytheism through him, then no one who can disrupt His will.

Fortunately, this sensational story is mentioned in the holy Quran.

Pharaoh, the great emperor of Egypt, who had great power and pride, claimed divinity for himself. He determined to kill all the youth and boy children of Isra’el, as a result of what he had heard about a son being born who would destroy his empire and divinity.

He shed the blood of innocents, and banished many persons to unknown regions; but sees how Almighty Allah restored His Prophet and how the Divine Will worked to protect the life of Moses and destroy Pharaoh:

And We revealed to the mother of Mūsā, saying, “Give him suck; and if you fear for him, launch on the river; and fear not, nor grieve; for We will return him to you and make him one of the Messengers.” And took him up Pharaoh’s people, that he might be to them an enemy and a (cause of their) grief, (for) Verily Pharaoh and Hāmān and their hosts were sinners…So we did restore him to his mother that her age might be refreshed and that she might know that the promise of Allah is (always) true, but most of them know not.1

Allah will protect His Proof (Hujjat) and will fulfill His promises and glad tidings because His decision is based on its execution, although most people do not know it.

Would Allah wish to save the life of Prophet Mūsā (a.s.), who was only a messenger to a certain nation and tribe, and yield the Imam Mahdi (Imam-e Zaman) into the hands of Mu ‘tamid and Mu ‘tazid?

Wuld Allah protect the life of Mūsā (a.s.) while he was in the middle of the roaring waves of a river, and give no security to the Imam of Age who was in the house of his father, Imam Hasan Askari (a.s.)?

Would he sustaining Allah of the Prophet Abraham (whose story is mentioned in the Quran)1 protect him in the middle of the flaming fire, but allow the Last Pearl of the Prophet’s progeny to be a victim of the lust and anger of the ‘Abbasid caliphs?

Really, how to false thinkers and feebleminded people judge?


At dawn, on the middle day of Sha ‘ban in the year 255 A.H., Imam Askari (a.s.) beheld the heavenly, shining face of his son who was to fulfill all Divine promises and glad tidings.